We went to power to hang, but we had to hang in order to come to power
The stream of articles and notes about the "good Father-father", the noble white movement and the red ghouls opposing them are not impoverished. I'm not going to speak for one or the other side. Just give the facts. Just the bare facts, taken from public sources, and nothing more. Tsar Nicholas II, who renounced the throne, was arrested by 2 March 1917, General Mikhail Alekseev, the head of his staff. Tsaritsa and the family of Nicholas II were arrested on March 7 by General Lavr Kornilov, commander of the Petrograd Military Institution. Yes, yes, those very future heroes of the white movement ...
The government of Lenin, who assumed responsibility for the country in November-17, offered the Romanov family a visit to their relatives — to London, but the British royal family REFUSED them in permission to move to England.
The overthrow of the king was greeted by all of Russia. “Even close relatives of Nicholas fastened red bows to the chest,” writes historian Heinrich Joffe. Grand Duke Michael, to whom Nicholas had intended to transfer the crown, refused the throne. The Russian Orthodox Church, having committed an oath to the church on oath of allegiance, welcomed the news of the denial of the king.
Russian officer. 57% was supported by the white movement, of which 14 thousands later switched to red. 43% (75 thousand people) - immediately went for the Reds, that is, ultimately - more than half of the officers supported the Soviet power.
For the first several months after the October uprising in Petrograd and Moscow, it was not for nothing that they were called “the triumphal march of the Soviet power”. From 84 provincial and other major cities only in 15, it was established as a result of armed struggle. “At the end of November, in all the cities of the Volga region, the Urals and Siberia, the power of the Provisional Government no longer existed. She passed almost without any resistance into the hands of the Bolsheviks, everywhere Soviets were formed, ”says Major General Ivan Akulinin in his memoirs“ The Orenburg Cossack army in the fight against the Bolsheviks 1917-1920 ”. “Just at this time,” he writes further, “front-line units — shelves and batteries — arrived at the Army from the Austro-Hungarian and Caucasian fronts, but it turned out to be absolutely impossible to count on their help: they didn’t want to hear about the armed struggle against the Bolsheviks ".
Russian officers were divided in their sympathies ...
How, under such circumstances, Soviet Russia suddenly found itself in the ring of fronts? But how: from the end of February - the beginning of March 1918, the imperialist powers of both coalitions fighting in world war launched a massive armed invasion of our territory.
18 February 1918, German and Austro-Hungarian forces (around 50 divisions) launched an offensive from the Baltic to the Black Sea. For two weeks they occupied huge spaces.
3 March 1918 was signed the Brest Peace, but the Germans did not stop. Taking advantage of the agreement with the Central Council (by then already firmly established in Germany), they continued their offensive in Ukraine, March 1 overthrew the Soviet power in Kiev and moved further east and south to Kharkov, Poltava, Yekaterinoslav, Nikolaev, Kherson and Odessa .
On March 5, German troops under the command of Major General von der Goltz invaded Finland, where they soon overthrew the Finnish Soviet government. April 18 German troops invaded the Crimea, and April 30 captured Sevastopol.
By mid-June, more than 15 thousand German troops with aviation and artillery was in Transcaucasia, including 10 thousand people in Poti and 5 thousand in Tiflis (Tbilisi).
Turkish troops operated in the Caucasus from mid-February.
9 March 1918, the English landing force entered Murmansk under the pretext ... of the need to protect military warehouses from the Germans.
April 5 Japanese troops landed in Vladivostok, but under the pretext of ... protecting Japanese citizens "from banditry" in this city.
May 25 - the performance of the Czechoslovak Corps, which echelons were between Penza and Vladivostok.
It is necessary to take into account that the “whites” (generals Alekseev, Kornilov, Anton Denikin, Peter Wrangel, Admiral Alexander Kolchak), who played their part in overthrowing the tsar, repudiated the oath of the Russian Empire, but did not accept the new power, starting the struggle for their own rule in Russia.
