Military Review

Steel Chinese Fists

27
Through 15-20 years, the PLA will become the strongest army in the world in almost all respects.


Qualitative re-equipment of the PLA with an almost unchanged number of military equipment is facilitated by the exceptionally high production capabilities of the Chinese military-industrial complex (MIC). The PRC is one of three countries in the world whose military industrial complex is capable of producing virtually the entire range of weapons and military equipment for both its own armed forces and for export. It was created with significant assistance from the USSR in 40 – 50-s of the twentieth century and for a long time functioned in the same technical condition and with the previous organizational structure.

Major reform

During the period of economic transformation, the military industrial complex underwent a very significant evolution. At first, like the Soviet at the end of 80-x - the beginning of 90-x, it underwent a chaotic and unsystematic conversion, which only aggravated its technological gap. At the same time, due to the change in priorities of the country's leadership, the military-industrial complex lost its former privileged position, since the development of the civilian economy was the main thing. The situation began to change dramatically at the end of 90's.


In 1998, under the direction of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, the State Committee of Defense Science, Technology and Defense Industry was established, having ministerial status (in 2008, it was transformed into the State Administration for Defense Science, Technology and Industry, subordinating to the Ministry of Industry and Information). Until 1998, this body with the same name was subordinate to the Central Military Council (CEM) and the State Council at the same time. The General Directorate of Armament appeared in the PLA.

Instead of the previous sectoral management system, in which the manufacturer of each weapon system was appointed administratively, and research institutes were separated from production, 11 military-industrial corporations were created: nuclear, nuclear construction, electronic, two rocket and space (production and technological), two aviation (now merged into one), shipbuilding and ground forces equipment, producing both military and civilian products. In addition, Xinshidai, a technology export and import company, was established. Moreover, each corporation includes narrow-profile corporations and unites dozens (sometimes even hundreds) of enterprises, research institutes, laboratories and other institutions.

Within corporations, science and production are combined, elements of competition have appeared, which has led to an increase in product quality. From 65 to 90 percent of the products of each corporation are for civil purposes, on the other hand, many military-industrial complex enterprises are not included in any of the corporations. Because of this, it is almost impossible to say exactly what the true size of the Chinese defense industry and the number of personnel are. The number of final assembly plants is about 400, the total is several thousand, the number of employees can be estimated at several million. There are 24 enterprises of the nuclear industry, 12 - final assembly of the rocket and space industry, nine final assembly aircraft plants, 14 plants for the production of armored vehicles (including three tank), 20 - for the assembly of artillery equipment, more than 200 - for ammunition, 23 large shipyards for 736 repair and construction sites.

During the years of reforms, the military-industrial complex of the PRC has acquired a qualitatively new level of development. He is able to produce a significant amount of military equipment, coming in first place in the world in the production of weapons and military equipment of all classes. More than 300 combat aircraft and helicopters, no less number of tanks, up to 30 submarines and surface combat ships and boats are produced annually. In the production of almost all classes and types of equipment, China today exceeds the capabilities of all NATO countries, and in some (particularly tanks) all countries of the world combined. If today the term “arms race” applies to some state, then it is China. At the same time, as mentioned above, weapons and military equipment make up only 10 – 35 percent of the total output of products by corporations. The production of a large number of civilian products (usually quite high-tech), including for export, makes all corporations profitable in peacetime.

Characteristics and features

In the period of danger and in wartime, defense enterprises can, by switching to the release of military products only, increase their production three to ten times in several months. Moreover, the integration of military and civilian production within a single corporation improves the quality of both military and civilian products through the exchange of technology.

A large number of enterprises of the military industrial complex and their wide geographic dispersion significantly increase its stability in the event of war. The existing duplication of enterprises by production profile may have a positive side. It can be said that the number of enterprises of the military industrial complex of the PRC is comparable to the number of ballistic and cruise missiles available in the arsenals of the US or Russian Armed Forces. The process of creating enterprises of the military-industrial complex in the depth of the country was resumed (they were previously built in 60 – 70-s, but then were abandoned due to the low technological level). This is explained both by the general state policy of the development of the western regions and by the desire to move some of the objects of the new economy away from the coast, where they are at risk of being hit by US naval and air-launched cruise missiles.

