Military Review

Who will protect our sky

17
Only the new aerospace defense system will be able to disrupt the enemy’s ground-space operation


Back in the 70 of the twentieth century in the USSR and the United States were created systems of rocket-space defense (RCU), designed to detect the fact of launching intercontinental ballistic missiles, as well as their interception to cover certain strategic areas. In the Soviet Union there was a single air defense of the country. Today, past achievements are largely lost.

Without gaining superiority in air and space, a potential adversary will not decide on the use of ground forces. Therefore, the initial period of future wars will consist of a series of massive aerospace strikes on major state, military, military-industrial centers, air defense force groups, nodes and communications, combat and administrative control centers, as well as transport communications. Particular importance is attached to the destruction of the first strike of forces and air defense (AD) or aerospace defense (WKO).

Status QUO

With the division of the Air Defense Forces between the Air Force and the Strategic Missile Forces (RVSN) and subsequent reorganizations and landslide cuts at the turn of the twenty-first century, our EKR has almost ceased to exist. RKO was not in the best position either. At first it was transferred to the Strategic Missile Forces, then to the Space Forces. With each such transition something was inevitably lost.


In December, 2011, a new branch of military service was created - the East Kazakhstani Army. However, as many military experts note, this positive step in itself has not yet led to the realization of the goal set by the VKO concept - to organize combat operations of multiple groups of troops in a common system of armed struggle under unified leadership, according to a single plan and plan. The command of the Armed Forces of the East Kazakhstan region due to the lack of rights cannot solve such tasks. In the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation there are no elements of continuous monitoring of the evolving aerospace situation. The creation of the new structure of the Armed Forces armies and their equipment with new weapons and military equipment is slow and does not correspond to the scale of the possible threat to the country. The unified air defense system and the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation disintegrated into five independent parts - four air defense systems of the military districts and the formation of the East Kazakhstani Army.

The system formed at the same time, which includes the forces and means of air defense and missile defense of types of the Armed Forces and combat arms, remained weakly structured. There are no connections between its elements. At the strategic level, the next transformation did not restore the unified leadership and single responsibility for organizing and conducting armed struggle with all the forces and means of an aerospace attack (SVKN) of the enemy over the entire territory of Russia. In this connection, the principle of concentrating the main efforts on threatening aerospace directions cannot be carried out with the necessary speed.

Fighter aviation. Counteraction to ICS is most effective in the destruction of carriers to the point of use weapons. And this line as far as the development of military technology is moving further and further. For the timely interception of strategic aviation, fighters with a large combat radius, the MiG-31, were created. This long-range interceptor fighter with noise-resistant on-board radar in combination with modern computers and new missiles is actually a multi-channel weapon system. Formed from these planes, advanced aviation echelons were to intercept the aggressor over the Arctic Ocean and shoot down as many carriers as possible, regardless of their intended distribution over the targets. Today, the MiG-31 military aviation complex has been virtually destroyed.

Sperm The space train provides only limited control of missile-prone areas with significant temporary interruptions. The ground train monitors with a significant discontinuity of a continuous radar field in the northeast direction.

The missile defense system is combat-ready, however, the service life of fire weapons is constantly extended and is already beyond the warranty period of operation.

The construction of an anti-aircraft missile defense is not echeloned; it has a focal, object character. At the same time, peacetime anti-aircraft missile groups can provide direct cover for no more than 59 percent of the facilities of the Armed Forces, the economy and infrastructure from the list of facilities approved by the President of the Russian Federation to be covered from air strikes.

Problems

The unfavorable geostrategic and geographical position of the Russian Federation, promoting the use of the forces of the aerospace attack of the enemy. It determines the preference of the aerospace invasion over the land one. On the other hand, these factors make it difficult for us to effectively solve the tasks of air defense and air defense. Under these conditions, the enemy will be able to deliver precision-coordinated high-precision strikes to virtually all targets in Russia. Therefore, the threat of aerospace attacks are the most significant in the overall system of military security of Russia.

There is no single centralized control of forces and means of air defense or aerospace defense. Each regular event, as a rule, did not increase the effectiveness of command and control of troops (forces) to repel aggression from the aerospace sphere. At the operational and tactical levels, command and control of air defense units of the air force and air defense associations, fighter aircraft, military air defense and air defense forces fleet remains almost autonomous. In such conditions, it is impossible to realize the integrated use of various forces and means of both air defense and aerospace defense, as well as the principles of focusing the main efforts on protecting the most important objects of the Russian Federation and on covering the main groupings of troops (forces) and objects of the armed forces.

