Knowing the critical direction of my work, the reader has the right to ask: were there, in my opinion, Ukrainian stories positive characters? Yes, and I myself often ask myself this question. Greedy and cunning Grushevsky, who sent the boys under Kruty, and himself escaped from Kiev, and then, when everything had settled down, begged the Bolsheviks to let him back to their homeland? Moreover, he wrote to the Soviet government that he is ready to step over the corpses of the Ukrainian heroes killed by the red ones! What is this positive character? The usual scoundrel and a crook. The first head of the Ukrainian government, Vinnychenko, who bargained in 1920 with the same red for the post already in the government of Soviet Ukraine? Goodbye and nothing else. Was his Pavel Skoropadsky his velvelovozmozhnost, who felt himself a Ukrainian only at the moment when he was offered to become a hetman and left to the whims of white officers who defended him from Petlyura? Let the hetman was intelligent, educated, witty, but he does not pull on the hero. Petlyura? But what about the fact that he came to the post of a chained dog under Pilsudski and, without batting an eye, gave Poland not only the whole legacy of Daniel of Galicia, but also promised to retain the power of Polish landowners on that curtailed, puppet Ukraine, which he promised in 1920 year from the Polish Pansky shoulder? Only a martyr's death from an assassin's bullet reconciles me with Petliura.
You rummage in memory, rummage, and only someone’s slyly smiling face with the words cries out of the dark with the words: “Mommy, they momo” ... And suddenly, at that very moment when I was ready to embrace despair, I remembered: CHIKALENKO! Yevgeny Kharlampievich Chykalenko is a Kherson landowner and philanthropist, without which, I assure you, there would be no Ukraine. His name today to the overwhelming majority of our fellow citizens does not say anything. But it is he - a man whose wealth is hardly inferior to the founder of Askania-Nova, Baron Falz-Fein, financed almost all Ukrainian ideological projects of the early twentieth century. Ukrainian newspapers and magazines came out at his expense. Students received scholarships from him. Writers are what are today called grants. And political parties are financial injections that launch them ready to stop at any time in their hearts.
Good man Immediately visible is the paternal character of Yevgeny Kharlampievich.
Chykalenko knew everyone in the close Ukrainian movement. And Hrushevsky, and Vinnichenko, and Mikhnovsky, and Sergey Efremov. In the Central Rada it is difficult to find at least someone who would not be his friend. More precisely, his "duckling", which Evgeny Kharlampievich, by his own humorous expression, "sat out." After the Falz-Fein, which harvested around, in the same places as my hero, there were Przhevalsky's ostriches and horses, and after Chykalenko - the whole zoo, which we call the national nationality.
Born in 1861, Yevgeny Chykalenko was a direct descendant of Zaporizhzhya Cossacks. After the liquidation of the Sich, some of them were transferred to the Kuban. From the other part were Bug Cossack army. It was in him that Chykalenko’s grandfather, Ivan Mikhailovich, found his place. He only served as a contract officer - a Cossack non-commissioned officer, and his cousin (cousin, as Yevgeni Kharlampievich called his sideline ancestor) was killed in the 1812 war of the year. “In the Temple of the Savior in Moscow,” wrote in the memoirs of Chykalenko, “on the walls of the virizan name of the victims in the Napoleonic vіnyu office, standing and name of the ensign Godoroi-Chykalenka, cousin of my mother”.
The land in Novorossia, as the current south of Ukraine was then called, which was conquered under Catherine II from the Crimean Khanate, cost a penny. Exports of bread gave fabulous profits. If Yevgeny Chykalenko’s grandfather was a simple contractor, his father was already one of the richest landowners in Kherson, who had served the nobility in civil service. Little Eugene was sent to study in a French guesthouse in Odessa. But there Gogol’s volume fell into his hands: “Taras Bulba was trying to save on me a hostile enemy, because I couldn’t spend my days for no reason, I’m talking about zaporozhtsіv from cheruby zhupanakh with my little assholes on my head: I’m not dead, I’m already dead, I’m already put to get it, and I’m already set to unlock it. about those who are yak bi yogogo, yak kolumb, to find a new land and go to sleep there Zaporizka Sich; But I didn’t have to enclose a long ago Zaporizhzhya, about the yak of China, I read about this ya from our pruduchnik, ale on the beast of respect. ”
Our homeland 100 years ago. Who can say that the Amazons were already transferred there?
