Military Review

Stop the shaft of pseudo-performances

13
It is necessary to exclude scientific degrees and titles from the list of certification indicators of anyone other than employees of research (design) and educational institutions


Today, one of the most debated issues in the near-scientific circles is how to stop a tsunami of substandard and purchased dissertations. There are many proposals, and almost all of them are connected with a reduction in the number of dissertation councils, that is, those only organizations that are able to carry out and carry out in practice a substantive (informal) assessment of the work and competence of their authors.

At the same time, it practically doesn’t analyze why the system of councils, which quite successfully coped with its duties in Soviet times, began to fail. What caused a sharp increase in the number of dissertations? What makes people who are not related to research and teaching, to seek the award of scientific degrees?

We will understand the definitions

There are several basic definitions of a degree. In particular, it represents the level of the qualification system in science, which allows ranking scientists at certain stages of their academic career, and is also a scientific qualification in a particular branch of knowledge. Since qualification is the level of development of an employee’s abilities, allowing him to perform labor functions of a certain degree of complexity in a specific activity, the degree in science and education is an established and documented professional competence of an employee that allows him to occupy certain positions ( and this is important) in research and educational institutions.

Stop the shaft of pseudo-performancesAccording to the regulations on the procedure for awarding academic degrees from 20, June 2011, the dissertation (from the Latin. Dissertatio - reasoning, research) is a scientific and qualification work submitted for the degree. Another definition: thesis is a scientific work prepared for the purpose of its public defense for a degree.

It should be noted that the purpose of thesis development is not the accomplishment of a scientific discovery, but only a demonstration of the author’s ability and readiness for this. Scientific discoveries, for which Nobel, Stalin, Lenin, state and other types of prizes are awarded and awarded, require in addition to the competence of researchers, sufficient funding and, of course, good luck. Making such discoveries is more difficult than writing a dissertation. But a scientific discovery is a fait accompli, and the dissertation is only a statement by its author that he is competent enough in the subject area under consideration and is ready to conduct independent research in it. In other words, the thesis is a scientific work that is performed in order to demonstrate the author’s competence in a particular subject area, his ability to independently set and successfully solve actual scientific problems in it. It is easier to evaluate the already made discovery than a thesis.

The dissertation council is an officially approved group of experts that works in the same subject area as the applicant and has a degree not lower than that claimed by the applicant. The council makes an assessment of the compliance of the dissertation and its author to the desired degree. The process of this assessment is defined by the term “public defense”. The system of public defense of compulsory written essays on scientific topics for obtaining a scientific degree was formed in the Middle Ages and is still the only way to determine scientific qualifications. The essence of public defense is that the applicant appeals to the scientific community (Dissovet) with an invitation to the discussion, during which representatives of the scientific community (members of the Dissovet) must make sure that the scientific qualification of the applicant is not lower than theirs, and accept it to your community. The topic of the dispute is set by the applicant the topic of his dissertation. Accordingly, members of the council, by formulating questions, proposing alternative hypotheses, attempts to refute ideas and results of the applicant, etc., should reveal the level of his real competence, and then evaluate this level. All individual expert assessments of members of the dissertation council are determined by two main components: 1) by the assessment of the submitted dissertation work (assessment of homework); 2) by assessing the degree of the applicant's answers to the questions asked to him (by assessing the actual competence of the author of the dissertation in the subject area under consideration). These expert assessments are poorly formalizable, but sufficiently accurate, subject to the following conditions: 1) prior knowledge of board members of the work to be protected; 2) competence of members of the Dissovet in the subject area of ​​the dissertation research; 3) principles, impartiality and objectivity of members of the Council.

Certification of officials

In the described procedure of public defense, the thesis submitted in advance, of course, plays an important but not decisive role. Determining is the actual competence of the applicant. This competence is manifested in his ability to promptly analyze and control the course of scientific discussion, explain his scientific position, parry statements that contradict this position. In other words, the dissoviet should not be collected in order to give a final assessment of the dissertation work submitted in advance (and unknown to anyone written), but in order to first reveal the actual level of competence of the applicant in the mode of tough scientific discussion, and then objectively and sympathetically evaluate it.

It should be noted that conducting such a public defense requires competence and preliminary preparation not only from the applicant, but also from members of the Dissovet. Therefore, each public defense, although it is conducted according to a single, once and for all established scheme, is a piece action with a result that cannot be guaranteed in advance. This is how all diss councils worked until the middle of the 90s.

About 20 years ago, the system described above broke down and began to crash. What remarkable happened in those years?

