Military Review

Who attacked first?

15
It has been more than 63 years since the beginning of the war on the Korean Peninsula. But to this day, in the West and in Japan, there is a myth that North Korean troops attacked first. This “thesis” was heard recently and on some Russian TV channels. However, even a small excursion into the post-war 1945 shows that it was originally the United States and a group of Korean collaborators who were strongly interested in escalating the conflict in this region. Being on the Korean Peninsula, the United States could control the entire Southeast Asia, including the eastern part of the Soviet Union and China, which were the main geopolitical rivals for Washington.


The Americans developed a secret plan to unleash a war on the peninsula, which would also allow discrediting not only North Korea, but also the ideas of socialism and communism as a whole, labeling them as aggressive. The United States was extremely necessary to establish itself as the world's main fighter "for the ideals of freedom and democracy," which naturally made it easier for them to enter new markets in Africa, Asia and Latin America. There was an increase in sympathy for the Soviet Union: the rapid pace of reconstruction without any outside help showed the advantages of a planned economy over a free market. In addition, for the full-fledged work of NATO, created in April 1949, a precedent was needed that would clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the new alliance. After that, the United States could successfully manipulate the countries of Western Europe, drawing them into a long-term "deterrence strategy."

In the US, a secret group on national security was created, led by Wall Street's former banker Paul Nietze. This group was engaged in the justification of future military aggression and determined the appropriate state for this purpose.

Previously, bets were placed on the Dropshot plan, which involved nuclear carpet bombing of the Soviet Union. But 29 August 1949 was the first explosion of the Soviet atomic bomb at the site in Semipalatinsk, the US military and political leadership, it became clear that they can get a retaliatory strike.

The conjuncture has changed. It was necessary to provoke a crisis in another country. The choice fell on Korea, in the southern part of which the pro-American puppet Lee Seung Man, who lived more than 30 years in the United States, was in power.

General MacArthur in a secret conversation with Lee Seung Mann insisted on the need to carry out an attack on North Korea before July, and the redeployment of South Korean troops, where there were American advisers, began in April 1950.

Since the majority of the deputies was not on the side of the president after the parliamentary elections in May 1950 in South Korea, this encouraged Lee Seung Man to implement this plan in accordance with the American directive. On June 17, 1950, the special envoy of US President Truman, future Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, flew to South Korea, who finally approved the plan of war. He gave the order to launch a propaganda campaign - North Korea attacked first, and at the same time launch an offensive to the north. Dulles assured: “If you stand for two weeks, then during this time the United States will have time to bring to the UN a case regarding the attack of North Korea on South Korea and will force it to mobilize an army, navy and Aviationand everything will go according to plan. ”

Dulles was one of the initiators of the formation of the United Nations as a global structure pursuing pro-American policies, which is why he relied on the role of this new organization. It is important to note that later, in the settlement of the crisis in 1953, Dulles announced the need to maintain the US military presence in South Korea in order to "help rebuild the country." He personally signed an agreement on mutual defense with Lee Seung Mann, which legally enshrined the US right to deploy its armed forces in South Korea.

In a historical letter, Lee Seung Manu Dulles wrote: "I attach great importance to the decisive role that your country can play in the great drama that is now being played." Of course, Dulles had in mind the possibility of creating a springboard for an attack on the USSR. This plan was approved at the top of the US political establishment, and it was given great importance.

In addition, intelligence reports said that North Korea is unable to defeat the troops of South Korea. The CIA reported that China was unlikely to get involved in this conflict in 1950, so Washington and Seoul were in a hurry to unleash aggression.
American historian John Gunther, who was on a trip to Japan with General MacArthur at the time, confirms the provocation from Seoul, referring to the words of an assistant American general, who excitedly reported a phone call from Seoul: "South Koreans attacked the North!"

