Let's look at Russia, whose citizens have witnessed such social instability and the subsequent collapse of the Soviet Union. Did they succeed in achieving a happy life on the “jelly banks” of universal human values?
Today, the Russian people no longer have any illusions. They already understood that, having gone after the big democratic cake promised by Europe and America, they lost everything completely in the end.
It’s just that the Russians once woke up at night after a great democratization and found that they lost 15 from the Union republics 14, the GNP fell by half, all the outlets into the sea, which the Russian tsars had been seeking for several centuries, were lost. The Black Sea Fleet, which once knew no equal, turned into a handful of ships locked in the inland sea, equipment eaten by time became a pile of scrap metal. New oligarchs plunder state property, like insane, and ordinary Russians stand on the streets in lines, as before. Only here there is no longer any planned support from the state, as in Soviet times, so veterans can earn money for their bread only by selling their orders. In the 2001 year, that is, ten years after the collapse of the USSR, Russia's GDP was approximately 300 billion dollars, that is, one tenth of the indicators of the Soviet Union in the 1991 year. Total foreign trade amounted to about 80 billion dollars - only one fifth of China's foreign trade turnover. Gold reserves? 20 billion dollars, that is only one tenth of the stocks of China. What does this tell us? The fact that in terms of the economy of Russia from a great power has become a minor country of the second or even third echelon.
For a long time, a dissident writer in emigration, nicknamed the “conscience of the nation,” Nobel Prize winner in literature Alexander Solzhenitsyn saw the collapse of the CPSU with his own eyes and returned to Russia with great enthusiasm to participate in the process of “building democracy”. But then he witnessed the tragic situation in which Russian mothers found themselves after the “market reforms”, so the first book that the dissident wrote after returning is full of grief and indignation. Her name - "Russia in the fall." In the story “At the Breaks”, published in 1996, Solzhenitsyn, through the description of the life of the Soviet factory, recognized the achievements of Stalin and the successes achieved under his leadership. Through the mouth of his character, the writer said: “The party was our Lever. Our prop! And they kicked her out. ” In another essay, “To the current state of Russia,” Solzhenitsyn again wrote that there is no democracy in modern Russia: “a stable and outgoing oligarchy was created from deft representatives of the very same upper and middle echelons of communist power and from lightning-fast enriched skorobogat from 150-200 is the man who controls the fate of the country. " He called the incident with the country “the Great Russian Catastrophe of the 90s of the 20th Century,” and wrote about modern Russian society that it is a “cruel, brutal, criminal society”. Public opinion polls conducted by the Russian media show that almost all Russians are yearning for the "great Soviet Union"! This is what the people of Soviet Russia have come to.
After the collapse of the USSR, Russia, which has become a “democratic country,” has today reached a state where its survival directly depends on the export of natural resources. If the Russian Federation did not possess such rich deposits of minerals, then after the collapse of the industrial complex, it would inevitably die from poverty.
In China, natural resources per capita account for very little. Now China is the world's second-largest oil importer, the world's first importer of most other resources, but also the first industrial power of the world. If China collapses like the USSR, follows the same path of industrial “development”, how will simple Chinese survive? If, due to the sale of resources, then I am afraid we will live even worse than the Indians.
If China, which does not have such a large amount of resources, follows in the footsteps of the USSR, what will the Chinese eat? How hard will China have? Have you prepared warm clothes? You and your family, will you survive the long winter? If we compare the deposits of the resources of Russia and China, then Russia has 41 more oil reserves. Natural gas - 194 times. Coal - 8 times. Land per capita - 18 times more. If China falls like the USSR, how many times will it be more terrible?
Let us take a sober look at these public intellectuals, licking the heels of the West and loudly calling for the collapse of the existing system, on these bark, sowing lies on the Internet for whole days. You lure China to where everyone will mock him by the right of the strong, where it will be a poor country with a weak army, where we will become the dust under the feet of the Americans. You bring China to the era of shameful ruin. After the deafening collapse of the USSR, Russia was waiting for 10 years of suffering. Although, in the end, the strong, bright figure of Putin appeared in power, who, realizing what was happening and appealing to the national feelings of the Russians, managed to somehow bring the situation under control, but he was not able to completely stop this decline. The fact that China has far fewer resources predetermines a future for us, in which suffering will last several times longer than in Russia, so keep away your so-called “awakening of the nation”. Socialism, chosen by the Chinese people themselves, may not be the best system on earth, but it is better than any system imposed on us by Europe and the USA. In any case, now we continue to go forward - this is what the real “awakening of the nation” is!