The first event that caused a sharp increase in the number of dissertations was the appearance of a letter from the Ministry of Labor of the Russian Federation of 3 August 1993 No. 375-RB “On the approval of“ Temporary guidelines for certification of civil servants ”(current document). This letter explicitly states that professional qualities of certified public servants are determined by such indicators as education, work experience (in the specialty and public service), academic degree, courses (or other forms) of improving knowledge in the field of their profession (activity) and related areas (economics, psychology, law, management, law), scientific works.

Academic titles in the number of certification indicators were included a little later by the decree of the President of the Russian Federation of February 1 2005 of the year number 110 "On the certification of civil servants of the Russian Federation." Why for qualification of officials began to be used qualification indicators (academic degree, academic title), intended for the certification of researchers and teachers, is unknown. For some reason, there is still no decision to assign the rank of state adviser of the Russian Federation to scientific workers. The answer is simple - all these letters, decrees, recommendations are prepared by officials, not scientists. Own hand lord. As a result of the publication of the aforementioned documents, the scope of application of the qualification indicators of research workers has expanded to the sphere of activity of public servants. This increased the number of potential dissenters by three or four times, especially in such branches of science as legal, economic, and partly pedagogical.

Teacher or scientist

The next decision, which increased the flow of dissertations, but already in the field of education, was the resolution of the State Committee of the Russian Federation from 30 in July 1993, No. 34, which introduced requirements and control standards for licensing educational institutions of higher professional education. These standards for the first time unequivocally determined the proportion of teachers with academic degrees and titles in 50 – 60 percent. This proportion, in general, corresponded to the actual staffing of Soviet universities, but it radically changed the attitude to this indicator. If in Soviet times such a share was desirable, now it has become mandatory, and in relation not only to the university as a whole, but also to individual departments. Against the background of the formation of a network of non-state educational institutions, these control licensing standards caused a sharp increase in the number of dissertations, which were mainly pedagogical. Why pedagogical?

The fact is that at any of the departments of the university there is a category of teachers whose interests lie in the field of educational and methodical work. This layer of teachers in the majority lectures and conducts practical training. These teachers are not inclined to research work, but are focused on improving the quality of teaching in a readable academic discipline. They are the invisible initiators of the methodological innovations and the developers of the teaching aids. Through 12 – 15 years of work at the department such a teacher is fully consistent with the academic title of associate professor. Getting them this academic title would allow the department to a certain extent to meet the control licensing standard. Everything would be fine, but in order to become an assistant professor (academic title), the teacher must be a year as an assistant professor. But he did not get to the position of associate professor, because teachers with a degree, which can be obtained regardless of the position held, are mainly appointed to it. Therefore, the resolution of the State Committee of the Russian Federation on 30 in July 1993 of the year No. 34 forced such teachers to defend their theses.

But which science? From the subject area that such a teacher has been teaching for 10 – 15 for years, he knows only the course he reads. It should be noted here that for such a time of practical work, a searching teacher can independently create an effective training system. Therefore, such a teacher usually teaches his academic discipline very well and the dissertation becomes pedagogical. Thus, such works as “Analysis of the audit report of financial and economic activities: preparation of a written opinion on the quality of processing of audit material”, “Training programs and plans, guidelines for conducting seminars in the discipline“ Taxes and fees ". However, pedagogy as a science, this teacher also does not know. Therefore, such works are extremely weak, and if some empirical implementation is present in them, then the theoretical justification is either completely absent or presented in such a form that it would be better if it was not there at all.

Eliminate causes

Undoubtedly, a certain increase in the number of dissertations caused the creation of a network of non-state educational institutions. It is likely that other objective reasons for the growing number of dissertations can be mentioned. However, any reasons that cause people to increase interest in research activities and the desire to improve their scientific qualifications, only for the benefit. But we do not consider the motives that induce a person to increase their status in the sphere of professional activity where he works. We focus only on those erroneous and harmful regulatory documents that force a person through deception to seek a formal confirmation of his professional qualifications in the unusual field of science and education.

To exclude such actions of applicants and the emergence of such dissertations, it is necessary to do the following: exclude academic degrees and academic titles from the list of certification (qualification) indicators of anyone other than employees of research (design) and educational institutions (for example, to include in the number of performance indicators of civil servants instead of academic degrees and titles, sports categories and records); eliminate the dependence of obtaining academic titles (professor, associate professor) from the time spent in certain positions, while maintaining or updating the remaining qualification requirements for these titles.