Some conceptual provisions need clarification. In particular, the main control objects have different degrees of automation. Strategic systems of EKR (MNS, SSS, PKO) operate in a single battle control circuit in accordance with the implemented combat algorithms. The management of anti-missile systems and missile defense is carried out fully automatically. And the management of the SCCU, PKO, Air Defense is automated partially depending on the tasks to be solved. While preserving the continuity of the main systems of aerospace defense, it is necessary to merge disparate control subsystems into a single automated control system for aerospace defense, which requires a special KNIR. Its result should be clear, scientifically based conclusions on the organizational and technical measures for combining disparate control subsystems into a single ASD ACS while maintaining the continuity of the basic ASD systems.

The created EKR Troops organizationally united part of the air defense forces and weapons, the forces and assets of missile defense troops and had to work out methods for their joint control and use. However, this has not happened yet. The main reasons, in the opinion of experts, are the lack of strategic command (control body), which has not only duties, but also the right to organize military operations of multiple (heterogeneous) groups of troops (forces); the departure of specialists from the bodies of the military administration of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, who have an idea of ​​what the East-Kazakhstan region system is; the struggle for the right to control the forces and means of the aerospace defense of even those structures that did not imagine the diversity and complexity of the content of military operations in the aerospace sphere (“they wanted to do better, but it turned out as always”), while the existing problems worsened and appeared new; the absence of persons responsible for organizing research in the field of creating an aerospace defense system and capable of working out ways to solve problems of a management system that unites private subsystems into a single whole; in the GSH there are no elements of continuous monitoring of the evolving aerospace situation and operational control of the forces and facilities of the aerospace defense; the created command of the Armed Forces of the East Kazakhstan region also cannot solve these tasks according to its status of the kind of troops.

There is no substitute for the destroyed MiG-31 complex. First, they stopped the production of the engine to it, and then the manufacture of the aircraft itself. In the future, all attempts to resume its production ran across some insurmountable wall. But this is an all-weather, high-altitude, heavy fighter-interceptor, which has no analogues in the world, in which huge sums were invested in Soviet times. Its modifications — the MiG-31M (combat load of almost 16 tons) and the MiG-31D (working in space — attached a rocket weighing about five tons, inside which were four missiles to destroy satellites or launch kilograms up to 200) are unique . It could become the main shock force of the aerospace defense capable of winning air superiority. The assurances of the leadership of the Ministry of Defense and the Air Force that multifunctional fighters — the serial Su-35 and the developed PAK-FA — will be able to fully replace the MiG-31 when intercepting modern aircraft of a potential enemy, cause reasonable doubts. These aircraft are unable to compete with them in key altitude-speed characteristics - climb, cruising speed of supersonic flight, altitude ceiling, carrying capacity.

At present, a departmental air defense system and an autonomous missile defense missile system are actually taking place in Russia. In the first, the forces and means of air defense are divided according to the types of the Armed Forces and the arms of the Air Force and perform their special tasks. Air defense of their specific objects is organized in each type of air force or branch of troops: the command teams of the East Kazakhstan armies and air force and air defense units organize the defense of the country's facilities (the highest state and military authorities, strategic nuclear forces, energy, infrastructure, military industry, environmentally potentially dangerous and other objects), the command of the military air defense organize, in the framework of combined-arms operations, the defense of the ground forces, the command of the fleets - the fleet forces. In this regard, the control of the airspace of the Russian Federation at low altitudes is carried out only at 33 percent of the country's territory, at high altitudes - at the 51 percent of the territory. The length of the radar-controlled sections of the state border of Russia is: at low altitudes - 23 percent, at medium and large - 59. As a result, in the event of war, the United States can destroy the 80 – 90 percent of the Russian strategic nuclear forces in the first hours of the confrontation.

Actual tasks

To include fighter aircraft in a single contour of combat control of the aerospace defense organization. In the military districts, it is not in the composition of the East Kazakhstani brigades, but in the structure of air bases. The aggressor always has the initiative in choosing the time and direction of strikes. Overcome the air defense system, it will be there where it is beneficial, in particular, in the directions most weakly covered by anti-aircraft missile systems, and in narrow sectors of the front. Therefore, only the anti-aircraft missile system, which is in the breakthrough zone, will take part in repelling the raids. In such a situation, only fighter aircraft can perform a quick maneuver, concentrating their forces on the threatened direction, and thereby override the errors of forecasting the possible actions of the enemy.