Landing Entente in Arkhangelsk, August 1918 of the year
In the south of Russia, where "Russian liberation forces" acted mainly, the situation was veiled by the Russian form of the "White Movement". Ataman "Don troops" Peter Krasnov, when he was shown the "German orientation" and set as an example of "volunteers" Denikin, replied: "Yes, yes, gentlemen! The volunteer army is pure and infallible.
But this is me, the Don chieftain, with my dirty hands I take German shells and cartridges, wash them in the waves of the quiet Don and transfer them to the Volunteer Army in neat ways! The whole shame of this business lies with me! ”
Kolchak Alexander Vasilievich, the beloved "romantic hero" of the modern "intelligentsia." Kolchak, breaking the oath of the Russian Empire, the first on the Black Sea navy swore allegiance to the Provisional Government. Upon learning of the October Revolution, he handed the British Ambassador a request for admission to the English army. The Ambassador, after consultations with London, handed Kolchak direction to the Mesopotamian Front. On the way there, in Singapore, he was overtaken by the telegram of the Russian envoy to China, Nikolai Kudashev, who invited him to Manchuria to form Russian military units.
So, by August 1918, the armed forces of the RSFSR were completely or almost completely opposed by foreign troops. “It would be a mistake to think that throughout this year we fought on the fronts for the cause of the Russians hostile to the Bolsheviks. On the contrary, the Russian White Guards fought for OUR business, ”Winston Churchill wrote later.
White liberators or murderers and robbers? Doctor historical Heinrich Ioffe in the journal "Science and Life" No. 12 for 2004 - and this magazine has managed to be noted for its ardent anti-Sovietism in recent years - in an article about Denikin he writes: , robberies, terrible Jewish pogroms ... ".
About the atrocities of the troops of Kolchak are legends. The number of people killed and tortured in Kolchak dungeons did not give in to counting. Only in Yekaterinburg province, about 25 thousands of people were shot.
“In Eastern Siberia, horrible murders were committed, but they were not committed by the Bolsheviks, as I usually thought I would not be mistaken if I say,” the American general William Sydney Grevs later admitted as an eyewitness to those events, “that for every person killed by the Bolsheviks, there were 100 people, killed by anti-Bolshevik elements. "
The “ideology” of the whites in this question was clearly expressed by General Kornilov:
“We went to power to hang, but we had to hang in order to come to power” ...
Americans and Scots guard the prisoners of the Red Army in Bereznik
The "allies" of the white movement - the British, French and other Japanese - brought everything: metal, coal, bread, machinery and equipment, engines and furs. They hijacked civilian steamboats and locomotives. Until October, only Germans exported 1918 52 thousand tons of grain and fodder, 34 thousand tons of sugar, 45 million eggs, 53 thousand horses and 39 thousand cattle from October to October XNUMX. There was a large-scale looting of Russia.
And about the atrocities (no less bloody and massive - no one argues) of the Red Army and the KGB in the writings of the democratic press. This text is intended solely to dispel the illusions of those who admire the romance and nobility of the “white knights of Russia”. There was dirt, blood and suffering. War and revolution cannot bring anything else ...
"The White Terror in Russia" is the name of the book by the famous historian, doctor of historical sciences Pavel Golub. The documents and materials of stone on stone collected in it do not leave from widely circulating in the media and publications on the historical theme of fiction and myths.