From Yuan Shikai to Chiang Kai-shek, China has already tested the capitalist political model proposed by Europe and America. What did this time bring to China? Decades of famine, which killed countless people. The militarists ruled the country and the bandits were outraged. Taking advantage of the chaos, Japan invaded our lands and started a massacre. Has capitalism brought us prosperity and peace? No, only when Mao Zedong pacified the Middle Kingdom, the Chinese people could truly take a straight road of peaceful, stable and independent development. Who can challenge this?
My parents deserved to enjoy life in their declining years, my children grow up strong and healthy. Hey, the Weibo heroes, opinion leaders and public intellectuals, hiding the stone in his bosom! If you want, having conquered public opinion, to achieve chaos in the country, then you will first have to step over my corpse. If I still have a breath of air, I will still make sure that you crash on the threshold of victory!
Putin said: “The collapse of the Soviet Union was the largest geopolitical catastrophe of the century. For the Russian people, it has become a real drama. ” He also noted that Russia was already tired of death from political and socio-economic upheavals, drastic changes and radical reforms, and society was on the verge of collapse - economically, politically and psychologically.
Lifespan: Now the average length of years for Russian men is 58,6, while in the USSR it was 90 of the beginning of the 63,4 model, that is, now Russian men live on 4,8 less. In 2007, the average life expectancy of men in China was 70 years.
Population: the last 15 years, the population of Russia is annually decreasing by 500-900 thousand.
Macroeconomics: compared to 1991, by the end of the 20th century, Russia's GNP fell by 52%. In the same period, industrial output declined by 64,5%, and agricultural output declined by 60,4%. The ruble fell, and prices soared more than 5 thousands of times.
Wage level: in 1988, the average Soviet salary could buy 1250 kg of potatoes, in 1992 - only 172. Russia reached the 1988 level of the year only in the 2008 year. Given the monstrous stratification of the poor and the rich, which happened after the collapse of the USSR, the situation of ordinary people in the country has become even more deplorable.
Food: in the 1990 year, each resident of the country consumed an average of 75 kg of meat and meat products, counting tripe and fat, in the 2000 year only 45 kg. In the 1990 year, for every Soviet person there was an average of 387 liters of milk and dairy products; in 2000, the average consumption was only 215 liters. Please note that in comparison with 1988, in 1990, the standard of living of ordinary people has already dropped significantly.
Currency: before the fall of the USSR, the ruble was in value, but after three exchanges of banknotes, notes became just paper. The money that people have saved all their lives, suddenly turned into dust, as a result of which many people fell into extreme poverty.
Stratification into poor and rich: in 1991, the share of capital in the hands of 20% of the poorest people in the country was 11,9%, but by the year of 1999 it fell to 6,2%. On the contrary, the capital share of 20% of the richest Russians, which was 1991% in 30,7, increased to 1999% by 47,4.
Grain production: in 1991, the grain harvest collected in the country amounted to 320 million tons, and in all of Russia in 2008, about 80 million tons were collected. At the same time, the Soviet Union was an importer of grain, while Russia today is an exporter of wheat. This is due to the fact that in Soviet times the standard of living was high and the level of consumption was also high, and in modern Russia the living conditions are worse, so people buy less meat, eggs, and so on.
State debt: The USSR left Russia with a 64,9 debt of a billion dollars. In 2008, Russia's foreign debt was already 560 billion dollars.
Corruption Level: according to Transparency International, the independent global Corruption Perceptions Index, in 2010, China was ranked 78 in terms of corruption, Russia - in 121. In fact, Russia has not risen above 120 for a long time, it is one of the most corrupt countries in the world.
Russian science has one foot in the grave: Russia was a great scientific and technological power, but when it went on the rails of a market economy, scientists and engineers had a very hard time. The entire scientific and technical complex was completely destroyed.
