40 years ago, 7 August 1973, the 172M object was adopted.
Start the creation process tank T-72 laid down a decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of August 15, 1967 "On equipping the Soviet Army with new T-64 medium tanks and developing capacities for their production", in accordance with which it was planned to organize serial production of T-64 tanks not only at the Kharkov Transport Plant Engineering named after Malyshev (KhZTM), but also at other enterprises of the industry, including the Uralvagonzavod (UVZ)
T-64 was at that time a truly revolutionary machine in the field of world tank building. The development of the 430, 432 and 434 objects was not easy, and T-64A, armed with the X-NUMX-mm D-125 gun, was born. It was put into service in May 81.
The decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR from 15 August 1967 of the year dealt with the release of the "backup" version of the T-64 tank. There was also an order from the Minister of Defense Industry on January 5 of 1968 to create a tank of a “special” period.
UVZ (G.Nizhniy Tagil) and LKZ (Leningrad), based on the technological solutions of T-64 and based on their own experience in the creation of combat vehicles, began designing advanced models.
Under the leadership of Leonid Nikolaevich Kartsev and his deputy Valery Nikolaevich Venediktov, a mobilization variant of T-64А was developed.
At the end of 1965, at the end of the year, there were already developments based on the modified T-62-based automatic loader system tested on the “167 object”, “167М object tanks (T-62 upgrade option). It was a rotating conveyor with a double-row shot arrangement, which is completely located on the electric drive under the polycom of the combat compartment.
167 object, T-62 perspective upgrade
As well as the new Chelyabinsk diesel engine B-45K, developing power in the 730 HP. with fan cooling system.
Basically, these changes were introduced in the created machine. Other developments on 166, 167, 167м objects were rejected by the Ministry of Defense Industry, as was the idea of installing HMT (hydromechanical transmission).
The first machines were created by simple alteration of the serial T-64A. Two prototypes were prepared in 1968 year. In the same year they were tested in the Turkestan Military District. The main design flaws were running gear defects. Total up to 1970g. According to various data, it was built around 17-20 tanks involved in factory and army tests, which indicated the seriousness of the approach to this vehicle.
The machine has been assigned an 172 Object Index.
Drawings of the tank "Object 172" Archive UKBTM
(based on the report on the topic 70055. military unit 68054, 1970)
• -Installation of the B-172K engine and automatic loader in the 45 object provided in comparison with the 434 object:
- improvement of the crew’s combat work;
- reduction of time for maintenance and preparation of the tank to overcome water obstacles;
- the ability to operate the engine on different grades of fuel.
The remaining basic parameters of the performance characteristics remained almost the same, with the exception of the combat weight and power reserve.
• - The reliability of the 172 object within the warranty period (3000 km of mileage) is still insufficient for the following reasons:
- in the 172 facilities presented at the test sites, not all developed design measures for the B-45 engine, engine air supply system, engine cooling system connections and tank power supply system were introduced, which caused failures and faults similar to those detected during the test site in 1969;
- A number of units borrowed from the 434 object (stabilizer, range finder, hydrolift mechanism of the gun, running gear elements), as in the 434 object, did not work reliably and thus sharply reduced the overall reliability of the tank.
• - Combat weight of tanks 172 object (tank №4 - 38650 kg; tank №5 - 38890 kg; tank №6 -38900 kg) exceeds the combat weight of the tank 434 object (equal in TTT 37,0т -1,5%) on 2,9 - 3,6 maximum difference 1350 kg - approx. A.X.).
• -The acceleration of the 172 object proceeds more intensively than the acceleration of the 434 object (when operating on diesel fuel).
• -Target rate of fire from tanks 172 object and 434 object received almost the same. The time to shoot all ammunition at the 172 site is 23 minutes, at the 434 facility - 27 minutes.
• -Automatic loader on the 172 object has a number of significant advantages over the 434 object loader mechanism. The design of the automatic loader ensures the transfer of crew members from the control section to the combat one and back without preparatory work, loading the gun manually from all non-mechanized layouts both on site and in the tank movement, as well as replenishing the AZ conveyor with shots without turning the tower to the stern and without driver assistance.