However, judging by the publications in the media, we are not going to eliminate theses of dissertations in a natural way, eliminating the reasons for its formation. We are going to deal with it by changing the structure and number of dis-councils, as well as the rules for their work. Undoubtedly, this is also important. But usually they first find out and eliminate the causes of the accident, and then struggle with its consequences. By reducing the number of dissovetov in the current conditions, we will dramatically increase the intensity of the work of the remaining, that is, completely deprive them of the opportunity to implement a piece-based approach to the preliminary examination and public defense of dissertation research.
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  1. experienced
    experienced 15 August 2013 15: 08 New
    +2
    I don’t understand why this article was posted on VO, but sometimes listening to our officials gives the impression that not all of them graduated from high school. Yanukovych among the Ukrainians seems to have left school after the 2nd grade. wassat
    The worldwide practice, when prominent politicians are made "honorary professors", often pursuing sponsorship benefits, ours simply put it on stream.
  2. pa_nik
    pa_nik 15 August 2013 15: 19 New
    +1
    Quote: seasoned
    I don't understand why this article was posted on "VO"


    Apparently, this means the penetration of this phenomenon into the Armed Forces and the military-industrial complex .. No.
    1. Airman
      Airman 15 August 2013 22: 12 New
      0
      Quote: pa_nik


      Apparently, this means the penetration of this phenomenon into the Armed Forces and the military-industrial complex .. No.

      The dissertation is different. There is a doctor of technical sciences, he defended his thesis on the creation of "Iskander". And there is a doctor of art history, defended a dissertation on the study of the work of Pugacheva, and both of them are "doctors". Is it equal? And Chubais and Serdyukov are probably "doctors" in management.
  3. vjhbc
    vjhbc 15 August 2013 15: 54 New
    +6
    There is Vasily Ivanovich (VI), meets Furmanov (F).
    F - Where are you going? VI - Defend the dissertation.
    F - What is it called? VI - "How to carry water with a sieve."
    F - Who calls a thesis like that? Give it a better name: "Analysis of the problems of transporting a substance in a liquid state of aggregation in vessels with a perforated bottom." Went to VI, defended a thesis, it turns out - Petka (P) is standing. VI - (P), what are you doing here?
    P - Thesis defended. VI - What's the name?
    P - "Influence of Russian folk musical button instruments on the development of the religious and philosophical thought of Russia at the end of the XNUMXth and beginning of the XNUMXth century" VI - Did you meet Furmanov?
    P - Yes. VI - What was your dissertation called before him?
    P - "Fuck the ass button accordion"
    1. grafrozow
      grafrozow 15 August 2013 17: 03 New
      -1
      Quote: vjhbc
      P - "Fuck the ass button accordion"
      + + + + + +
      I remembered my thesis. drinks
  4. vadimN
    vadimN 15 August 2013 16: 33 New
    +5
    Jokes - jokes, and the country has a whole industry of stamping linden engineers, scientists, etc. .... And moreover, no one is embarrassed by this, and even officially advertises their services!
    Do you want to write a student for you, do you want a diploma? Do you want a candidate !?

    Do not believe me? And here is the official website of such an office with many years of experience:

    http://www.homework.ru/


    Here is an excerpt from their price list:

    Answers to tickets from 170 p. / Question
    Practice Report from 1500 p.
    Thesis from 10500 p.
    Master's work from 13 500 p.
    Review from 1000 p.
    Essays from 800 p.
    Report from 750 p.
    Abstract from 900 p.
    Examination from 150 p. for the task
    Coursework from 2300 p.
    Business plan from 2550 p.
    Postgraduate Abstract 5000 p.
    Candidate dissertation (NIR) from 3000 cu
    Doctoral dissertation from 5000 USD
    Scientific article 1000 p. / Page
    Monograph from 2000 cu

    Interestingly, they know in the minobra about this office? ... or did they institute it? laughing
    1. Ruslan_F38
      Ruslan_F38 15 August 2013 17: 17 New
      +5
      As a person who defended his dissertation 13 years ago, I believe that the article is relevant and has a direct bearing on the military review since scientists with academic degrees work in defense research institutes, design bureaus and other institutes and their technical solutions directly affect the country's defense.
      And the sale at "every corner" of scientific degrees should be suppressed in the most rigid way.
      1. experienced
        experienced 15 August 2013 17: 24 New
        +2
        Quote: Ruslan_F38
        The article is relevant and has a direct bearing on the military review, since scientists with advanced degrees work in defense research institutes, design bureaus and other institutes and their technical solutions directly affect the country's defense.