When he arrived on vacation in his native Pereshory, Yevgeny shared his fantasies with his brother, but he cursed him and said that he would take measures, “give me a shredded wicked out quietly fantasies.” But all the subsequent long life Chykalenko will try to return the invented genius Gogol Taras Bulba to the land of Ukraine. And only Grushevskys, Vinnichenki and other “ugly ducklings” will be obtained.
Yevgeny Chykalenko's father died early. He broke up with his mother before his death, and the children were raised by his uncle, a tough and malicious realist. Studying at the Odessa boarding school, where the free son of the steppes was forced to speak French, quickly tired. The boy, who dreamed of the ideas of the resurrection of the Cossacks, was transferred to the Elisavetgrad school. There he lived in the Tobilevych family - the creators of the first Ukrainian professional theater. The three brothers of Tobilevich are the very Panas Saksagansky, Nikolai Sadovsky and Ivan Karpenko-Kary, known to schoolchildren by their stage and literary pseudonyms. And their father, Karp Tobilevich, is the prototype of the protagonist of one of the funniest Ukrainian comedies written by his son, Martyn Boruli.
As Chykalenko recalled, “he was a revolutionary literature, they were embraced by Dobrolubovim, Pisarivim, and especially Chernishevsky ...“ What is to be done? ” yak і that hero Chernishevsky. Bagato z us zahoplyuvalis so called nіgіlіzmom іdіdіdali poezіyu, music, and deyakі reached the level of proper rules of pristoynosti: for example, skid on golovnіy vulitsі choboti і dried on the desks of the bottom of the table
Could Chikalenko not remember those foot wrappers who were drying his classmates at the real school in Elisavetgrad on the sidewalk? Probably. But he loved to write the truth with all the juicy details. Therefore, the leaders of the Ukrainian liberation movement rise from the pages of his memoirs, as if they were alive. Sometimes it seems that they even smell - who is footcloths, who is soup, who is money.
The mood of the teenager Chykalenko was idealistic: “I, yak and my fellow comrades, mriyav about those, scho, yak I will grow, then I will pay my little bit to the villagers, and I will join to the peasants, to live a simple villager, I will like this way. popular masu ".
During the holidays, the future patron began to read to the village lads Taras Shevchenko and Marko Vovchok. The uncle, having learned about it, ridiculed him: “To the muzhiks chita ,sh, and the stench is stupid, tobi pid nіs”.
Chikalenko with friends. Simple and affordable "new Ukrainians" beg. XX century.
PROGRESSIVE TSARISM. Unlike the current globular patriots, Chikalenko was well aware that Ukraine arose due to ... the Russian Empire. “To the Khmelnytsky region”; on all Sibіru right up to the Green chi Gray Klin over the Great Ocean. For compensation for the service and Zasyannya, the Poles took away from us by force to enter, sing, and navigate. And the Ukrainian people, having conquered Otsyu to the great territory, we do not use the harmata, but a plow. ”
Describing the days of his youth, Chykalenko quite honestly points out the reasons for the weakness of the Ukrainian movement. Alexander II, in his words, “is a popular popular midway country of populations for visvolevlennya villagers from captivity, for a new court, zemstvo that reform,”. The murder of this tsar by the People's terrorists “settled the way against revolutionaries, as well as all the people, as well as the whole village, it seemed that they were killed by the tsar for those who were weddin.” He admits that “about the self-sufficiency of Ukraine, the sovereignty of the sovereign life of others, altogether, and the second, did not happen. The dispute of protest against protest against the decree of 1876, which was the word that was buried in Ukraine, led to the powerlessness of Ukrainians Іntelіgentsіі and I put darkness to the people. ”
All the hopes of the first “revivals” of Ukraine of 80-ies of the XIX century were that abroad would help us: “No countrymen will tolerate the future of Russia and any other country or another with this great power of power and power, but it will be a country who will have a natural environment for natural resources and naturalism. Baltics, Polschu, Ukraine і etc. And before that time, we are required to sit quietly, quietly, in the inter-allowed “...