There was everything: from demonstrations of the power of the interventionists to execution by the Czechs of the Red Army
We begin with the allegations of cruelty and bloodthirstiness of the Bolsheviks, who, they say, at the slightest opportunity destroyed their political opponents. In fact, the leaders of the Bolshevik Party became firmly and uncompromisingly treat them as they learned the hard way about the need for decisive measures. But at the beginning, a certain credulity and even carelessness was manifested. After all, in just four months, October triumphantly marched from one region to another in a vast country, which was made possible thanks to the support of the Soviets' power by the overwhelming majority of the people. Hence the hope that her opponents themselves are aware of the obvious. Many leaders of the counter-revolution, as is evident from the documentary materials — generals Krasnov, Vladimir Marushevsky, Vasily Boldyrev, prominent political figure Vladimir Purishkevich, ministers of the Provisional Government Alexei Nikitin, Kuzma Gvozdev, Semyon Maslov, and many others — were released on fair word, although their hostility to the new government is not in doubt.
These gentlemen violated their word by taking an active part in the armed struggle, in organizing provocations and sabotage against their people. The generosity shown in relation to the obvious enemies of the Soviet power turned into thousands and thousands of additional victims, the sufferings and torments of hundreds of thousands of people who supported the revolutionary changes. And then the leaders of the Russian communists drew the inevitable conclusions - they knew how to learn from their mistakes ...
Tomsk citizens transfer the bodies of the executed participants of the anti-Kolchak uprising
Having come to power, the Bolsheviks did not ban the activities of their political opponents. They were not arrested, allowed to publish their newspapers and magazines, hold rallies and marches, etc. The people's socialists, Social Revolutionaries and Mensheviks continued their legal activities in the bodies of the new government, starting with the local Soviets and ending with the CEC. And again, only after the transition of these parties to an open armed struggle against the new system of their faction by the decree of the CEC from June 14 of 1918, were excluded from the Soviets. But even after that, the opposition parties continued to act legally. Only those organizations or persons who were convicted of specific subversive actions were punished.
Excavations of a grave in which the victims of Kolchak's repressions are buried March 1919, Tomsk, 1920 year
As shown in the book, it was the White Guards who represented the interests of the overthrown exploiting classes who initiated the civil war. And the impetus to it, as Denikin, one of the leaders of the white movement, admitted, was a mutiny of the Czechoslovak Corps, largely caused and supported by Russia's western “friends”. Without the help of these “friends,” the white-headed leaders, and then the White Guard generals, would never have achieved serious success. And the interventionists themselves actively participated both in operations against the Red Army and in terror against the insurgent people.
Kolchak's victims in Novosibirsk, 1919 year
The “civilized” Czechoslovak punishers dealt with their “Slav brothers” with fire and bayonet, literally erasing whole villages and villages from the face of the earth. In Yeniseisk alone, for example, over 700 people were shot for sympathizing with the Bolsheviks - almost a tenth of those living there. During the suppression of the uprising of prisoners of the Aleksandrovsky transfer prison in September 1919, the Czechs shot them point-blank with machine guns and cannons. The massacre lasted three days, at the hands of the executioners about 600 people died. And there are a great many such examples.
Bolsheviks killed by the Czechs near Vladivostok
By the way, foreign interventionists actively promoted the deployment of new concentration camps on Russian territory for those who opposed the occupation or sympathized with the Bolsheviks. Concentration camps began to be created by the Provisional Government. This is an indisputable fact, which is also silent about the revealers of the Communists' bloody atrocities. When French and British troops landed in Arkhangelsk and Murmansk, one of their leaders, General Puhl, on behalf of the Allies, solemnly promised to northerners to ensure “the triumph of law and justice” on the occupied territory. However, almost immediately after these words a concentration camp was organized on the island captured by the interventionists. Here are the testimonies of those who happened to be there: “Several people died every night, and their corpses remained in the barracks until the morning. And in the morning a French sergeant appeared and maliciously inquired: “How many Bolsheviks are kaput today?”. Of the percent 50 sharpened on Mudyug, people lost their lives, many went crazy ... ”.
