In 1986, as the head of the Main Directorate of one of the country's defense ministries, under the direction of the government, it was necessary for me to organize and conduct staff exercises to organize the production of military goods produced by Glavka’s enterprises as if in a “special period”. The government wanted to make sure that the current management system, effective organization of production in defense enterprises, production flexibility and technology were working. It was necessary to manage the process of “introductory” training with a production association located in Chelyabinsk. For communication with enterprises of the country, all types of communications were available to the headquarters: secret telephone, HF, spark, teletype. Readers will be interested in the fact that more than 120 thousands of specialists worked at the enterprises of Glavka then. Having finished the exercises, we reported the results to the Minister, but the second secretary of the Chelyabinsk regional committee of the party, Shvyrev Nikolai Dmitrievich, also wanted to meet them. I asked that when I spoke at the Obkom of the party, Ileiko Vitaly Mikhailovich and the instructor of the defense department of the Central Committee of the CPSU, who had recently arrived for this work from Leningrad, Kozin Boris Sergeevich, and specially flown to me in Chelyabinsk, came to me. The conversation turned out to be informative and defined many areas for the development of enterprises in the region to enable the use of defense technologies in the production of civilian products. During our conversation, Shvyrev picked up the phone to communicate with the First Secretary and briefly reported the results of what he heard. Immediately followed by an order to go to him only with me. Ileiko and Kozin remained in the office of the Second Secretary, the assistant brought them tea so that they could drink it while we were away. Gennady Georgievich Vedernikov was already waiting for us, he was walking around the office and when we entered, he was smiling, greeted. I knew about him only from the words of Vitaly Mikhailovich as a person who had repeatedly visited the Production Association and helped to develop new products for civilian use. For some reason, he personally was engaged in this business, apparently realizing a great future for the country in this domestic product. When Gennady G. listened to the results of which I reported, he looked intently into my eyes and asked:
- Yuri G., where were you at the beginning of the war?
I did not understand Vedernikov’s question and asked again:
- What did you have to be different? - again the question followed.
“Yes, I had to,” I replied.
At the beginning of the Great Patriotic War was with his mother in Belarus. With the retreating troops of the Red Army, in early July 1941 returned home to Leningrad, at the Bottom station for the first time came under bombing. At the end of August, the mother was evacuated to Siberia with the plant. Father already fought on the Leningrad front and died in December 1941 of the year. Mother worked until 1944 here in Siberia and after lifting the blockade in the same 1944 year, we returned to Leningrad.
- Yes, you had to sip grief, - said Vedernikov somehow quietly. - You see, Yuri Grigorievich, in the “special period” that you analyze, there is a role for specialists and a special role, as it should be noted. So?
- You are absolutely right, Gennady Georgievich, but on the instructions and “introductory” this was not entrusted to us. Although we could prepare this section and especially reflect the role of our mothers, who, releasing products for the fronts, still managed to preserve and raise a whole generation of children for the country.
“So do it,” said Vedernikov. - We will be your first advisers and consultants.
- But, Gennady Georgievich, I have to report this to the Minister. I will do it myself, smiling, said Vedernikov. - Moreover, I have long wanted to talk to him.
He walked over to the table, picked up a reference book and dialed Peter Stepanovich’s number on the HF unit. The minister was in the office. His assistant, Strelkov, Aleksey Ivanovich, answered and then handed the phone to the Minister.
- Pyotr Stepanovich I have Shatrakov with Shvyrev, we briefly discussed the results of the “exercise” entrusted to you by the government, and I think that Yuri Grigorievich should stay with us for five days and submit another section to the report on specialists in the “special period”. Will you mind?
Then the Minister said something, then Gennady Georgievich said goodbye to him, put the phone on the phone and said:
- We have agreed to. Nikolai Dmitrievich, instruct the head. department to prepare with Yuri Grigorievich plan a report on this section. Then you show it to me. Yes, Yuri Grigorievich, the Minister asked you to contact him when you return to the union to Ileiko.
We went out, each of us had our own mood. Shvyrev, apparently, thought that in the region it would be possible to develop a network of institutions for working with specialists, and I evaluated how it would be possible in this situation to use the experience gained in mastering the production of a new state recognition system, command radio links, frequency and time standards for spacecraft and fleet, radio navigation and landing systems, radio avionics for aircraft, computer technology for command centers, flight control systems for aircraft, flight simulators. Then I had to send specialists from different enterprises to Grodno, Kuznetsk, Kiev, Gorky, Leningrad, Saransk, Makhachkala, Izberbash, Almetyevsk, Leninogorsk, Khmelnitsky and myself to be at all these enterprises to help managers in completing tasks.