The wise policy of Alexander III did not leave any chance for a German invasion. First of all, this king opened the Peasant Bank, in which it was possible to get cheap loans to former serfs for the purchase of land. Noble estates slowly began to pass into the hands of the fists. The peasants were so enthusiastic about the idea of personal enrichment that they were not up to a separatist Ukraine. How do you read this in Chikalenko: “Oleksandr III, having ascended to the throne, went through a fight against revolutionaries; blaming Mayzhe Zovsim Narodovoltsіv, vіn Koko reforms in the way of the peasants, abi vіdіbrati ground at the revolution. Vіn zasnuvav Selyanske land bank for pomіchchyu yakogo bagato Panska pereyshlo land in the hands of the villagers, team bіlshe scho Bulo Jews todі zaboroneno kupuvati that orenduvati earth denote vіdkinuto Bulo one of dіyalnih konkurentіv, eager for kupіvlі zemlі ".
Nevertheless, the estate of Yevgeny Kharlampievich himself was exemplary. He did business in a foreign manner, improving breeds of livestock, cultivating land, and importing American equipment: “Bazhayuchi make it easier to work with laborers, I have served myself in American affairs. The American Farmer is sitting on a plow with a Cd. I like to fall asleep, and the horse, not feeling my grandchildren, walk around, don't leave that, breathing grass, not getting lost. Bachachi tse, peasants, buvalo, seemingly me: “Our cholovik requires such a plow, a scoop of the hand, a schob of a vin, and so ... svogo krama. Spravdi, bringing most of the American people to the museum. ”
Despite the fierce sabotage of hardworking peasants of the Kherson region, who slept riding American plows and binderyards, Yevgeny Chykalenko, the leader of capitalist production, managed to ensure that even the commission of the Imperial Ministry of Agriculture and State Property recognized that the landowner Chykalenko’s economy was “extremely correct and skilful,” and him for that golden breastplate.
Unfortunately, the innovator was forced to admit that his progressive undertakings have no effect on the households of his fellow villagers: “I went to see that villagers didn’t care for any half of the population, they could easily go through them through to the great gospodrastvi ... Meni became obvious, just the little fields of the small fields, rose not much for the middle peasant, they could put up a gifted state on the selyanski. ”
"Motors". These people Chikalenko brought mowers from America
After that, Chykalenko began to reduce his own plowing and lease the land to the peasants for a quarter of the crop. But he gave allotments only with the condition that they maintained compulsory crop rotation, and the land was cultivated by the same methods and tools as with the pan. The advanced landlord even gave out to tenants the best varieties of seeds. At first, peasants, accustomed to work for hire, reluctantly expanded their farms. They even had to persuade to take the land for rent! But gradually the men got involved, felt a taste for independent housekeeping and stopped dozing in the comfortable seats of American plows.
A TOAD IS NOT SLEEPED! Most of the profits from his estate Chykalenko invested in his hobby - the creation of Ukraine. But things were moving extremely tight. It came, say, once in the head to the patron of the arts to donate 1000 rubles (a huge amount for those times - 200 monthly salaries of a junior officer!) To write the popular history of Ukraine in one volume. The editorial staff of the “Kievskaya otnina” magazine willingly accepted this money and announced a competition. But no one at the appointed time wrote a book, and did not even sit down for it! Only by the ear of his ear, Chykalenko heard that the story of Ukraine in one volume was written by the “Katsapka” from under Murmansk, Alexander Stavrovskaya, the spouse of the Ukrainian historian Efimenko. Good Chykalenko ordered to pay her an advance. But when Mrs. Efimenko finished her work, the envious people from the “Kiev Antiquity” headed by professors Hrushevsky and Antonovich declared that it was written “not from those” positions, and refused to publish the book. So the toad crushed the first popular history of Ukraine for children.
If you only knew how much again Evgeny Chykalenko had to get into such situations! He will give money to potential Taras Bulbam on Ukrainian Ukrainian, and they will steal it or skip it.
Just a hundred years ago, philanthropist Yevgeny Chykalenko was confronted with the fact that no one understands his newspaper in the “Ukrainian language”, and on the Right Bank they do not know who Taras Shevchenko is.
Postcard Vasily Gulak. Technology invaded the life of traditional Ukraine in the early twentieth century
Before the 1905 revolution, the territory of Little Russia, as Ukraine was officially called in the Russian Empire, was not newspapers printed in the Ukrainian language. It seemed to the workers of the “Ukrainians” that as soon as the censorship barriers would fall, the Ukrainian-language press would immediately gain widespread popularity. Sincerely hoped for this and Yevgeny Chykalenko. Moreover, he became the sponsor of the first such newspaper, Gromadska Dumka. In fact, she came out at the expense of “injections” of Yevgeny Kharlampievich and another patron of the arts - the sugar producer Vasyl Simirenko.