Restore operation of the MiG-31. These combat aviation complexes together with tanker aircraft, radar remote observation complexes would solve the problem of aerospace defense in the northern and eastern strategic aerospace directions, without creating ground defense infrastructure and groups of aerospace defense forces; to form the front line of the air defense-missile defense system in threatened directions up to the line of launching cruise missiles of air and sea basing, that is, over 3 – 3,5 thousands of kilometers from the state border; to cover long-range and sea-based missile-carrying aircraft from enemy fighter action in remote areas and to cover their own naval groups (including submarines) from air strikes when deployed in the distant ocean and sea zones.

Create an operational-strategic grouping of troops (VCG) EKO, in which:

1. The commander of the OCW VKO submits directly to the Supreme Commander.

2. All actions for the use and application of the OCW VKO are consistent with the General Staff of the Russian Armed Forces, if necessary, the troops involved are complemented by other forces and means of the Defense Ministry.

3. The created subsystem for obtaining reconnaissance and other information about the enemy makes it possible to use all government agencies engaged in reconnaissance to have data on the aerospace enemy, its movements and concentrations in areas threatened by our country. The commander of the OCB VKO becomes a member of the Security Council of the Russian Federation.

4. The intelligence and other information received from the aerospace enemy by the collection and processing subsystem is analyzed, evaluated and issued to the commander of the OCB in the form of recommendations and decisions on the use of forces.

5. The headquarters and units of the OCW VKO, located at the locations of the headquarters of the commanders of the military districts and their troops, constantly coordinate their actions with each other, conduct joint exercises, are on combat duty, that is, interact with other forces and means of the Armed Forces on air defense-PRO-PKO.

6. When receiving data on the preparation and concentration of forces and means of an aerospace attack of the enemy in threatening directions, by the decision of the commander of the OCG VKO, units are being redeployed from military districts, and in coordination with the General Staff of the Russian Armed Forces - and additional forces and facilities of the Defense Ministry to repel attacks, and, if necessary, delivering a preemptive strike. The promptness and surprise of the actions of the EADs of the East Kazakhstan Oblast become the main factors of the advantage of our activities over the actions of the enemy - the concentration of aircraft carriers and submarines, the movement of aircraft to our borders.

7. The Military Academy of the East Kazakhstan region named after Marshal of the Soviet Union G. K. Zhukov (Tver), which included the functions of the 2 Central Research Institute of the Moscow Region, became the leading research organization for the study of military-theoretical, military-technical, military-economic problems and a source of personnel for OSGV VKO.

8. The management of the order of military equipment in conjunction with the military industrial complex ensures the supply of the latest weapons and military equipment for the OCW VKO, conducts tests and incorporates them into service.

9. The Ministry of Defense and the General Staff of the RF Armed Forces are engaged in their functions and tasks formulated in the Military Doctrine, without being distracted by the constant reforming of the Armed Forces, leading them to a deplorable state and a significant backlog of Russia in the combat and strength of forces equipped with conventional weapons military units.

Considering the above, it is much easier to prepare a law on the creation of a new EKR system and a presidential decree on the introduction of the OCB as an independent structure within the Armed Forces. Today there are not enough military forces and the necessary state resources to create solid radar reconnaissance zones, means of destruction and suppression throughout the country. Therefore, it is not possible to cover all strategic objects with the CTP system from the attacks of the SVKN. This task must be left the sun. The mission of the OCOG VKO as the main element in the structure of the strategic defensive forces (SOS) is to ensure the stability of the strategic attack forces (SLA), represented primarily by the nuclear triad of land, sea and air basing. To achieve this goal, the OCWV of the East Kazakhstan Region should solve the following main tasks: conducting reconnaissance of the aerospace situation, dissecting the beginning of an air, missile and space attack, notifying the state and military authorities of the Russian Federation about it, repelling an aerospace attack.

The aerospace defense system needs to be created on a territorial basis, but with centralized control of its forces throughout the country, rather than individual objects with the possibility of operative movement of troops to any point of our country or beyond its borders. The created system must be in the highest levels of combat readiness (VSBG) already in peacetime in order to constantly be able to repel the sudden strikes of an aerospace enemy (without any restructuring of both the aerospace defense system and its control system. That is why mainly troops of constant combat readiness.