At 4 on the morning of 25 on June 1950, a surprise attack was made all along the 38 parallel line. According to the memoirs of one of the officers of the South Korean army, “24 June 1950 was Saturday, but officers were forbidden to leave, ordered to wait for the order to start the war. On the night of June 24 received a secret order - at dawn of 25 June, go over the 38 parallel and begin military actions against North Korea. ”

In response, North Korean troops launched a massive offensive, which was the reason for the response from the United States, who immediately raised the question of military intervention in the UN. True, for some reason, it was silent that already on June 23, the South Korean air force launched strikes against its northern neighbor, and South Korean troops occupied the city of Heju.

By the way, the theme of the Korean War remains important also because this conflict can be considered practically the beginning of the Cold War (Winston Churchill’s famous Fulton speech, we recall, was sounded in 1946).

In this war, the United States followed a policy of double standards, which was distinguished by special cynicism. It was for the war in Korea and during it that the USA created special forces for conducting psychological operations.

General MacArthur ordered the formation of a small unit for psychological warfare in the G-2 division of the General Staff of the Far Eastern Command in Tokyo as early as 1947, which confirms the systematic preparation of the United States for war. The unit was headed by a retired army colonel Jay Woodall Green. He took an active part in the psychological war in the Pacific during World War II. Other members of Green's group were Colonel Myers, who had eight years of experience in the PSYWAR unit in the southwest Pacific, and Lieutenant Colonel Dalkist, who led one of the Chinese-American "teams of the world" under the command of General Marshall.

It should be noted that North Korea, with the support of the USSR, carried out a reorganization of the army and was also preparing for a conflict. Initially, both the USSR and North Korea assumed that the separation along the 38 parallel was temporary and both Koreas would eventually merge. However, in 1948, South Korea proclaimed independence. Lee Seung Man was afraid of rising patriotic and anti-American sentiments, so he tried to usurp the executive power in the country. The United States went to meet him, because they considered such a policy productive to achieve their goals. In response, North Korea also had to declare its sovereignty.

By the summer of 1951, Colonel Green's division had grown to 55 people and was renamed the psychological warfare department. By the first day of the armed conflict leaflets were ready. They were scattered by millions calling for North Korean servicemen to surrender. From the aircraft special permits were dropped to go to the territory of South Korea.

The radio worked purposefully. Loudspeakers were installed on the front line. Paul Linierger, in Psychological Warfare, noted: “Radio in the Korean conflict has been used as a strategic goal and consolidation. Since the beginning of the war, radio has been the voice of our (USA - L.S.) military policy. An ambitious network operated from 1950-1951. directly by the psychological warfare department, and then with the help of the First Group RB & LGroup, became known as the "Voice of Command of the United Nations". The Korean broadcasting system and the Japanese broadcasting system operated on a cooperative basis, and the US government paid for airtime. ”

The result of a successful propaganda campaign conducted by the United States can be considered the official reason for the war, which to this day is followed in many countries: North Korea began the war.

It was announced about the planned nuclear bombing. Given the information that already existed about the horrific consequences in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, this led to a massive panic among North Koreans. Fearing atomic bombing, North Korean women with children often left the enemy’s territory with the permission of their husbands, because then they thought that the conflict would not last long, and they would be able to reunite. But since the majority of the adult male population was mobilized in the early days of the conflict, many families were destroyed forever.

In addition, UN troops bombed industrial sites. With the help of ground attack aircraft, they carried out raids on roads, peasant fields and columns of refugees (similar tactics were used by NATO forces in Yugoslavia in 1999). Incendiary bombs were often dropped, which turned the raids into continuous conflagrations (this element of combat operations was already used in Vietnam).

However, the tragedy struck not only the people of North Korea, but also South, where the local population had experienced all the delights of "democracy" in an American style. US troops, for example, were ordered to kill all people approaching their positions on the front line, even if they look like peaceful people. As a result of such incidents killed hundreds and thousands of civilians. The most famous incident was the shooting of refugees in the village of Nogylli in 1950.

Till now in South Korea there are cases of rapes of girls by the American soldiers who remain unpunished, and the peasants unsuccessfully demand to return their lands illegally occupied by military bases. According to statistics, from 100 thousands of crimes committed by Americans, starting with 1945, only 4% were considered in Korean courts, and in most cases, American soldiers were released with impunity, or paid compensation to victims.