        Ruslan, not in opposition to you, but when an employee is hired in a research institute or design bureau, the emphasis in the decision of employment is not on the diploma with which he came, but an interview is conducted and a "trial period" is assigned. The development of the printing industry is now inferior to home computers and household printers, which means that in the fight against "left-wing scientists", it is necessary to prioritize the tightening of legislation. IMHO
        I am more alarmed by cases when doctors with "leftist" diplomas appear, there have already been cases in Russia and Ukraine. hi
        1. Iraclius
          Iraclius 15 August 2013 18: 02 New
          +3
          If a person goes to a position that presupposes a scientific degree, but there is none, then no one will talk to you - be at least some kind of specialist in his field. If only by great pull, but such cases are unknown to me. I agree with the article. Linden crusts undermine the authority of science and soil the title of "scientist".
        2. Ruslan_F38
          Ruslan_F38 15 August 2013 18: 03 New
          +2
          Quote: seasoned
          Ruslan, not in opposition to you, but when an employee is hired to work in a research institute or design bureau, the emphasis in the decision of employment is not on the diploma with which he came, but an interview is conducted and a "probationary period" is assigned


          I do not agree with you, having a diploma for the defense of a candidate or doctoral degree is a significant advantage in hiring. It’s another matter if this degree is bought, then of course it will become clear during the course of work, but not the fact that conclusions will be drawn — the time is now.
          Doctoral is generally the top of perfection in my opinion, it is a huge work, and if a person had a degree, in my time they treated him with great respect in the scientific community and not only in it. I refused to write a doctorate. Now it’s probably more a tribute to fashion in most cases, but it’s impossible to say that most people have a degree of mediocrity and simply bought it for money.
          Legislation (CC) needs to be tightened in the direction of increasing the time for such acts, unless of course it turns out to qualify as criminally punishable.
          As for the doctors, I agree with you, you can also mention the pilots of the aircraft (I try not to fly unless absolutely necessary), but in general, fake diplomas are not good in any industry. hi
          1. Iraclius
            Iraclius 15 August 2013 18: 07 New
            +2
            In my memory, over the past five years in our sharaga, cases of communication of candidates with a "black opponent" have become more frequent. And not always successful for the former. Those. work is underway to identify, but the fight is against the consequences, not the cause.
            Doctoral is the top of perfection and years of work. Plus, there is also a healthy investment of own funds. Those days when the scientific research of applicants was funded by the state almost sunk into oblivion. request
            1. Ruslan_F38
              Ruslan_F38 15 August 2013 18: 19 New
              +2
              Quote: Iraclius
              In my memory, over the past five years in our sharaga, cases of communication of candidates with a "black opponent" have become more frequent. And not always successful for the former. Those. work is underway to identify, but the fight is against the consequences, not the cause.
              Doctoral is the top of perfection and years of work. Plus, there is also a healthy investment of own funds. Those days when the scientific research of applicants was funded by the state almost sunk into oblivion. request


              I agree with you. These are the consequences: as you know, no one has yet canceled Article 327 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. In accordance with the first part of this article, forgery of a certificate or other official document granting rights or releasing from obligations, for the purpose of its use, or the sale of such a document, as well as the production for the same purposes or the sale of counterfeit state awards of the Russian Federation, RSFSR, USSR, stamps , seals, letterheads are punishable by restraint of liberty for a term of up to two years, or arrest for a term of up to six months, or imprisonment for a term of up to two years. And according to part three of Article 327 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, the use of a knowingly forged document is punishable by a fine in the amount of up to eighty thousand rubles or in the amount of the wage or other income of the convicted person for a period of up to six months, or compulsory labor for a period of one hundred and eighty to two hundred and forty hours, or correctional work for up to two years, or arrest for up to six months. It should be noted that persons who acquire fake diplomas are not subject to criminal liability until they are presented. But as soon as a fake diploma is presented, the crime is committed. It is worth noting that if the defendants for two years have not "punctured" with a fake diploma - work further - the statute of limitations and nothing can be done about it.
      2. Airman
        Airman 15 August 2013 22: 00 New
        0
        Quote: Ruslan_F38
        As a person who defended his dissertation 13 years ago, I believe that the article is relevant and has a direct bearing on the military review since scientists with academic degrees work in defense research institutes, design bureaus and other institutes and their technical solutions directly affect the country's defense.
        And the sale at "every corner" of scientific degrees should be suppressed in the most rigid way.