The pace of industrialization of the country: In the last ten years, state investments in industry have decreased by 80%, and there are no new factories at all. In 1985, the economy of the USSR was 3,5 times larger than the economy of China, but now Russia's GDP is only one fifth of that of China. Putin once said that in order for Russia to reach the economic performance of 1990, it is necessary to maintain GDP growth at 15% for 8 years.
There is no stone left on the country's industrial base. No technology, no savings, no base - nothing. How in this state to participate in the industrial race?
Russia has become a state-exporter of natural resources: half of the country's GDP is oil revenues. What place does it occupy in the global production chain? Russia is a supplier of raw materials and a place of its primary processing. The Russian Federation is now able to maintain its economy only at the expense of the frantic pace of oil and natural gas production. However, the largest reserves of crude oil are in Saudi Arabia, not in Russia, and even in Venezuela there is more oil.
China is a country very poor in resources. Today we occupy the second place in the world in terms of oil imports, we are the first in the world to import most of the other resources. Do we have a lot of stocks? What will we rely on on a rainy day?
Crime: The Minister of the Interior of the Russian Federation stated that one tenth of the country's territory is under the control of criminal structures. In 1996, Yeltsin also admitted that Italy, with its mafia, is far from modern Russia, which has become a real kingdom of criminals in the world community. A quarter of the national economy is in the “shadow sector” and is controlled by international organized crime groups.
The Russian army has long been in a deplorable state: after the collapse of the USSR, the Russian fleet was reduced by a thousand ships, only one third of the submarines remained. Today, the Russian army’s annual expenditures amount to 5 billions of dollars - a total of 1% of the US military budget. The ability of the Russian Air Force to ensure air superiority after the collapse of the Union was reduced by almost 50%.
Privatization gave rise to oligarchs who tried to seize political power. Boris Berezovsky: “Capital must be highly independent from the state. And entrepreneurs should strengthen their role in the life of the country. Today, the most powerful pillar for the Russian government is big business. ” “The state is obliged to listen to the opinion of entrepreneurs ... But the state has no right to“ put a straitjacket on entrepreneurs ”.
The media is a tool in the hands of capital: the newly minted oligarchs, the owners of financial-industrial groups, repeatedly turned their hands into the sphere of the media. By the middle of 90, most of the Russian media were already under their control.
After the disaster, the Russians were forced to choose a totalitarian political regime for themselves. After 10 years of disasters, all the big figures in the Russian political arena are one way or another expressing totalitarian ideas. Who uses or enjoyed the greatest support of the people? Putin (totalitarian politician), Zyuganov (Communist Party of the Russian Federation), Primakov (representative of the extreme left), Zhirinovsky (representative of the extreme right). Look at the deputies from the liberal parties - do they have a lot of votes? Even Gorbachev managed to enlist the support of only 0,5% of voters.
Gorbachev: “My advice to Chinese friends is this: no“ democratization ”is needed, nothing good will come of it. In no case should chaos be allowed, stability should come first. ”
Part of the democratic elite of Russia repented of their errors: Solzhenitsyn, who wrote the GULAG Archipelago and who had once fiercely opposed Stalin, after reviewing his convictions, admitted that he had inflicted damage on his Fatherland. Leonid Kravchuk, the former president of Ukraine, who personally signed together with two other political leaders of the USSR a treaty that collapsed the Union, later said: “If in 1991, I knew that instead of democracy there would be chaos, I would never sign the Belovezhsk agreement, I’d better cut myself off. "
When I came to visit 2003 in Russia, I once talked for four hours with the historian Medvedev, who was extremely negative about Stalin. We talked about the industrialization of the USSR, the collectivization of agriculture, victory in the Great Patriotic War, ensuring the overall well-being of the people, the revival of culture and the political course favorable for the intellectual elite. And Medevedev fully recognized Stalin’s achievements in these areas. When I talked with one academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, he said to me with all sincerity: “Not anyone brought the USSR to the cemetery, we did it ourselves, the Soviet people. At the cost of terrible suffering, we, the people of Russia, like Christ, have courageously sacrificed themselves, warning the rest of the world and people at all times: Soviet "democratization" and "privatization" turned out to be a dead end, a disastrous way. Each superpower pursued only its own mercenary goals, and other states should in no way repeat our mistakes. I am a member of the CPSU and even now I still keep my party ticket in a secluded place. However, when the CPSU crashed, I, too, was happy about it. The terrible disasters that our country and the Russian people experienced for ten years made me look at the country and people with feelings of shame, guilt and remorse. But China has shown us that socialism has hope for a bright future. ”