Immediately after the occupation by the US troops of the territory below the 38 parallel in September 1945, the “mop-up” of unreliable elements and repression against ideological opponents began. Among them were not only former fighters with the Japanese, but also many peasants who held pro-communist views. Noam Chomsky described these dramatic events like this: “When the American troops entered Korea in 1945, they dispersed the local people's government, consisting mainly of anti-fascists, who resisted the Japanese and began to carry out cruel repression using the Japanese fascist police and Koreans, who collaborated with them during the Japanese occupation. About 100 thousand people were killed in South Korea even before what we call the Korean War, including about 40 thousand during the suppression of a peasant uprising in one small region on Jeju Island. ”

It was the inhabitants of this island who, in 1948, raised a rebellion in protest against the division of the country, and the South Korean security forces in response severely suppressed it. It was only in 2005 that the President apologized for the atrocities, calling Fr. Jeju is an "island of world peace." True, the name “peaceful” is actually nonsense, since in January 2011 there began the construction of a new US military base. According to the plan, it will occupy an area of ​​130 acres (approximately 169 of football fields) on the land of local farmers who hold protests in defense of their property, which the world media are silent about. Jeju base will be able to receive up to 20 US and South Korean warships, including submarines, aircraft carriers and destroyers, some of which will be equipped with Aegis ballistic missile defense systems.

However, returning to the events of 1950-x, we note that, despite the military losses, in terms of economics and politics, the United States achieved its goal.

The US military budget was increased by more than 50 billion dollars (i.e. almost 400%, because before the war it was about 13 billion), the army and air force numbers were doubled, and the US military bases were stationed in Europe, Middle East and Asia. In Asia itself, the ANZUS block (US-Australia-New Zealand) was created.

The US military-industrial complex received many orders, on which various industrial sectors worked. Thanks to the Korean War, M-16 automatic rifles, M-79 grenade launchers and the famous F-4 “Phantom” aircraft, later used in Vietnam, appeared, but we are unable to resist the Soviet fighters.

In 1949, it became clear for the political leadership of the United States that tough measures were needed to improve the economy - over the year industrial production fell by 15%, profits of large companies fell to 28,4 billion dollars (from 36,6 billion in 1948). about 5000 firms went bankrupt, the number of unemployed increased to 6 million people. In general, from 1948 to 1950, US unemployment rose by 130%, the national production index fell from 170 to 156 position (during the war, at the peak of mobilization production, it was at the level of 212), investment growth declined, exports a year before the start of the Korean conflict also dropped by 25%.

An economy transferred to a war footing allowed states not directly involved in the conflict to benefit more from arms sales to all other participants. The United States understood this well during World War II and immediately after it, putting all of Western Europe in geopolitical dependence with the help of the Marshall Plan. However, the volumes created earlier weapons and ammunition lay dead weight, and their production in the United States declined sharply, leading to increased unemployment and the threat of an economic downturn.

As the historian points out, Yale University professor John Gaddis in his book “The Cold War: A New история”, Published in 2005, this concept was substantiated by adviser to the President of the United States, financier Bernard Baruch, who said in 1949, that“ a massive expansion of the military industry is needed on a permanent basis. ”

The methods used by the United States to prepare for the war in Korea, during it and after the armistice, continue to remain in the arsenal of Washington, and for a full analysis of the White House’s actions it is necessary to remember historical lessons.

By the way, Baruch lobbied for the US monopoly in the nuclear field. His proposals, known as the “Baruch plan,” consisted in banning the manufacture and use of nuclear weapons by all the states of the world, while peaceful studies were to be carried out under the control of international structures. In fact, this plan was aimed at establishing complete US domination in this area, since Washington was not going to destroy its nuclear weapons.