• Angle of loading a cannon in a tank with an 172 object 2 ° greater than that of a tank with an 434 object, which reduces the likelihood of sticking the barrel during loading when the tank moves over rough terrain.
• -The largest number of failures and malfunctions falls on the chassis: 29,9% failures and 53% failures.
• -The tank downtime for servicing as a result of tests and the laboriousness of maintenance when performing work by the crew’s crew are shown in the table and the 434 object compared to the 68054 inventory number 3793 for 1969 G is compared with the tank idleness:
In parentheses indicate the time and complexity of TO with flushing the air cleaner
The data in the table shows that the 172 object presented for testing on all types of services is less than the 434 tank idle time, which is explained by the simpler and more convenient design of the loading mechanism, the maintenance of which takes 40-45 min, and on the 434 object - 5 -7 hours, and also some improvement in access to serviced units and nodes.
• -In / part 68054 considers expedient to speed up the revision of the power plant, weapon stabilizer, power supply system, as well as the radical processing of the undercarriage, hydrolic gun mechanism, collective protection system, with simultaneous continuation of testing of three prototypes of the 172 object in the 68054 unit the study of individual units and systems, and conducting test ground tests after the introduction of all constructive measures for proposals in / h 68054.
Work with tanks "object 172" lasted until the beginning of February 1971. By this time, the components and assemblies developed in Nizhny Tagil were brought to a high level of reliability. Automatic loaders had one failure on 448 loading loops, that is, their reliability roughly corresponded to the average survivability of the X-NUMX-mm D-125-gun (81 shots with a caliber projectile and 600-sabot). The only problem with the “150 object” was the unreliability of the undercarriage “due to the systematic failure of hydraulic shock absorbers, road wheels, fingers and tracks, torsions and guide wheels.”
12 May 1970 was issued by the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 326-113 “On the work to further improve the tank“ Object 172 ”. This document paved the way for the work to improve the machine and to introduce to it the undercarriage of waste tested on prototypes of the “167 Object”.
Then, at the UVZB design bureau, which from 7 in January 1970 was headed by Valery Nikolaevich Venediktov, it was decided to use on the "172 object" the chassis from the "167 object" with rubberized support rollers of increased diameter and more powerful tracks with an open metal hinge similar to those of the T-tank 62. The development of such a tank was carried out under the designation "object 172M" and by the end of the year three such tanks were built. The engine, forced to 780 hp, received the index B-46. A two-stage cassette air cleaning system was introduced, similar to that used on the T-62 tank. The mass of the “172M object” has increased to 41 tons. But the dynamic characteristics remained at the same level due to an increase in engine power per 80 hp, fuel tank capacity per 100 l and track width per 40 mm. From the T-64A tank, only the positively proven structural elements of the armored hull with a combined and differentiated armor and transmission were retained.
Comparing "172 Object" and "172 Object"
From November 1970 to April 1971, the tanks "172M object" went through a full cycle of factory tests and then on May 6, 1971 were presented to Defense Ministers A.A. Grechko and defense industry S.A. Zverev. By the beginning of the summer, an installation batch of 15 machines had been released, which, together with the T-64A and T-80 tanks, had passed months-long trials in 1972.
Excerpt from the test:
Three factory models of the 172 object (with a new chassis and a B-46 engine with 780 power.) From November 1970. To April 1971. Passed intensive tests in different climatic conditions (Nizhny Tagil region, ZabVO, military unit 6054) in order to verify the reliability of the components and mechanisms of the tank.
Tests of these samples in the volume of 10000 + 13004 km (the engines worked 414 + 685,7 hours) showed the effectiveness of the modifications introduced during the tests, reliable operation of the chassis components, engine and its systems, power transmission and automatic loader, which allowed 2 1971 g in the quarter Present 172 samples for field testing.
Field tests of 172m tanks in various operating conditions (BVO, MVO, and TurkVO) in the amount of 8458 + 11662 km (engines have built up 393,7 + 510,7 hours), also showed reliable operation of the B-45 engine (? Typo, ass. Author), power transmission, chassis taka as a whole.