The criterion value of the indicator of damage caused to an aerospace enemy is not the threshold, but the maximum possible number (or share) of destroyed SVCNs. It is by this criterion that possible methods of warfare should be compared and the best one chosen. The above approach to the creation of a system of aerospace defense revises the very concept of protecting the state from aerospace aggression. Now it is not necessary to spread the system of aerospace defense in all potentially possible objects of high economic, political, military significance. And do not create an EKR throughout the country. Yes, it is impossible. In the initial phase of the armed struggle, however unusual it may sound, all other troops and forces, all other actions conducted on land, at sea, from the air, will provide with respect to the forces and measures that make up the main content of the first and main stage of modern large-scale of war. The forces and means of the OCG VKO, having fulfilled their main task, thus, will do the most important thing - they will create a turning point in the war.
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  1. mark1
    mark1 21 August 2013 08: 05 New
    11
    There is no replacement for the destroyed MiG-31 complex. First they stopped the engine’s release to it, and then the production of the aircraft itself. Subsequently, all attempts to resume its production stumbled upon some insurmountable wall.

    On too many issues of the construction of the Armed Forces (in terms of the modernization of the Soviet legacy), we come across such "insurmountable walls" - "Sharks", "Eagles" (first rot, or 10 years now maybe one will be modernized (but it will be very expensive !!!) ). It would be high time to find the epicenter of this wall construction and crush it.
    1. Per se.
      Per se. 21 August 2013 09: 39 New
      12
      Quote: mark1
      It is time to already find the epicenter of this wall construction and crush it.
      Sabotage of our military construction, ideological sabotage and lobbying of interests alien to us is carried out, it is not difficult to guess, from one center, these are our "beloved" USA, with its State Department and the CIA. It is more difficult with those Christ-sellers who, having betrayed the interests of Russia for American greenery, destroyed our army, navy, scientific and technical potential. These creatures should not even be shot, but it is necessary to put on a stake, gagging them with bundles of their own money.
      1. old man54
        old man54 21 August 2013 20: 20 New
        +1
        Quote: Per se.
        Sabotage of our military construction, ideological sabotage and lobbying of interests alien to us is carried out, it is not difficult to guess, from one center, these are our "beloved" USA, with its State Department and the CIA.

        well, you can understand these - they are enemies in their pure form, and their goals are clear and clear: to destroy not only the country, but the entire Slavic ethnic group as the most unpredictable and viable of many on the planet. Below is a video on the topic with some of the politicians.
        Quote: Per se.
        It is more difficult with those Christ sellers who, having betrayed the interests of Russia

        But this is precisely the root cause of all problems, both ours and the state! Even before the 90s, they had sold their homeland, in the literal sense, for their personal comfortable existence, and the price was the destruction of the country and the actual (implicit so far) transfer of the main power functions and systems of governance of the society (country) of the United States. Under this and the constitution was written in the early 90's, under external management.
  2. bif
    bif 21 August 2013 12: 38 New
    0
    The article is superficial, pessimistic, and most importantly, the author clearly ignores the details and specific trends, so you can’t call it analytical ... so the manager’s report on how bad everything is.
    Example: "There is no replacement for the destroyed MiG-31 complex. First, the release of the engine to it was stopped, and then the manufacture of the aircraft itself. Later, all attempts to resume its production ran into some insurmountable wall ..."
    Actually:
    2011 - "Modernization has been carried out under long-term contracts with the Ministry of Defense since 2006. The first pair of modernized MiG-31BMs was transferred to the branch of the Lipetsk PPI and PLC in the spring of 2008, and in 2009, supplies of" serially modernized "fighter-interceptors began to the Air Force combat units ...
    Data on the number of MiG-2011BM upgraded in 31 was not reported in open sources. It is known about the possibility of modernization of fighters at the 514th ARZ in the city of Rzhev, as well as the continuation of work on the next stage of modernization of the MiG-31, which provides for further improvement of the weapons control system and adaptation of new weapons to the aircraft. "Http://sdelanounas.ru/ blogs / 12422 /
    2012 - "In 2012, the implementation of three" serial "modernization programs continued - the MiG-31 fighter-interceptors in the MiG-31BM modification, the Su-25 attack aircraft in the Su-25SM modification (2) and the A-50 early warning aircraft in the modification A-50U. " http://sdelanounas.ru/blogs/25527/
    1. mark1
      mark1 21 August 2013 12: 51 New
      +5
      Quote: bif
      Modernization is carried out under long-term contracts with the Ministry of Defense since 2006. ... Data on the number of upgraded MiG-2011BM in 31 in open sources was not reported ...