American writer William Engdahl noted that "the US Department of Defense has become the world's largest contractor, placing orders for billions of dollars in American and selected European and Japanese industries to support" combat readiness. " The result of the Korean war for Germany was permission to begin the restoration of the Ruhr steel industry. The military-industrial complex expanded to a gigantic scale during the 1950s. The Cold War was launched on a grand scale, and Standard Oil became a great benefactor, providing fuel to the Air Force, Tanks, jeeps, fighters and other Pentagon vehicles. In the internal American economy, politicians quickly realized that they could push almost any program through Congress if it contained words about "American national security" and "defense against totalitarian godless communism."

The warmongers of war from the White House and Wall Street were skimming off the Korean conflict. It is noteworthy that the main investor in the war was the National City Bank, which controlled Rockefeller, and his attorney John Foster Dallas was on the board of directors of the New Korea Company in Seoul.

Thus, the war in Korea became a turning point in the realization of the geopolitical ambitions of the United States, which ensured their further advancement of their interests in all corners of the world.

And the seeds of misinformation, sown more than 60 years ago, continue to bear fruit, which help to justify the atrocities committed by the United States under the UN auspices not only in Korea, but also in many subsequent conflicts. It can be said that aggression against Libya and Syria, the manipulation of the terrorist underground and radical Islamists in the countries of the Middle East, Central Asia and the Caucasus have the same customers - Wall Street and the White House, which from time to time change tactics of actions, but not the strategy, aimed at global dominance.
Author:
Originator:
http://www.geopolitica.ru/article/kto-napal-pervym#.UhIPw9JM-So
15 comments
Ad

The editorial board of Voenniy Obozreniye urgently needs a proofreader. Requirements: impeccable knowledge of the Russian language, diligence, discipline. Contact: [email protected]

Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 23 August 2013 09: 41 New
    +6
    By June 26, 1950, the war on the border of North and South Korea was already going on "de facto" and several tens of thousands of people died in it. It's just that the DPRK managed to prepare faster and struck first, like Israel in 1967 (or do you consider Israel to be the aggressor?)
    Or do you seriously think that the aggressor Kim Il Sung attacked a peaceful South Korea, where about 100 people had already died by the time the war began, while South Korean dictator Lee Sung was suppressing riots and armed riots and border clashes on the thirty-eighth Mans brought from the United States in 000 so suppressed dissenters that he was eventually overthrown as part of the revolution, with the tacit approval of the United States itself. The fact that he was a man is evidenced by the fact that his main electoral candidate, Cho Bon Am, was accused of violating the national security law and executed (though it was after the war).
    However, the United States had its own "peaceful" goals, as Truman stated, although later, when the North Koreans and Chinese volunteers inflicted several crushing defeats on the "UN troops":
    We will destroy all ports or cities in order to achieve our peaceful goals ... This means a universal war. This means that Moscow, St. Petersburg, Mukden, Vladivostok, Beijing, Shanghai, Port Arthur, Dairen, Odessa and Stalingrad and all industrial enterprises in China and the Soviet Union will be wiped off the face of the earth.

    These were the goals of the mattresses ... Peacefully! hi
    1. eplewke
      eplewke 23 August 2013 11: 34 New
      +4
      What can I say. The USA is expanding globally, and their subsidiaries, the UN and NATO, are helping them. When the West takes off its pink glasses and sees real fascism, created by the Anglo-Saxons, and not offended buggers in Russia ...
  2. Kovrovsky
    Kovrovsky 23 August 2013 10: 01 New
    0
    American historian John Gunther, who was on a trip to Japan with General MacArthur at the time, confirms the provocation from Seoul, referring to the words of an assistant American general, who excitedly reported a phone call from Seoul: "South Koreans attacked the North!"