According to the comments identified during field tests and, in particular, when testing in high-altitude ZakVO conditions, the plant has been introduced, as well as being developed, which will be implemented in the process of preparing the serial production of the 172 object conducted by the plant in accordance with the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers No.326-113 from 12 May 1970g.
The “Object 172m” tank No.1 passed the 1 test phase in accordance with the program agreed with the VP #47, from 26.11 to 06.1270. The tests were carried out at the tankodrome of the plant along an annular heavily intersected track with frozen ground, with frequent potholes and bumps. Sea trials were carried out intensively with an operating time of 19,8 hours per day and a length of daily crossings of up to 418 km at the maximum speeds possible for given road conditions. During the first stage of the test, the tank passed 3000 km, the engine worked for 154 hours. The tests showed the following results:
- the B-46 engine worked reliably, its parameters were within the limits of the technical specifications and remained almost unchanged;
- power transmission units worked reliably.
After the maintenance No. 2 and the elimination of the comments, the tank “Object 172” No. 1 was subjected to the 2-m, 3-m and 4-m (additional) test stages.
Before the start of 2-testing phase it has been established by experienced 613.44.22sb caterpillar tracks, driving wheels 175.54sb-1 with rims for trucks caterpillar tracks 613.44.22sb welded brackets 175.01.148-1 mounting support rollers of spets.stali and bolts supporting rollers with thread M30h2, and before The 4 stage (after km 10004) is a modified fan drive. The sea trials of the 3 and 4 stages were carried out with 09.12.1970 g. By 16.04.1971 g at the tank factory of the plant under the same conditions as at the 1 stage.
Over the entire test period, the tank passed the 13004 km, the engine worked for 685,7 hours, the 1027 of the gun was loaded with an automatic loader, including 170 shots. As a result of the tests revealed:
- The engine and its systems worked reliably. In the process of testing took place
A) slight oil leaks through the seals of the head covers;
B) a slight emission of oil vapors through the engine breather;
C) the formation of cracks on the left exhaust manifold (441,9 hour worked.);
D) due to the destruction of the cooling system fan drive on the 451,2 hour, the engine was overheated, therefore, the sealing bands of the water channels and duralumin gaskets in the connector of the block heads were replaced.
- Guitar and gearboxes with onboard gears worked reliably and had no comments. The angular reducer of the fan drive worked unreliably due to the destruction of the toothed driven unit of the bevel gear reducer of the fan drive and the friction clutch of the fan, caused by a significant centering of the drive. 1 installed after 10004 km a modified drive that allows increased centerings, during tests over the length of 3000 km with obviously exposed centerings, had no remarks and remained in working condition.
- chassis nodes showed the following results:
A) the destruction of torsions occurred due to the contamination of steel with non-metallic inclusions and the failure of the technology; after the 7053 km, the torsions made of steel of electroslag remelting had no comments to the end of the test;
B) the destruction of the balancer bushings was caused by their insufficient strength, the reinforced bushings installed after 7053 km did not have any remarks and remained in working condition;
B) during testing, the seal design was tested on the hydraulic shock connector, the working fluid and working pressure in the hydraulic shock absorber were selected, tested at a distance of 3000 km (installed after 10004 km) hydraulic shock absorbers with a modified design of the body seal, partitions and covers, as well as a modified finger lock in the joint thrust with a hydraulic shock absorber lever, had no comments;
D) in the course of testing there were cases of loss of tire locking rings and destruction of locking wheels of hubs of supporting rollers, modified rings introduced after 368 km ensured that tests were carried out in a given volume;
D) the support rollers of the sixth suspension after 7971 km were replaced because of the destruction of the rubber arrays, the remaining support rollers were tested until the end of the test, after changing the exhibition of torsions in twist angle, the newly installed front and rear suspension rollers worked at the 5033 km distance without destroying the rubber array;
E) 613.44.22 tracked tape (without technological and design improvements) ensured performance up to 3972 km, the 166.44 trailer tape 1 with open hinge worked 3000 km and remained suitable for further use;
G) the disks of the sloths and the hubs of the driving wheels had cracks along the edges, and later on the subsequent samples were installed with a modified structure.
- the automatic loader in the amount of 1027 charges, including 170 shots, had 4 failure and 2 delays.
- TPD-2 sight and 2EXNNX stabilizer worked 28 hours and had no comments.