The Chinese military industrial complex has a number of problems. First of all - on engines, high-precision arms, various systems for network-centric warfare. However, this can by no means be considered a fundamental flaw negatively affecting the combat power of the PLA. So, Chinese engines differ from foreign ones only by a smaller resource, however this can be compensated by their number. Similarly, the lack of precision-guided ammunition is quite feuded by a mass of conventional ones. In general, it is becoming clear now that too much enthusiasm for expensive, high-precision ammunition, characteristic of the Western Armed Forces, turns out to be extremely unprofitable economically and often does not strengthen, but weakens their combat capabilities (ammunition is very quickly exhausted, after which it becomes impossible to fight expensive). From this point of view, the PLA lagging behind these munitions may not be a disadvantage, but an advantage, especially in relation to a large-scale classical war of the “army against the army” type. The Chinese military industrial complex is focused on preparing just for such a war, and in this respect it is most likely the best in the world. Its capabilities for the production of military equipment of all classes are even superior to those of the United States (with the exception of the construction of a submarine and aircraft carriers), significantly higher than Russian ones, and there is no basis for comparison with any other country.

The lack of quality of equipment in certain areas (and they are becoming less and less) will be fully compensated by its quantity, and the number of military-industrial complex enterprises guarantees uninterrupted supplies of equipment, weapons and consumables in the event of a war of any scale. At the same time, in no direction is the defense industry experiencing a critical dependence on foreign components and technologies.

The Chinese military industrial complex continues the policy of copying and synthesizing foreign technologies, including those obtained through illegal means. Virtually all foreign specimens in China are examined and replicated, and in the vast majority of cases illegal. At the same time, however, copying, as a rule, is accompanied by creative development and improvement, at least in some parameters. Moreover, the synthesis of Russian, Western and proprietary technologies is increasingly used when creating new types of technology. Such a synthesis of products from completely different scientific and technological schools requires a very powerful own school.

In the medium term

The technological gap in certain areas cannot be considered a serious problem for the military-industrial complex of the PRC. It can be compensated in at least three ways.

1. The development of its own technologies, which is very conducive to the rapid growth of Chinese science, which is at the forefront in the world.

2. Theft of foreign technology, which has long been well established.

3. Production of a large number of weapons, albeit slightly inferior in quality to the best foreign models. In this case, it is understood that a large quantitative superiority fully compensates for some qualitative lag.

Moreover, in many cases there is simply no qualitative lag. The article "China is ready for a big war" was told about the battles near Heglig, in which the 96 Tour tanks shot down four T-72 without any loss on their part. The 99 tour seems to be quite at the level of the T-90 or M1A2. J-11B is certainly no worse than Su-27 or F-15C. The outcome of the battle between Chinese and Russian, or Western tanks or airplanes is now no longer determined by the quality (for it is about the same), but by the number, crew training and tactical situation.

Apparently, in the development of the military-industrial complex, China will largely follow the Soviet path. It may be recalled that at the beginning of the 20 of the twentieth century the technological level of the Soviet "defense" and science was close to zero. For a long time, the USSR was completely dependent on foreign designs and technologies. Nevertheless, by the 60 – 70 years of the twentieth century, the military-industrial complex and the corresponding science in the USSR reached a very high level comparable to the level of the United States and significantly exceeding those of other countries. In part, despite the many financial, organizational, scientific, technological and personnel problems of the last 20 years, this level is still maintained. There is practically no doubt that the military-industrial complex of China will be able to repeat this path, and even more successfully, since, unlike the USSR, it combines command-and-control and market methods and has the possibility of borrowing more foreign technologies. Only serious internal shocks can prevent this. If they do not happen, through the 15 – 20 years, the PLA will become the strongest army in the world in almost all parameters. The United States and less likely to Russia can only counter its advantage by creating weapons on new physical principles, which, however, is an extremely difficult task. Moreover, China will also try to solve this problem and may well achieve a positive result.