It was a difficult time, but interesting. The country has evolved. Constantly was on business trips, but the youth wrote off everything. Well at least the wife of the house coped with all the affairs and children, my mother helped her, coming from Leningrad.
We returned to the office of Nikolai Dmitrievich. Shvyrev spoke about the new “introductory”, and immediately agreed on the question that I was in the evening with the manager. I will cure the department in Tyumen for one day, and then we will submit proposals to Vedernikov.
- Why in Tyumen? - Ileiko asked.
- You see, Vitaly Mikhailovich, there is now a very interesting system unfolding in the oil industry to mobilize specialists for the extraction of liquid fuels. About two weeks ago with the First Secretary of the Tyumen Regional Party Committee, Grigory Mikhailovich Goloschapov, we agreed to visit them, and then there was a chance. Let Yuri Grigorievich professionally prepare ideas, and we will have to accept or supplement them.
I returned to the union with Ileiko, Boris Sergeyevich returned by evening flight to Moscow. My conversation with the Minister was in the form of instructions for me and the teams to report everything. Before flying to Tyumen, a whole group of specialists was assembled to prepare proposals for a personnel strategy. There were proposals to comply with instructions, as well as preparing the production of new products. Lists of required specialties must be established, the number of jobs, the availability of trained specialists in the field, a list of enterprises from where specialists will be sent, possible training places and training dates should be estimated. All these proposals should be adjusted with technological maps for the production of products. A separate issue denoted the volume of military missions for the acceptance of products. Now there are proposals and estimates of the number of necessary social institutions: day nurseries, kindergartens, schools, etc. The question itself arose, and how the leaders of the state and regions prepared all this in that real “special” period in Siberia 45 years ago. Then, having relocated the enterprises and specialists, the government of the country withdrew from Moscow and the People's Commissariat for the possibility of organizing the production of weapons on the spot, in the immediate vicinity of the production. Already in 1941, the People's Commissariats appeared in Chelyabinsk: tank industry, ammunition and secondary engineering. The city immediately crossed the line of five hundred thousandths, and the workers of the People's Commissariats, together with the specialists of the enterprises, could live day and night only by caring - how to give the front everything they needed. No wonder that time Chelyabinsk was called “Tankograd”. At present, apparently recalling the good traditions of the past, the apparatus of the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Navy, as well as the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, has already been transferred to St. Petersburg from the capital closer to the centers of the shipbuilding industry and the sea. The Moscow government plans to transfer a number of departments outside the Moscow Ring Road, and a number of regional governments are also planning to transfer to the cities of the region.
Before leaving for Tyumen, I managed to send to Grodno - Balueva Veniamin Sergeyevich, Leningrad - Nikolaev Gennady Pavlovich, Moscow - Kirsanov Vladimir Andreevich, Kazan - Yemaletdinov Juner Faskhetdinovich, Gorky - Kopylov Viktor Seliverstovich, I will come out in charge of Applying information is needed on the evacuation and deployment of enterprises, the number of specialists who have left and arrived, children, and the establishment of institutions in regions where children could be accommodated in 1941-1944.
In large unions at that time there were airplanes, usually Yak-40, for the possibility of operational movement around the country of leaders in order to resolve issues of production organization. On this plane we flew to Tyumen. We had dinner with the head. Department of the Chelyabinsk Regional Party Committee in the plane, thanks to the order of Vitaly Mikhailovich. Until late evening in the Tyumen regional party committee we were introduced to the system of selection and training of specialists for oil fields. Much turned out to be interesting. This includes the shift method of work, the development of related specialties, personal responsibility for certain operations and areas. The information received, of course, could be useful for us. Analyzing the documents and materials, I realized that in the selection of specialists we will soon come to the principle of hiring key professionals under contract, including foreign ones, in the same way that rich clubs buy leading athletes.
We went to bed at the obkom hotel far after midnight. But I asked the manager. department to get permission for obkomovskoy machine early in the morning to go to my station Bagandinskaya, located in 50-ty kilometers from Tyumen. He received the consent of the Regional Party Committee, without even asking me why. Having slept for three hours, I was already at nine in the morning. Immediately, pictures of childhood came to mind, but the nodal station has changed a lot. Previously, there was only the station and hospital, there were cars, including ambulances. We boys rode on the steps of cars in the formation of trains, even without fear that you could get under the train. But, thank God, tragedies did not happen. Now enterprises have appeared at the station. The house where we lived for three years, while being evacuated, was wooden. And now in its place was a brick house. I approached him, not even hoping to learn anything. So I stood around the house for about three minutes. To the driver, a young guy, while we were driving from Tyumen, I explained why I wanted to visit the Bagandinskaya station. Suddenly the door of the house opened, and a man of about fifty came out into the street. He looked at me and asked: “Did you have any interest?” I explained everything to him, we talked. The car was standing nearby, the driver, seeing our conversation, turned off the engine. Your relatives, Yury Grigorievich, grew up and went away to many regions of Siberia, but your last name is remembered here. About the people who lived here, there were very good impressions. Once a year one of them comes here, we see them in the cemetery. The man, whose name was Valentin Stepanovich, wished me a good journey and success. I thanked him and asked if I had a chance to see our distant relatives, to bow to them from me and my mother. Then, he said a little while later, did the temple operate in the next village? But what about: - answered Valentine Stepanovich. Only now it is brick and we have a lot of parishioners. Two hours later we were in Tyumen, and in the evening we were already in Chelyabinsk.