      The fact is that modernization, of course. ongoing, but fighters are being upgraded based on the availability of app. parts and backup engines, so part of the aircraft are used as donors. Based on this, it is theoretically possible to upgrade no more than 120 cars with a payroll of 252 units (according to Wiki), and the need to cover the northern borders is at least 300 cars (500 in the USSR). This is what reproduction is for.
      1. Nitup
        Nitup 21 August 2013 13: 59 New
        0
        Quote: mark1
        This is what reproduction is for.

        If we already produce interceptors, then we need to develop a new one using new technologies, and not just resume the production of the MiG-31.
        1. mark1
          mark1 21 August 2013 14: 14 New
          +3
          With the resumption of production of the MiG-31, it is probably already really late, everything is "chipped" in the bud, of course, we need to move forward and develop something new. But I think it is necessary to organize the production of spare parts for aircraft and engines (try to restore the maximum number of engines) and thereby at least bring the number of combat-ready, modernized MiGs to those notorious 252 units.
      2. bif
        bif 21 August 2013 18: 36 New
        0
        and the need to cover the northern borders - at least 300 cars Just explain how this figure was born.
        no more than 120 cars ... according to the wiki, so much is on 2013 year.
        That's what reproduction is for..
        I’m only for, but if you pay attention to the processes of creating new weapons in the Russian Federation, you will notice the existence of continuity - the new on the basis of the old, just the modernization processes are intermediate, i.e. already tested platform is running and the introduction of new equipment.
        1. mark1
          mark1 25 August 2013 20: 27 New
          0
          Quote: bif
          and the need to cover the northern borders is at least 300 cars. Just explain how this figure was born.

          I didn’t think it, it’s the calculations of experts from the State Duma, But even empirically - the USSR needs 500 pcs (maybe more), the main direction is north (and its borders have not changed) - at least 300 are needed (the enemy remains the same)
  3. shurikchaevnik
    shurikchaevnik 21 August 2013 12: 53 New
    +9
    Eh, it just takes a shock when you look at what is happening in Russia. In my life I will not believe that reviving an army at least of the level of the USSR is an impossible task. But first, all the chaos must be stopped - the thieves must be removed from the trough, and now I’m looking at an almost impossible task - Serdyukov is a vivid example of that ... In general, I like this chain - a moron (very mildly) Yeltsin - well, that with him a complete peh is not worth saying - it transfers power to a good Put (hurray patriots - look more at what is actually being done, and not said and promised with the possibilities of Russia) and songs about the revival of Russia begin. It is interesting to the point of opupeniya - the fact that Mother Russia hangs on an oil and gas needle may not be so bad as many moan - all the same, reserves allow - but where the good from sales goes is the question (oh yes - the army is revived for the percentage remaining from the allocated its revival of money) and how such a country is developing in other directions leads to sad thoughts. The country needs to change - the fish (state) rots from the head (the head) - but here's how to do it without revolution, so as not to row its joys later, and the "friends" will not miss the moment ... Eh - I'll go drink some tea, scatter.
  4. Ruslan_F38
    Ruslan_F38 21 August 2013 13: 14 New
    +1
    There is no need to reinvent the wheel in evaluating what is happening in our army, that with the supply of new weapons, that with modernization - this is sabotage and a betrayal of Russia's national interests. New and modernized weapons, this is not even a drop in the bucket, it's nothing - zilch.
  5. Kiliny
    Kiliny 21 August 2013 13: 22 New
    +1
    I would very much like to believe that the current Minister of Defense will effectively work to organize counteraction to the current threats of the Russian Federation, in any case, evaluating his work in the past department, there is such confidence. We can say that such literate and strong-willed ministers have been counted off once or twice. It will take a very long time to rake only the fruits of the 90s.
    wink
  6. predator.3
    predator.3 21 August 2013 14: 23 New
    +1
    Production of the MiG-31 was curtailed in 1994. By the end of 1994, more than 500 MiG-31 and MiG-31B aircraft were built.

    During the 2nd Chechen war, the MiG-31 and A-50 AWACS controlled the airspace of the Chechen Republic.

    At the moment, the aircraft in service are being upgraded to the MiG-31BM version, the first 2 entered the troops in 2008. [4]

    In 2008, the first stage of the MiG-31BM GSI was completed, the second

    It is known that the 60 MiG-31 will be upgraded to the BM version, and, according to Zelin, 30-40 MiG-31 in the DZ and BS versions will also remain in the composition. The rest of the MiG-31 (about 150 pcs.) Plan to write off.