The achievement of such success was promoted by the general economic and scientific-technical policy of the PRC leadership. It did not succumb to the Western myth, which turned into a grandiose self-deception, about a post-industrial society in which information is more important than production. Indeed, these technologies multiply the efficiency of everything, but they do not replace anything. It is impossible to eat information, dress in information, live in information, ride on information, fight information. Believing in its own myth, the West took up its own deindustrialization, transferring industrial production to third world countries, mainly to China, which has become a world factory, and now everyone depends on it. Even the fact that most directly embodies the information society - computers, peripherals, communication systems, also produced in China.

This applies, in particular, to the military sphere. The concept of network-centric warfare is definitely revolutionary. But they still fight not with computers, but with armored vehicles, artillery, aviation, fleet. If at the ends of the network there are no platforms (tanks, planes, ships), then the network is useless. And no network will defeat more targets than there is ammunition on the platforms.

In China, they understood quite correctly that quantity does not cancel or replace quality, the network does not replace carriers. Therefore, under the slogan of combining informatization and mechanization, the Chinese are introducing information technologies into the traditional army without reducing the latter and replacing the old equipment with the new one-to-one. Huge MIC provides them with these opportunities.
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  1. cobalt
    cobalt 15 August 2013 07: 41 New
    12
    Already now, the Chinese represent the borders of the PRC that are "fair" from their point of view. Taking into account the fact that the entire Far East is protected by only about 80 fighters, with the already existing technical lag in weapons, the forecast is quite probable. Note that the red point is Khabarovsk, and the blue is Vladivostok.
    1. KG_patriot_last
      KG_patriot_last 15 August 2013 07: 59 New
      +5
      To deter such aggressors, the USSR’s nuclear weapons were called up.

      But in any computer games such as "strategy", strategic nuclear weapons inflict damage only on the civilian population. If two countries fought without the participation of the rest, no nuclear weapons would have protected Russia, given that China also has nuclear weapons. China has the resources to quickly increase its numbers and rebuild them after the war ...

      It is necessary to increase the tactical nuclear weapons, short range and power. To act directly on the shock troops.
      1. Mairos
        Mairos 15 August 2013 10: 11 New
        10
        China in the event of a nuclear war will simply cease to exist. The population lives quite compactly, and the army, even a large one, left without a rear, will itself die on foreign territory.
      2. Blackgrifon
        Blackgrifon 15 August 2013 19: 32 New
        +4
        Quote: Mairos
        China in the event of a nuclear war will simply cease to exist. The population lives quite compactly, and the army, even a large one, left without a rear, will itself die on foreign territory.


        And we will live happily ever after - we all live alone in Siberia - so what? For reference, the bulk of the population of the Russian Federation is urban residents.
        The Chinese do not even need to carry out mobilization - there will be enough personnel units in 2 to sweep away all parts of the Russian Federation to the Urals.
        1. svp67
          svp67 15 August 2013 19: 39 New
          +1
          Quote: Blackgrifon
          The Chinese do not even need to carry out mobilization - there will be enough personnel units in 2 to sweep away all parts of the Russian Federation to the Urals.
          They know perfectly well that all their parts are under the gun of our Strategic Missile Forces, and China also needs us as a supplier of high-tech weapons and a source of many of their "ideas ..."
          1. KG_patriot_last
            KG_patriot_last 15 August 2013 21: 14 New
            +1
            I specifically stipulated: if China and Russia were the same. On the ground.
    2. Geisenberg
      Geisenberg 15 August 2013 18: 26 New
      +4
      Quote: cobalt
      Already now, the Chinese represent so "fair" from their point of view