    I would not trust the "worried words" of American assistants!
  3. solomon
    solomon 23 August 2013 10: 10 New
    +2
    In this war, the United States followed a policy of double standards, which was distinguished by special cynicism.
    The same can be said of any war unleashed by the United States.
  4. solomon
    solomon 23 August 2013 10: 23 New
    0
    In response, North Korean troops launched a massive offensive, ...
    And this is a couple of hours after the start of the South Korean offensive (according to the Soviet version).
    Both sides were preparing (or rather they were preparing) for the inevitable war. Apparently, the war began after North Korea considered itself ready for it and launched a large-scale offensive in response to the provocation.
    1. fartfraer
      fartfraer 23 August 2013 21: 42 New
      +1
      perhaps. but in any case (you are right or wrong) provoked the northerners. and provoked an attack, not words. By the way, something similar happened again in 2008 in relation to Russia.
  5. Defgan
    Defgan 23 August 2013 11: 48 New
    -6
    Here you can argue for a long time who said what, scouted, etc. Everything is simpler, and South and North Korea wanted war, but America and the USSR were just trying to restrain them. In particular, our countries were reluctant to supply weapons to the Koreans so that they would not even think of starting anything. But Kim Jong Il was supported by Zedong, who was full-bodied, and stubbornly beat him. As a result, having prepared for war faster than the South, the North did what everyone knows. If Lee Son Man found other weapons suppliers besides the Americans, he would be the first to attack, but it would turn out differently. Once again, both Korea and China wanted war, and the USSR and the USA were already drawn into it de facto, so as not to abandon their allies.
  6. Hitrovan07
    Hitrovan07 23 August 2013 14: 15 New
    +2
    The essence of the article is that in America now again "kryzys" - so think about what parallels (38 or another) a new "story" will soon go.
    1. viktorR
      viktorR 23 August 2013 16: 14 New
      0
      Or maybe not parallels, but even about meridians ...
  7. Nitup
    Nitup 23 August 2013 16: 25 New
    -6
    The war in Korea was unleashed by Stalin in order to distract the United States from the plans of atomic bombing of the USSR, until we create sufficient nuclear response in return. And, as we see, he succeeded. US losses in this war were greater than in WWII.
    1. fartfraer
      fartfraer 23 August 2013 21: 37 New
      +3
      I agree. Any sensible leader starts a war near his borders, giving reason to a likely enemy to place his armed forces closer. Apparently, Stalin was more interested, his presence was tickled by the presence of Americans on his side.
      by the way, koment-irony, if that
      1. Nitup
        Nitup 23 August 2013 23: 03 New
        -2
        When the fate of the USSR is at stake, and Korea and China, by the way, too, and you won’t go for it.
        comment - not irony, if that
      2. gorsten79
        gorsten79 25 August 2013 21: 46 New
        0
        And if North Korea won?
  8. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 23 August 2013 21: 52 New
    0
    Nitup your mattresses, elite marines, fled from Korean and Chinese peasants with PPSh on the legendary T-34. The first American dvizi transferred to Korea was completely defeated.
    After a series of defeats and the actual defeat of the 24th Infantry Division, whose commander General Dean was captured, American troops, together with the remnants of the South Korean army, retreated to the southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula, where the important sea port of Busan was located.

    ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C8%ED%F7%F5%EE%ED%F1%EA%E0%FF_%E4%E5%F1%E0%ED%F2%ED%E0%FF
    _%EE%EF%E5%F0%E0%F6%E8%FF
    But then, when the mattress covers were taking advantage of complete air superiority, because the Korean pilots who shot down on old Soviet piston Yak-9s, your jet "Shooting Star" and B-29 "Super Fortress" simply did not have enough combat aircraft to shoot them all down.
    1. Nitup
      Nitup 23 August 2013 23: 05 New
      0
      Whose yours? I am for Russia, actually.
  9. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 23 August 2013 23: 12 New
    0
    Nitul, you accuse the USSR of starting a war in Korea, and you are sure of it ...
    The war in Korea was unleashed by Stalin in order to distract the United States from the plans of atomic bombing of the USSR, until we create sufficient nuclear response in return. And, as we see, he succeeded. US losses in this war were greater than in WWII.
    1. Nitup
      Nitup 24 August 2013 00: 33 New
      0
      Quote: Kuznetsov 1977
      Nitul, you accuse the USSR of starting a war in Korea, and you are sure of it