Gromadska Dumka began to appear at the end of 1905 of the year. Having pecked at the novelty, at first whole 4093 people subscribed to it. Six months later, their number fell to 1509. The editorial squabbles began. Who is guilty?
Boris Grinchenko, a very ambitious and uncivilable compiler of the first dictionary of the Ukrainian language, argued that the newspaper was not successful, because it was “not Ukrainian but not Russian, but written in Ukrainian,” and demanded that the editor Matushevsky be changed. The editor replied that no more than a thousand people were interested in narrow Ukrainian issues, while the rest required information from the newspaper, which all of Russia lives.
Some expressed the idea that Gromadska Dumka failed because it prints the belated information and cannot compete with the Russian-language Kiev thought, which is literally packed with telegrams from its own correspondents from all over the world.
MOVA NOT FOR EVERYONE. Chikalenko grabbed his head. In the end, he gave money to this company, and he suffered the main losses. As a businessman, Yevgeny Kharlampievich tried to understand the reason for the escape of readers. And he came to a paradoxical conclusion. The “Ukrainian” language of the Gromadskoi Dumka was not understood by the Ukrainians themselves. The editors, following the example of the Galician newspapers, scored articles in Polish and German words - as long as they did not look like Russians. But a simple Ukrainian didn’t understand all this nonsense, as he doesn’t understand today all these “Lentites” and “eters” with which our television fools the audience.
Chikalenko was an honest man. Therefore, in his memoirs, describing the failure of the first Ukrainian-language newspaper, he admitted: “Mova our newspapers are a foreigner for them, it’s the people who bother you, they wanted our press”.
No developed literary language, understandable to the majority of "Ukrainians", did not exist! Here is an excerpt from the memoirs of Evgeny Chykalenko: “One villager-Poltavets, P. Opravhat, a great nationalist, we feel pity for me, but we’re very different from our newspapers like some words, words, people, and Iyh ones, I’їhhyhyhyhyhykhykhykhykhykhi nykhi, our naze newspaper, looking at them Navi taku phrase from the newspaper: "Not Varto bulo v'yaznev tikati, more on the bramі stood Varta." Viyavilosya, scho on Poltavschinі not rozumіyut slіv: not Varto, v'yazen, Brahma and Varta. Okrіm addition, bagato shkodiv і spelling: all the sounds before the Russian і do not immediately pick up our newspapers and shoot them throw її and do not want read. ”
But also people who were educated, for example, the Poltava landowner Bobir-Bokhanovsky, according to Chykalenko, complained to him about the fictional language of “Gromadskoi Dumka”: “How are you talking? Tse in Croatian abo Slovakia, not in our own way: well, read it yourself, I would like to tell you the statute: “Suspended steering wheel for an hour by typing such force, tidying up a uniform, just like ours, and so on. Well, hto rozbere qiu phrase? Scho is also "suspicion", scho is also "ruh"?
Polsya moyh explanation vіn і kazhe:
“From i i bulo so i skazat:“ For the time being, our motions took the same form and form, our government ”and so on.”
Reflecting on the cause of embarrassment, Chykalenko came to the conclusion that readers disappeared not only because “our newspaper was a foreigner for them”, but also because, as he put it, “people in Ukraine are not alike : Poltavtsi not rozumіyut i oburyyuyutsya words podіlskimi, Navi Kiev. In fact, back in the early twentieth century, Ukraine was not inhabited by a single people, but by several tribes that spoke similar dialects: Volhynians, Podolyans, Poltava people, Chernigov ... They didn’t even understand each other - especially, urgently invented by intellectuals torn from the people ".
Bakhmach beginning of the last century. Anyone can compare how this railway station has changed today.
Neither simple folk, nor educated intelligent Ukraine did not perceive that artificial “Ukrainian” language, which the tiny group of nationalists half-crazed on their ideas invented in spite of everyone!
The future “Ukrainians” did not know, and who Taras Shevchenko was. The same Chikalenko (Ukrainizer from Ukrainisers - threw tens of thousands of tsarist rubles to his pansy plan, so as not to be bored!) Recalled, not without humor, how before the revolution he traveled around to promote his ideas on railways in the third-class carriage - along with the people - and specifically kept the Kobzar deployed: “I didn’t read a book on the right bank roads of the country, I’m reading a book if I’d deprived the Kobzar of my bluff; once in the lvivoberezhny roads, once the villagers fed me about a book, I held the powers in my hands, I asked to read ... ”Trying to find an explanation for this phenomenon, Chykalenko concluded that Shevchenko often visited and lived in Poltava region for a long time. There at least something heard about him. And for the so-called Right-Bank Ukraine, he remained completely unknown - a stranger.