      You can imagine anything. What do you think, out of 10 of our ICBMs will fly to Beijing? And now for the backfill, the question is: If 30 million people live in Beijing, how much will the population of China decline after the city evaporates? And the rest will go to other cities and industrial centers. During the first 2-3 hours, China will turn into a dull countryside with an increased background of radiation. So, let them better imagine what will remain of them ...
      1. Blackgrifon
        Blackgrifon 15 August 2013 19: 34 New
        +2
        Quote: Geisenberg
        You can imagine anything. What do you think, out of 10 of our ICBMs will fly to Beijing? And now for the backfill, the question is: If 30 million people live in Beijing, how much will the population of China decline after the city evaporates? And the rest will go to other cities and industrial centers. During the first 2-3 hours, China will turn into a dull countryside with an increased background of radiation. So, let them better imagine what will remain of them ...


        And their missiles will not reach Moscow? For China, the loss of even 100 million people. will not be fatal. For us - the loss of 1 million healthy young guys and girls - this is a bold cross on demography.
        1. svp67
          svp67 15 August 2013 19: 37 New
          +1
          Quote: Blackgrifon
          And their missiles will not reach Moscow? For China, the loss of even 100 million people. will not be fatal. For us - the loss of 1 million healthy young guys and girls - this is a bold cross on demography.
          They will not cost 100 millions, since they have the same problems as ours - the bulk of the population lives in the eastern, southeastern and southern parts. And they have smaller rockets than ours, that is, their main part will be guaranteed to be destroyed ...
  2. Crang
    Crang 15 August 2013 08: 21 New
    +7
    They themselves are to blame. They chose the path that destroys us. The Chinese guys are normal, fair and with deep traditions. But even they will not reckon with the dead and with empty space. But there is no need to panic - in any case, provide fanatical resistance.
  3. Nayhas
    Nayhas 15 August 2013 08: 23 New
    +4
    Khramchikhin is absolutely wrong about the reasons for China’s lag in precision weapons. China is working very hard in this direction, but does not have access to modern models, what Russia can provide is the level of the 80s, which does not completely satisfy China, they themselves can do that.
  4. Akim
    Akim 15 August 2013 08: 46 New
    +7
    The article "China is ready for a big war" described the battles near Heglig, in which the Ture 96 tanks shot down four T-72s without loss on their part.

    I looked at the just English forums about battles of Heglig. It says that at least 2 out of 4 T-72M1s were hit by aircraft. But in general, the tanks are on the same level and it all depends on the skill of the crew.
    1. smiths xnumx
      smiths xnumx 15 August 2013 10: 26 New
      +5
      Hi Akim, China made an amazing leap forward, both in any field of technology and in armored vehicles, if in 1992 the PLA was armed with 10 thousand MBTs (a certain number of Soviet-developed T-54s, 6 thousand tanks "59" (Chinese clone T-54A), 200 - "69", the rest - tanks "79" and "80"): 5 thousand armored personnel carriers YW531, YW534, WZ523, WZ551, "85" (YW531H), "55" (BTR-40 ), "56" (BTR-152), "77" (BTR-50PK), as well as 1.2 thousand light tanks "63" and 800 - "62".
      http://commi.narod.ru/txt/1993/xx02.htm
      ... Copies of the Soviet BMP-1-WZ501, made from the only sample supplied to China by Egypt, with a 73-mm smooth-bore gun, four copies of the Soviet Malyutka ATGM (type 86), have just begun to enter service.
      Then now:
      6,000 MBTs, over 1 light tanks, 000 infantry fighting vehicles, 2,200 armored personnel carriers:
      OST
      4 thousand. Type-59-1 / -2, T-59 rearmed with 105-mm gun, analogue of the English L-7
      about 500 Type-88A / -V, armed with 105-mm gun
      1 Type-500, an analog of the T-96 with a 72-mm gun and automatic loader
      about 250 Type-98A / -99) the newest Chinese tank. It is a development of the concept of the Soviet T-72 tank. However, with the extension of the 72x line, the Type 99 is a breakthrough for Chinese tank building. A new welded tower was installed on the tank, the weakened zone in the area of ​​the driver’s hatch, which was present on all Soviet tanks starting with the T-64, was reduced.
      Light tanks:
      400 Type-62/621,
      400 Type-63A,
      200 Type-63.
      The number of BMPs has sharply increased - all copies of the BMP-1 are rearmed with a 30-mm cannon and, in fact, have become an analogue of the BMP-2, new ZBD-97 BMPs with the Bakhcha-U combat module are entering service. A whole family of wheeled armored personnel carriers has been created.
      Yours faithfully!.
      1. smiths xnumx
        smiths xnumx 15 August 2013 13: 05 New
        +3
        Photos of Chinese armored vehicles:
        T-59 tank, recognized by Western experts as the worst tank in the world