      Where did I blame the outbreak of war in Korea? This is not fault, but Stalin’s literate move, which allowed the United States to impose war, distracted them from plans for atomic strikes against the USSR and gave the USSR time to build up its nuclear potential. From a nuclear strike on the USSR it would be very sweet for the USSR, and Koreans, and China
      1. smiths xnumx
        smiths xnumx 24 August 2013 00: 42 New
        +2
        If this is your opinion, then let me apologize to you, henceforth express yourself more clearly so as not to confuse yours ...
        On 26.06.1950/55/57, i.e., on the day of the outbreak of the Korean War, the KPA Air Force had in its 93th SAD one assault regiment (10th ShAP) - 56 Il-79, one fighter (9th IAP) - 58 Yak-67 , one training (XNUMXth UACA) - XNUMX training and communication aircraft, that is, not a single jet.
        for July 1950 for various reasons, UN aviation lost 55 aircraft in Korea, including: 14 Mustangs, 10 Shooting Starov, 5 Invaders, 5 deck attack aircraft, 5 Superfortresses, 4 Corsairs, 3 Texan from the Operations Command Group Mosquito, 2 Army Sentinelas, 2 Twinmustangs, 2 Panthers, one transport aircraft, and two helicopters. In addition, the British Light Aircraft Carrier Brigade (aircraft carrier Triemph) lost 8 Seafire Mk.47 fighters in a month.
        Already in July, the structure of the so-called Air Force losses began to emerge. "UN troops". Most of them were "battlefield" aircraft, which performed the functions of F-51D attack aircraft and covered them with F-80s.
        Of the 14 shot down Mustangs, 10 belong to the temporary 51st Fighter Squadron, which at this stage was the main enemy of the North Korean fighters. The squadron lost more than 50% of its combat-ready aircraft, losing outright air confrontation to the northerners.
        Out of 10 lost "Shooting Stars" only for three reasons of losses (other than in air combat) are not refuted by the combat situation and other information sources. The official reason for the loss of one is an air battle, for six more aircraft either there is no clear indication of the cause of the loss, or such instructions are refuted by the combat situation and other information sources, which suggests a possible loss in an air battle.
        The loss of five Superfortresses is noteworthy. According to official data, two were shot down by Yakami, two were killed by a "hanging" bomb, another one crashed due to "mechanical problems".
        Of the five B-26s shot down, one was officially in air combat, two by anti-aircraft artillery and two more with vague wording ("own bombs", "loss of fuel").
        Even the official US statistics show approximately equal levels of casualties in aerial combat in July 1950. Officially, from the actions of the North Korean Air Force, the Americans admitted the loss of eight aircraft. The American aces, in turn, announced 11-12 aerial victories in July (10 officially counted) and more than 40 aircraft destroyed on the ground. General analysis of the losses of the Air Force so-called. "UN troops" in July suggests that in fact, 23 to 25 Allied aircraft were killed in air battles, ie. more than 40% of the total number of lost cars. That is, the North Koreans on the outdated Soviet piston Yak-9 shot down the American jet "Shooting Star" and the B-29 "Super Fortress". Yours faithfully!
        Kim Gin Ok. At the time the war began, he commanded a squadron in the 56th IAP of the DPRK Air Force. In total, 11 enemy aircraft were shot down during the war, including 3 B-29 in 1950 Since 1952 flew on the MiG-15. He finished the war with the rank of division commander.
  10. Vladimir M.V.
    Vladimir M.V. 24 August 2013 09: 45 New
    0
    Quote: fartfraer
    perhaps. but in any case (you are right or wrong) provoked the northerners. and provoked an attack, not words. By the way, something similar happened again in 2008 in relation to Russia.

    Maybe they really wanted to do this to us, through Georgians?
  11. labendik
    labendik 25 August 2013 17: 16 New
    -3
    For whom this next nonsense, it has long been recognized by everyone (except 2-3 frostbitten countries) who started the Korean War. Again crawl out of the cracks with their historical research ...