        Not only to be stopped, but for this it is necessary to bear criminal responsibility, as for falsification of documents.
  5. tank64rus
    tank64rus 15 August 2013 16: 51 New
    +1
    It is what it is. Previously, among those in power it was fashionable to be a prince or count. Now it is not fashionable. Here is a professor and (or) doctor of sciences just right. Fausts of the 21st century. Well, Mephistopheles veche
    1. grafrozow
      grafrozow 15 August 2013 17: 16 New
      0
      Quote: tank64rus
      Here is a professor and (or) doctor of sciences just right.

      Learning is light, not learning is a little light, so to work. VVZh is also a doctor of sciences, and what "pearls" he gives from the rostrum, Zadornov is resting. With such a system, it is not surprising if the head of the housing office will have a doctorate.
  6. novobranets
    novobranets 15 August 2013 17: 13 New
    +1
    Quote: seasoned
    It seems that Yanukovych left the school after the 2nd grade. wassat

    As the primer smoked in the first grade, so education ended. laughing
  7. Djozz
    Djozz 15 August 2013 17: 19 New
    +2
    I apply for the "Shnobel Prize" in biology: "The influence of moonlight on the sex life of a grasshopper!" Support me, I will share the award within reasonable limits, I swear by my mom!
    1. V. Tarasyan
      V. Tarasyan 15 August 2013 19: 41 New
      +1
      Do you still want to throw that? In place of the ellipsis you can put any terms, at least in the explanatory dictionary. smile
      "Study of the influence ... on ... in conditions ..."
      On this principle, a lot of dissertations are written, especially among those who have the so-called fuel and lubricants, that is, a humanitarian way of thinking. Of course, I don’t cut them all under one comb, but from my experience in dealing with such people I can say that fuels and lubricants are almost also WMDs themselves.
      1. Djozz
        Djozz 16 August 2013 10: 43 New
        +1
        I completely agree, especially in the Russian language, what crap they just do not come up with for "discovering" new norms in linguistics!
        1. V. Tarasyan
          V. Tarasyan 17 August 2013 14: 34 New
          0
          For philologists I will not say, not in the subject. But after talking with philosophers and economists I came to this conclusion.
  8. AleksUkr
    AleksUkr 15 August 2013 17: 25 New
    +2
    NEWS FROM ULAN-UDE.
    From the article: For Free Teachers ...

    "The head of the capital construction department of the government of Buryatia, Sergey Shabalov, could not convince the court that he received a builder's diploma legally
    This week, the Oktyabrsky District Court ruled that the orders of the rector of the VSGUTU on the admission of part-time student Sergei Shabalov to pass the final exam and defend the final qualifying work in the specialty "Industrial and Civil Engineering" were unlawful.
    By the same decision, the diploma of a civil engineer issued by Sergey Shabalov at the EGSTU was invalidated and canceled. So the capital construction department of the government of Buryatia, responsible for the development of billions of budget rubles, is now led by a half-official with a "physical education" education.
    During the trial, it turned out that Sergei Shabalov was extremely dismissive of his sacred responsibilities as an external student (“study, study and study again!”). It is not known for certain what exactly prevented the official from mastering the educational program in full (there may be a busy schedule as the head of the directorate for the construction of sports facilities), but the fact remains. Sergei Shabalov did not master any of the academic disciplines included in the educational program in the specialty "Industrial and Civil Engineering". Accordingly, without passing tests and exams in these disciplines.
    However, the lack of grades in the record book in mathematics, soil mechanics, foundations and foundations, construction machines, welding, operation of construction machines did not prevent the official from reaching the home stretch, “successfully” passing the final exam, defending qualifying work and obtaining a civil engineer diploma. "
    The consequences of issuing a fake diploma could be much sadder than official Shabalov's violated pride. It is no coincidence that the lawsuit of the prosecutor's office of Buryatia in the October court of Ulan-Ude was filed with the wording on the protection of the interests of the “Russian Federation and an indefinite circle of persons”.

    Underestimation, especially in the rank of a high construction official, is potentially dangerous for both society and the state. Activities that require special knowledge (in the absence of these same knowledge and skills) can lead to tragedy.

    Stanislav BELEBORODOV.
    MK No. 34 of 14.08.2013/XNUMX/XNUMX

    And there are more and more of them every year .........
  9. V. Tarasyan
    V. Tarasyan 15 August 2013 18: 21 New
    +2
    Absolutely correct article. An official degree and academic rank are completely useless for officials. They are even called ACADEMIC degree and ACADEMIC rank.
  10. individual
    individual 15 August 2013 19: 55 New
    0
    For all dissenters who received scientific degrees after 1990, develop testing questions and arrange EGE confirmations of the scientific title.
    You need to start with the ministries and departments, and then on the list of nomenclature. hi