The memoirs and diaries of Yevgeny Chykalenko are being silenced today precisely for this reason. They eloquently testify that there was no all-Ukrainian folk cult of the “Great Kobzar” (it was only the Bolsheviks-Ukrainisers who planted it on top through the school in 20-s), but what we now call “the sovereign land” was not understood even by Ukrainian peasants, in the name of which the figures of “advancement” allegedly worked.
In addition, the content of “Gromadskoi Dumka” contradicted the views of potential subscribers. Chikalenko admitted that she “took the tone of a zadan vorozhiy up to all the late classes to the clergy і put the stilted tilka to a robtnik tv to the village, and didn’t know a newspaper about the newspaper, because they were illiterate, they didn’t know much about the newspaper, they didn’t know about the newspaper, because they were illiterate, they didn’t read the newspaper, they didn’t know about the newspaper, because they were illiterate, they didn’t know much about the newspaper, they didn’t know about the newspaper, because they were illiterate, they didn’t know much about the newspaper, they didn’t know about the newspaper, because they were illiterate, they didn’t know much about the newspaper, they didn’t know about the newspaper, because they were illiterate, they didn’t read the newspaper, they didn’t know about the newspaper.
Immediately after the emergence of the Ukrainian movement, a split between Ukrainians and Galicians sharply became apparent in it. They were separated by the border of two empires, faith, psychology and financial capabilities. "Ukrainian Piedmont" - then, as today, was a subsidized region. He did not earn anything - he just ate. In fact, philanthropists from the so-called Russian Ukraine contained cultural societies on the territory of Galicia — first of all, the NTSh (“Naukova obshchestvo іm. Shevchenko”). For their money, the Academic House in Lviv was built. Vasily Simirenko only in 1912 year gave 100 thousand gold rubles to the chairman of the NTSH, Mikhail Hrushevsky for these purposes. This sugar factory paid Ukrainian organizations 10-interest tax on all their income!
Yevgeny Chykalenko also did not stint: “If prof. M. Grushevsky zakryt Kimnati in Cherku igu і with such a robe pong buli used to be a cheap apartment. ”
Simirenko. Financed everything!
UKRAINE DAVAL, GALICHINA PROPOSED. But, having become acquainted with the situation in Galicia closer, Yevgeny Kharlampievich experienced severe disappointment: “, we were, we were, we were, we were sad, we were sad, we were alone, I was a little bit crazy, I had a lot of help from students from Galicia students, I’m stuck with the Poles, I’m still here. they turned me down to the heart of the world; Todi Naz Ivano on the Great Ukraine, Galicia, Kudi Avstriya Vykryad wikidav their naygiryh uryadovtsіv.
The rich landowner Yevgeny Chykalenko was economically completely independent. He could have fought against the Russian Empire as much as he wanted, but the tsarist government sacredly objected to his economic interests as a Russian nobleman. Owner Pereshor was not worried about his career, he didn’t curry favor with the powerful, and didn’t bend his back to anyone. And there were a lot of Ukrainians like him in Russia: Tereshchenk, Tarnovsky, Skoropadsky, hundreds of families of Little Russian nobility, peasants who get rich from the fat lands of the former Hetmanate and New Russia.
A completely different situation was in Galicia. The land here belonged to Polish nobles, trade to Jewish financiers, and power to Austrian officials. Even then, Galicia experienced in miniature that today, like a cancer, it eats the whole of Ukraine - Europe managed it directly, while hundreds of thousands of Galicians fled to emigration, not knowing how they would feed their families. Drapali up to Canada and the United States. It has predetermined those features of Galicia, which Chikalen has vigorously observed: yarnyah, pіtkami about senior political dіyachіv that fight with the Poles for planting, linked with material interests. “It is most important to those who yak yak" stoit "materially, hto yak" situations ", yak to yog" realism ", tobto power, matok".