        Modern Chinese tank type 99

        Chinese amphibious tank type 63A

        Chinese BMP ZBD-97 with combat module "Bakhcha-U"

        Chinese wheeled armored personnel carrier Type 07PA. Something like that. Yours faithfully! hi
  5. biglow
    biglow 15 August 2013 08: 58 New
    +1
    Khramchikhin painted too kind picture
    1. biglow
      biglow 15 August 2013 12: 31 New
      +3
      Quote: biglow
      Khramchikhin painted too kind picture

      In vain, we are recklessly unrequited, China is not at all monolithic and it is not a fact that at the beginning of any military operations in China, ethnic disassemblies will not begin. China is very close to Taiwan, but they are not even trying to get it back. All conflicts with Vietnam ended in defeat for China. That's all for today that China could show by force of arms
    2. Geisenberg
      Geisenberg 15 August 2013 18: 32 New
      0
      Quote: biglow
      Khramchikhin painted too kind picture


      They paid for it and drew. Some kind of bravura article. There is a rational, but more horror stories in it.
  6. Helgus
    Helgus 15 August 2013 10: 34 New
    +3
    Moreover, in many cases there is simply no quality lag. The article "China is ready for a big war" described the battles near Heglig, in which the Ture 96 tanks shot down four T-72s without loss on their part. Ture 99, apparently, is quite at the level of T-90 or M1A2. J-11B is obviously no worse than the Su-27 or F-15C. The outcome of the battle between Chinese and Russian, or Western tanks or planes is now determined not by quality (because it is about the same), but by quantity, crew training and tactical situation. (NU! No comment ..)
    1. svp67
      svp67 15 August 2013 10: 38 New
      +2
      Quote: HELGUS
      Moreover, in many cases there is simply no quality lag.
      Yes, thank God it still exists, but not so overwhelming and numerical advantage really nullifies it ..
      1. bask
        bask 15 August 2013 11: 07 New
        +8
        China is preparing for a major land war.
        Only two directions for attack Russia Kazakhstan.
        Russia just needs to limit cooperation with China in the military technology field and stop selling the latest types of weapons.
        At the same time, it is necessary to restore the production of small and medium-range missiles with nuclear warheads.
    2. Avenger711
      Avenger711 15 August 2013 15: 52 New
      -1
      Well, probably not worse than the samples of the 80s.
  7. Arabist
    Arabist 15 August 2013 10: 58 New
    +2
    The thicker the grass grows, the easier it is to mow it. Celestial Empire does not know how to fight, history has shown it. Khramchikhin is a well-known alarmist; he is PLA dreaming of nightmares every night.
    1. Zhenya
      Zhenya 15 August 2013 13: 06 New
      0
      It’s absolutely true, even the Korean war in which the Chinese participated, showed the army’s weakness, although at that time they had both t-34s and PPSh, which was neither new nor old. ONLY ONE BUT, China has a mobilization reserve, as the whole number of our population in Russia.
      1. Hort
        Hort 15 August 2013 14: 20 New
        0
        Yes, too, a moot point. Mob reserve it is still necessary to feed and equip, and arm
      2. Avenger711
        Avenger711 15 August 2013 15: 53 New
        -2
        They did not have almost heavy equipment. Hence the loss of 100500: 1.
  8. master_rem
    master_rem 15 August 2013 11: 47 New
    +8
    I envy the Chinese - their civilizational shell did not allow the Western infection to destroy the dignity of socialism, they took only that from the West, which helped their horde to start eating and developing more or less satisfyingly ("market relations"). Only here we have to destroy everything clean and try to build anew .. it's a shame .. for the state .. (c)