American invader poses near the corpse of the murdered Bolshevik
After the withdrawal of the Anglo-French invaders, the power in the north of Russia passed into the hands of the White Guard General Yevgeny Miller. He not only continued, but also intensified repressions and terror, trying to stop the rapidly developing process of “Bolshevization of the masses”. Their most inhuman impersonation was the exiled convict prison in Iokanga, which one of the prisoners described as “the most brutal, sophisticated method of extermination of people by a slow, painful death”. Here are excerpts from the memories of those who miraculously survived in this hell: "The dead lay on the bunk with the living, and the living were no better than the dead: dirty, covered with scabs, ragged, alive, decaying, they presented a horrible picture."
Red Army prisoner at work, Arkhangelsk, 1919 year
By the time Iokangi was freed from whites, out of a thousand and a half prisoners, there were 576 people out of which 205 could no longer move.
The system of such concentration camps, as shown in the book, was deployed in Siberia and the Far East by Admiral Kolchak - perhaps the most cruel of all the White Guard rulers. They were created both on the basis of prisons, and in those camps of prisoners of war that were built by the Provisional Government. In more than 40 concentration camps, the regime drove almost a million (914178) people who rejected the restoration of the pre-revolutionary order. About 75, thousands of people who were languishing in white Siberia, should be added to this. More than 520 of thousands of prisoners, the regime hijacked the slave, almost unpaid work in enterprises and in agriculture.
However, neither in Solzhenitsyn's “GULAG Archipelago”, nor in the writings of his followers Alexander Yakovlev, Dmitry Volkogonov and others - not a word about this monstrous archipelago. Although the same Solzhenitsyn begins his "Archipelago" from the civil war, painting the "Red Terror". A classic example of a lie by simple default!
American Bolshevik Hunters
In the anti-Soviet literature on the civil war a lot is written about the “barges of death”, which, they say, were used by the Bolsheviks to crack down on the White Guard officers. The book of Pavel Golub cites facts and documents indicating that the “barges” and “death trains” began to be actively and massively used by the White Guards. When in the autumn of the 1918 of the year on the eastern front, they began to suffer defeat from the Red Army, to Siberia, and then “barges” and “death trains” with prisoners of prison and concentration camps reached the Far East.
When the “death trains” were in Primorye, they were visited by the American Red Cross. One of them, Buekeli, wrote in his diary: “Until the moment when we found this terrible caravan in Nikolsk, 800 passengers died of starvation, dirt and disease ... I saw corpses of people whose bodies were eaten away by parasites during their lifetime, until they died after months of daily excruciating torture from hunger, dirt, and cold. I swear to God, I do not exaggerate! ... In Siberia, horror and death at every step on such a scale that they would shake the hardest heart ... ".
Horror and death — that was what the White Guard generals carried to the people who rejected the pre-revolutionary regime. And this is not a nonfiction exaggeration. Kolchak himself frankly wrote about the “vertical of command” he created: “The activity of the heads of district militias, special forces, all kinds of commandants, and heads of individual detachments is a complete crime.” It would be good to reflect on these words to those who today admire the “patriotism” and “selflessness” of the white movement, which, in contrast to the Red Army, defended the interests of “Great Russia”.
Prisoners of the Red Army in Arkhangelsk
As far as the “red terror” is concerned, its dimensions were completely incomparable with white, and it was mostly of a reciprocal nature. This was recognized even by General Grevs, commander of the 10-thousandth American corps in Siberia.
And so it was not only in Eastern Siberia. So it was all over Russia.
However, the frank confessions of the American general by no means relieve him of the guilt for participating in the massacres of the people who rejected the pre-revolutionary order. The terror against him was carried out by the joint efforts of foreign interventionists and the White armies.
There were a total of more than a million invaders in Russia — 280 thousands of Austro-German bayonets and about 850 thousands of British, American, French and Japanese. The joint attempt of the White Guard armies and their foreign allies to make Russian “Thermidor” cost the Russian people, even according to incomplete data, very expensive: about 8 millions killed, tortured in concentration camps who died from wounds, hunger and epidemics. According to experts, the material losses of the country amounted to an astronomical figure - 50 billion gold rubles ...