In 1994, Solzhenitsyn returned from America to Russia. His way home was thought out to the smallest detail: first he got to the Far East, then, taking the train, crossed half of the country on it, and finally arrived in Moscow. On the way, he ran into a variety of people, gave several interviews. He spoke in general, all the same as a year earlier during his visit to Western Europe. Is that the statements were sometimes more biting. Returning to Russia, he visited various places, having directly touched the reality of a post-Soviet country. So he was able to feel more about what is happening in the state, and through communication with people from various backgrounds and social circles, he also began to better understand what was happening in Russia, therefore his criticism, his accusatory speeches became more substantive, more severe and all-encompassing. In the article “The Russian Question by the End of the 20th Century,” one of his first works published after returning to his homeland, he refers to Russia's historical past, noting that the 90s of the 20th century are one of three Smoot in stories country. In this article, he expressed his conviction that the revolution conducted by the new powers that not only turned into economic woes, but also brought Russia into a state of ideological and moral crisis, so deep that the country could recover from this state only after decades and even after a century (1994 year, 7-th edition of the magazine "New Century", p. 171-173).
Speaking in the Duma, the writer said that modern Russia is "the most crooked, the most painful, the most ridiculous way." He listed various misfortunes and misfortunes that plagued people under the new government, as well as various anomalies that appeared in society, making the following conclusion at the end: the existing system is not democracy at all, but oligarchy, “the power of a limited closed number of persons” (Pravda "From November 1 1994 of the year).
As we already wrote, in another essay, “To the current state of Russia,” Solzhenitsyn reiterated that in modern Russia there is no democracy: “Of the clever representatives of the same former upper and middle echelons of communist power and of lightning-fast enriched by fraudulent means Skorobogatov created a stable and insular oligarchy from 150-200 man who controls the fate of the country. " He called the incident with the country “the Great Russian Catastrophe of 90-ies of the 20th Century,” and wrote about modern Russian society that it was a “cruel, brutal, criminal society” (newspaper Russkaya Mysl, 5-11 of May 1996).
In 1998, Solzhenitsyn published a book entitled “Russia in a landslide”. In it, he continued to criticize the reality of modern Russia and reiterated his political position. He hated the oligarchs, who plundered their own fortunes in the course of privatization, to the depths of his soul, and several times demanded that the privatization be declared illegal, and the property appropriated by the oligarchs be returned to the people. Solzhenitsyn criticized reality so fiercely that it surprised Chubais. The latter said in one of the interviews: “I haven’t seen Zuganov’s hatred of such Russia for a long time ... Solzhenitsyn’s position today fully coincides with the position of the most reactionary part of the special services and the Communist Party of the Russian Federation” (“Kommersant. Power” from 1 August 2000).
The dissident movement that existed for 30 years disappeared after the USSR and the socialist system. The people involved in this movement did not receive any benefits from the overthrow of the system against which they opposed, and did not enter into power. On the contrary, they, as before, were pushed aside to the periphery of society. Among these people were those who opposed themselves to the new government. In the changed historical conditions they became “new dissidents”. In their past struggle against Soviet power, these people initially relied only on their own strength, then began to directly rely on the help of other states, becoming tools in the hands of external hostile forces. However, what is the result? The West threw them, and the “reformers” and the new authorities, with whom they should have been on the way, met the dissidents with coolness. What do they have left? Not the brightest place in history and the piles of suffering, but the political libels that have lost any value, are doubly tragic final. But I must say that these people went through an incredible school of life. Some of them were able to reconsider their beliefs - there was a change in their thinking. Moreover, their new understanding of the situation was not the result of some abstract thinking, it was the fruit of a fierce internal struggle, the brainchild of hard experience. Therefore, such beliefs should be treated with all the attention.