  9. Standard Oil
    Standard Oil 15 August 2013 13: 21 New
    +5
    The secret of Chinese success is very simple, as an example is taken a vociferous liberal 1 piece, a TYPE 69 tank 1 piece, a liberal lies on the ground across the movement of the tank and shouts about "freedom and democracy" and other liberoid nonsense, the tank smoothly drives through the liberal (you can turn around to cause the approval of sane people), after which the remnants of the liberoid are carefully removed from the ground and the tracks of the tank and thrown into the trash, after which the tank is thoroughly disinfected and ready for further operation. In 1989, China also tried to pull off a liberal revolution, just the Chinese leaders had brains unlike the Soviet. Now, we are forced to reap the benefits of the "free market" and rely on nuclear weapons as a means of deterring China because we no longer have any other means.
  10. DZ_98_B
    DZ_98_B 15 August 2013 16: 25 New
    +3
    Why are there no publications on joint exercises between the Chinese and ours in the Chelyabinsk region? It can be seen that the Chinese technology is good. What are the Chinese friends to us? the Chinese do not carry out any flood protection measures in the Far East. just evacuate residents. which exacerbates the situation in our flood-affected territories. The Chinese are our enemies. sorry
  11. krot00f
    krot00f 15 August 2013 17: 03 New
    0
    "Stalin and Mau are listening to us.)" I would like to be friends with such a state, But they were friends before.
    1. Yankuz
      Yankuz 15 August 2013 18: 03 New
      0
      Were friends ??? What kind of friendship is it that they suddenly become so sworn enemies? It is possible that this can happen again under all kinds of (including artificial) circumstances.
  12. solomon
    solomon 15 August 2013 17: 15 New
    +2
    Quote: Mairos
    China in the event of a nuclear war will simply cease to exist


    Planet earth will cease to exist with humanity!
  13. JonnyT
    JonnyT 15 August 2013 18: 36 New
    0
    steel fists are good, it is equally important to have "steel eggs"))))
  14. wei
    wei 15 August 2013 20: 48 New
    +3
    There are 24 enterprises of the nuclear industry, 12 - of the final assembly of the rocket and space industry, nine aircraft factories of the final assembly, 14 factories for the production of armored vehicles (including three tank ones), 20 - for the assembly of artillery equipment, more than 200 - for ammunition, 23 large shipyards at 736 repair and construction sites.

    I just want to say
    but we had everything
  15. sergey158-29
    sergey158-29 15 August 2013 22: 27 New
    0
    I would take the Chinese military success very seriously!
  16. basil200
    basil200 16 August 2013 05: 18 New
    +2
    The joint exercises of ours and the Chinese in Chelyabinsk are a test and comparison of our troops and the Chinese before the fight. If ours show themselves badly, then expect trouble. China is crowded; they need a bypass valve. The question is which way.
  17. bear
    bear 16 August 2013 22: 06 New
    +1
    Do not underestimate the enemy, otherwise defeat.

    And the Chinese still go to our minds to pick up our minds to think like us
  18. Kurkin
    Kurkin 4 September 2013 15: 06 New
    0
    With China, you need to keep your ear sharp! To try by all means to play off China and the United States and in no case prevent a similar play between us and China. Also, stop transferring our advanced technologies to China and, in turn, get acquainted with their samples and technologies as much as possible. And of course we need a qualitative leap forward in the development of our production facilities. We need new "Stalin's five-year plans" and "Planned economy" in the military-industrial complex (mechanical engineering, element base, etc., etc.)