According to the comments identified during the testing of the “Object 172” No. XXUMX, the plant developed design measures that were implemented on the factory samples No. XXUMX and No. XXUMX before testing or during testing as it was developed.
The “Object 172” tests No. XXNX and No. No. were carried out in the period from 2 to 14.01. three stages in the volumes 17.04.1971 km - 3000 stage, 1 km - 4000 stage, 2 km - 3000 stage in accordance with the program agreed with the VP # 3.
The 1 test phase was conducted at the tankodrome of the plant during the period from 14.01 to 29.01.1971. along the same route and under the same conditions as tests of control test samples No. XXUMX and No. XXUMX "Object 8" were conducted.
The 2 test phase was conducted at ZabVO (Art. Mirna) in the period from 16.02 to 26.02.1971.
The 3 test phase was conducted at the tankodrome of the plant from 30.03 to 17.04.1971.
The purpose of the tests was to check the reliability and performance of the units and components of the chassis, the engine and transmission compartment systems of the tank as a whole, as well as the effectiveness of the design activities carried out.
The following constructive measures were introduced at the “172 Object” No. XXUMX and No. XXUMX:
A. Before testing:
1. Reinforced drive wheels 175.54-2;
2.Torsion shafts made of steel 45ХНМфа-Ш;
3. Supporting rollers 175.53sb-1 with a modified tire stopper on the hub, filled with TSNATH-203 lubricant;
4. Reinforced balancing bushings;
5. Hydraulic shock absorbers with improved locking 175.52.012, filled with oil MSZP-5;
6. Sloths with enhanced drives.
B. Before the 2 test phase:
1. Tracked belts 613.44.22.
- on the tank №2 - with technological improvements;
- on tank No.3 - with reinforced cross tracks of tracks (from 8mm to 10mm - in thickness and from 16mm to 20mm - in height).
B. Before the 3 test phase:
1. Changed the exhibition of torsion shafts at a twist angle to unload the first and sixth road wheels;
2. Cast disks of the directing wheels from special steel with the strengthened edges;
3.Series (tank T-62) steel filler for guide wheels - for tank №3;
4.In connection with the modified exhibition of torsions, new track rollers were installed in the first and sixth suspensions.
In the process of testing for the three stages of the tanks passed:
- tank №2 - 10000km;
-tank №3 - 10012km;
The engines have worked respectively 419,1 and 414 hours.
The tests were carried out intensively with the operating time per day before 20,7 hours and the length of daily transitions up to 732 km. The sea trials in the volume of 10000 km were completed in 31 calendar day (9-11 days per stage). The average speeds during tests at the tankodrome of the plant were 20,8 km / h, and when tested in ZabVO - 40,3 km / h.
During the tests, the modified nodes and mechanisms worked reliably, confirmed the effectiveness of design and technological measures and ensured the implementation of the program in the amount of 10000 km.
In the future, the day of use of the engine life up to 500 hours, as well as verification of pilot events, tank No. 3 in accordance with the joint decision of the organization of the PO Box B-2968 and the 52682 military unit from 08.05.1971. continued testing on the track of the 68054 military unit, and tank No. 2, based on the letter 562 / 3 / 005085 from 16.04.1971 of the 52682 military unit, in TurkVO (Keliaty training center). Taking into account additional tests, tank No.2 passed 13686 km, and tank No.3, 11388 km, the engines worked for 572 and 536 hours, respectively. Tanks are in working condition.
The 172 Objects No. 1, No. XXUMX and No. XXUMX conducted in different climatic and geographical conditions showed high dynamic and maneuverable qualities and operational technical characteristics, sufficient reliability of the units, components, mechanisms and systems of the engine-transmission compartment, running gear and control within 2 + 3 km.
The engines of these tanks reliably worked out 697,7 (tank No.1), 572 (tank No.2) and 536 (tank No.3) hours. The automatic loader in a modified form on the control samples of the “172 Object” No. 8 and No. 9 showed the same high reliability - 448 loading on one failure. The resulting degree of refinement of components, mechanisms, units of the engine compartment, chassis and automatic loader, along with the modifications made by co-executors for armament and TPD-2, allowed to submit samples for landfill tests.