To Chikalenko himself, his patronage of art brought only losses. The new newspaper, “Rada”, which he undertook to finance on equal footing with Vasily Simirenko, turned out to be a bottomless breakthrough, which annually consumed tens of thousands of rubles. And 20 August 1910, Chikalenko writes in his diary: “I’m vzhe myself before myself is embarrassed, so I’m once and again in words, and in the sheets I’m not disdained, I’m glad I’m glad,” , I vzhe other ryk pozichuyu groshі, schob pay defitsiti on the newspaper ... I asked to get me here on the preferential minds 10 tisyach rub. before 1913 rock. "
ALL FOR THE FAVORITE "BACTERIA"! We had to look for sponsors and sow, as Chykalenko put it, “a bacterium of Ukrainians” among neighbors. Some showed interest, but not too active. Having propagated the wealthy landowner Ivan Yanevsky from Tarashchansky, whose father became a millionaire from a simple peasants ’trade center, Chykalenko writes in his 27 August 1909 diary: I know that it’s real, because of our rozmov, ala goodbye, Yanevskiy obytsyav buvati u me. Obviously, the bacterium of the Ukrainian Peninsula settled in Nyomu and I assisted the giblets of the reaguvaty ... Yanevsky was hanging out, because he had felt for the warriors of the Ukrainian National Security Council. Let's start! Ale, in a word with him, without having pulled on a word, I’m working together to get a call on the “Rada”, I don’t want to forget about it and I’m not aware of it. Hell, if it is known, ”.
The newspaper "Rada". Both her and Gromadska Dumka were not understood by Ukrainians
“The bacterium of the Ukrainians,” despite all the financial injections into it, went well into growth only during the First World War. The monstrous mistake of the three empires - Austro-Hungarian, Russian and German - put an end to economic growth and prosperity. Fronts and millions of human victims have caused frustration in traditional monarchical power. Only on this basis of the decomposition of the body (what if this is so!) The flowers of various nationalisms — Czech, Polish and, naturally, Ukrainian — rose. But the dreams that became reality did not greatly delight the patron. On the very first day of 1919, when the Petliura Directory is joyfully greeting the New Year seized from hetman Skoropadsky, the following note appears in Chykalenko’s diary: “One student a year, to serve in the military party, announcing the contrasts of Vinnnichenko in life. On vartі in palatsі stink golodnі, holodnі Bacha, yak Direktorії gotuyutsya vsyakі rozkіshnі Jedlo, podayutsya wine in takіy kіlkostі scho member Direktorії Andrіїvsky Schodnya Taqiy p'yany scho Ledwith on his feet holds, obviously takі "Contrast" is not pіdnіmayut vlastі authority. It’s not a bad thing for a Jew to appear in the editorial offices of Novaya Radi: “Recently, all the people followed Petlyuroy, and now a dozen high-school students will not go!”
Already in exile in 1921, in Baden, Chykalenko sadly stated: “I guess I wondered if Petlyuri couldn’t be so brave about it, if I’ve gotten Ukraine to stand on вол i’m chol. Ukrainian nikoli not make up on that, scob on choli grip and yak autocrat bwv ixhnіy cholovik, yak tse vzhe buvalo at the protest of our history ... Our power, yak i kolis, may zuduvati tilki yakis Varyag. I am wondering, at Petliuri, you will be rozumu, patriotismu to those who are, who will be able to go to Ukraine, to set up Zboriv, to ask you, to ask you English, Swedish, chi, may, and to the Royal King, who will come, who will be married, will come, and he will be able to do this, he will come to work. bi to us power. Without the prince Yakogos, the desire “vidy foolish” mi power will not be forgotten, - it’s clear to me now. ”
Such was the sad result of the great sower of the “bacteria of the Ukrainians” - a Ukrainian from God - Yevhen Kharlampievich Chykalenko. He died in Prague in the 1929 year. In extreme poverty. Fully ravaged by the gambling passion of his life. But I would not throw a stone at him. Similarly, and even worse, thousands of other landowners, who had no hobbies besides dog hunting, ended up. The revolution took everything away from them. And after Chykalenko there were memoirs and two volumes of the most talented diaries with honest evidence of the fruits of his breeding activity: “Bachiv masu ukrainitsiv, i bagato mіzh them“ ugly utyonkov ”, sc i vididiv in Radi і for the sake of witting chervonіti.
Oddly enough, but for me this phrase sounds quite optimistic. After all, the swans, according to Andersen, appear precisely from ugly ducklings. But I don’t believe in any "Vikings". Happiness is gained only by your own mind.