In the morning, the entire headquarters group gathered to ensure the holding of the exercise. Answers to my inquiries from the regions have already been received, and Ileiko Vitaly Mikhailovich also prepared, through his subordinates, an interesting information on children's institutions in Chelyabinsk during the 1941-1942 period. I will omit all the necessary materials for a report in the Chelyabinsk Regional Party Committee and the Minister, and I will give some information of interest to many.
Before the beginning of the Great Patriotic War in the USSR in 1940 a little more than 194 million people lived. The urban population was about 63 million, and the rural population is slightly more than 131 million. During the years of occupation of our territory, the fascists turned into ruins more than 1700 cities and towns and more than 70 thousands of villages. 25 million inhabitants of the country were left homeless. During the war years, 34 of a million men and women of our country passed through the service in the Red Army. Evacuation of enterprises and the public began immediately after 22 June 1941. This process was unprecedentedly organized and, if possible, carried out by a special Committee headed by L.M. Kaganovich, it’s already 3 July replaced N.M. Schvernik. In the most difficult time for the country, this Committee managed to use for evacuation of the population and enterprises up to one and a half million railway cars, which, as part of the trains, were supposed to travel every day up to five hundred kilometers. If this rule was not met, the station chiefs were criminally responsible and the reasons were considered at the meetings of the tribunals. Therefore, almost half a year, it was possible to evacuate to the Urals, Western Siberia, Central Asia, Kazakhstan about 25 millions of people, including 15 millions of children, as well as two and a half thousand enterprises that were able to set up weapons production for the front in new places. In the materials received, the following figures also appeared: in Moscow about two million people were evacuated, including about a million children. At the same time, in Moscow every night up to a hundred trains were sent to the East, which included up to six thousand carriages. Leningrad was evacuated from 29 June to 30 August 1941, 773 590 people, including more than forty percent of them children. And for the period from January 29 to 11, 1942 of April was evacuated along the “Road of Life” 539 400 people.
The Council of People's Commissars of the USSR in early January 1942 of the year adopted a Resolution “On the device of all children without parents”. All railway stations operated evacuation points. All evacuees, especially children, had to be provided with food, boiling water and sanitary services. According to the materials presented in Chelyabinsk, more than a thousand children's institutions were established, including nurseries, kindergartens (“hearths”) and reception centers. In the 1945 year after the end of the war in our country there were about three million children without parents who lived in six thousand orphanages. Surprisingly, after the civil war in the country there were 2 million children without parents. This kind of rock haunted our country in the twentieth century. Currently, more than one hundred thousand children without parents live in orphanages, and we cannot cope with this problem.
Mothers, from 1941 to 1945 a year, working in enterprises in the rear, prepared for the victory of the Red Army, and the government tried to provide the younger generation with everything necessary. In the zones of occupation before 1944, about thirty-two percent of the country's population remained to live, of which a third were children and the elderly. And if the government tried to preserve and educate the younger generation as much as they could on the territory unoccupied by the fascists, together with their mothers, then nothing could be done in the occupation zones. The Nazis burned our villages, villages with civilians, including children. The Red Cross was powerless to help this misfortune.
Currently, residents of a number of cities, paying tribute to the mothers who saved a whole generation of children during the Great Patriotic War, are trying to erect monuments to them. Monuments are known throughout the country: “Motherland” on Mamayev Kurgan, “Grieving Mother” on Piskarevsky Cemetery. By the anniversary dates of the delegation and people carry flowers to these monuments. Minutes of silence and rallies take place there, but these are mourning events. Monument to the “Mother of the Savior” - should be a family monument to which family members, for example, on the birthday of their mothers and grandmothers could come and worship their ancestors. It was the mothers of the USSR who saved the life of a whole generation of children, who then grew up, raised their children and increased the power of our state. Such monuments should be, in the opinion of many people, in the cities of our country and personify the integrity, traditions and inviolability of the family.