    In 2012, six MiG-31BM entered service with the Kan Air Group (Krasnoyarsk Territory). [5] [6] At the beginning of 2013, the Mig-31BM of the Kan Air Group were involved in combat duty in the “duty on the ground” position from other airfields, in particular at the Tolmachevo airport, Novosibirsk.

    In 2013, the Sokol aviation group of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation (Perm city, Bolshoi Savino airport) was replenished with 3 MiG-31B fighters.

    from wikipedia.
  7. Sobol
    Sobol 21 August 2013 14: 38 New
    +2
    I will never believe that what was built once, could not be built again
  8. Lone gunman
    Lone gunman 21 August 2013 15: 49 New
    -7
    Why build it again - MiG-31 - this is an endangered dinosaur, why spray the money of the defense budget is to the enemy's hands, it is better to build a hypersonic rocket or a high-speed drone, speeds from 3000 thousand km / h are already prohibitive for a person - a person can fly and faster, but without "special" comfort, so to speak, and he is a pilot - he has to think with his brain, and at this time his brain spreads over the cranium, well, you give ... and minus how much you fit, it's the 21st century, but here these are the ideas of retired dinosaurs.
    1. bif
      bif 21 August 2013 18: 45 New
      +2
      Apparently you constantly fly at a speed of more 3000 thousand km / h, Of all the unsurpassed qualities of MIG-31, you saw the current speed. By the way, by your logic, all SR-71 pilots are generally hydrocephalic.
      1. Lone gunman
        Lone gunman 21 August 2013 19: 18 New
        -1
        The MiG-31 was relevant when it flew on an ongoing basis, the SR-71, only a few pilots reached the maximum flight mode, what are astronauts, and boys are difficult and difficult to control as compared to pilots of similar machines, the amers understood this ahead of us, MiG- 31 is a great machine for its time, but its time does not stand still and technologically, civilization has gone ahead, we must come up with something else, our achievements are enormous ...
        1. old man54
          old man54 21 August 2013 20: 28 New
          +1
          Quote: Lone gunman
          The MiG-31 was relevant when it flew on an ongoing basis SR-71, only a few pilots reached the maximum flight mode,

          write nonsense, and with a serious look! negative In order to intercept the CC running at a speed of 1M, the interceptor speed should be well at least 1,5M !!! If the speed of the AC interception is 1,5M, then for a successful and confident interception the speed of the aircraft should be already around 50M. This is a theory and complex calculations, not verbiage and infa by Wiki! These calculations were made as far back as 60/XNUMX in the closed scientific research institutes of the Armed Forces, why for air defense interceptors is always!!! the possibility of high speeds has been made! hi
          1. Lone gunman
            Lone gunman 21 August 2013 21: 34 New
            +1
            Sorry, sorry, MBDA CVS PERSEUS (France) 3M, X-51A Waverider 5M and against these missiles do you want to expose obsolete Mig-31? your knowledge of 50-60 years, you read scientific journals, and then with the appearance of a sage you will talk about my stupidities, and with a serious look! You know the telepathic interface only at an early stage of development, otherwise I would throw you a couple of files from my head, here then they would reason ... and so everyone will remain in their opinion.)))
  9. scientist
    scientist 22 August 2013 13: 24 New
    0
    As far as I know, the State Duma was considering a program to modernize the entire MiG-31 aircraft fleet. Most likely it was accepted, can anyone clarify. At least I know for sure that Kazakhstan is repairing them at JSC "514 ARZ", and new engines are being installed. True, in April one side crashed for technical reasons six months after the overhaul.
    Regarding the second part of the article of the OSGV East Kazakhstan region, as a specialist, the phrase arouses big doubts
    The criterion value of the indicator of damage to the aerospace adversary is not a threshold, but the maximum possible number (or share) of destroyed space missile systems. It is by this criterion that one should compare possible methods of warfare and choose the best of them.
    . In the same Tver, we were taught that the criterion for the effectiveness of the system is the probability of the preservation of the defense object. In addition, when creating aerospace defense, it is necessary to seriously consider the time factors of decision-making and the working hours of air defense and aerospace defense assets. All the same, there is a significant difference in the speeds and flight paths of the airborne and airborne aircraft. These main factors should determine the structure and tasks of the system of OSGV EKR. In addition, is this problem so relevant if more than 50% of the country's territory is not covered by anything at all, fly whoever you want and wherever you want.