The tests of ground objects “Object 172м” in different climatic conditions (BVO, TurkVO, MVO) confirmed a high degree of constructive development of “Objects 172”, with 8458 + 11662 km operating time, 393,7 + 510,7 hours engines and automatic loader 619 + 2000 gun loads.
The engine, guitar, gearboxes and other components and powertrain mechanisms showed reliable operation within the limits of the groundwork performed by the tanks.
The flow of water from the X-NUMX Object No. 172 engine from the nipping space of the fifth sleeve of the right-hand unit was caused by a manufacturing defect — one of the three rubber rings of the lower sleeve belt was not installed during assembly. After installing the rubber ring, the engine ensured that the tank carried out the program in a given volume.
The automatic loader showed reliable operation within 377 + 539 charges for one failure.
Ukhzly running gear showed the following performance:
1.Torsion shafts - 8458 + 11662 km.
2. Balances - 8458 + 11662 km.
3.The steering wheels - 6000 km.
4. Tracked belts - 5000 + 8096 km.
5. Driving wheels - 8458 + 11662 km.
6.The crown of the drive wheels - 5000 + 10004 km.
7. Shock absorbers - 8458 km.
8.Support rollers - 5890 km (modified design in TurkVO).
9. Basic skating rinks - 4237 + 11662 km.
According to the comments and defects identified in the process of testing ground samples, the plant promptly carried out constructive refinements, the effectiveness of which was checked by tests in the same conditions. The support rollers that worked unreliably at the 1 test stage in the TurkVO were refined and tested at the 172 Facility No. XXUMX during the 7 test phase under the same conditions.
The supporting rollers worked 5890 km (up to the operating time of the 10004 km tank) and remained in a healthy state. At the 2 th stage of testing the “Object 172” No. 7 in TurkVO, the effectiveness of a new exhibition of road wheels with a modified twist of torsions was also tested. The road wheels worked 6387 km and remained in working condition, except for the 4-th left, which was replaced after the mileage due to the destruction of the rubber array. For a number of comments, constructive refinements are being carried out, measures for which will be introduced in the process of further production of the “172m Object”.
After the end of the test, the "Report on the results of military tests of 15-ti 172M tanks manufactured by Uralvagonzavod in 1972 g."
In its final part it was said:
"1. The tanks have passed the test, but the life of the 4500-5000 km track is insufficient and does not provide the required drivability of the 6500-7000 km tank without replacing tracks.
2. The tank 172М (warranty period - 3000 km) and the B-46 engine - (350 m / h) worked reliably. In the course of further testing up to 10000-11000 km, most components and assemblies, including the B-46 engine, worked reliably, however, a number of serious components and assemblies showed insufficient resources and reliability.
3. The tank is recommended for acceptance into service and mass production, subject to the elimination of identified deficiencies and verification of the effectiveness of their elimination prior to mass production. The scope and timing of improvements and inspections should be agreed between the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Defense Industry. "
Experienced tank "object 172" 1971 g.
In the first half of 1973, another successful control test of the installation batch of xNUMXM passed. During this period, the deficiencies identified in the previous ones were eliminated. This gave every reason to adopt the tank.
By the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 554-172 of 7 in August 1973, the “172М object” was adopted by the Soviet Army under the name T-72 "Ural" (name in 1975 year). The relevant order of the Minister of Defense of the USSR saw the light of 13 August 1973 of the year. In the same year, an installation batch of 30 machines was released.
Serial production of the machine was started in 1974 year. During this year, Uralvagonzavod launched 220 T-72 tanks.
For machine critics: If you carefully analyze history the creation of the T-72 then it becomes clear that the plant and the designers created what the Ministry of Defense wanted with the existing capabilities of the defense industry to produce a mass tank, and not what the designers themselves would like.
The fantasies of the design bureau always remain in the background, first of all, the machine is built according to the tactical and technical requirements and requirements of the customer, which was strictly done. Those. "Cigarette lighter" is where the customer wants, and not where it will be convenient for him to use it.
Drawing of the tank "Object 172"
• Object 172М of experimental and military series - the tower was made by converting the turret of the T-64A tank
• T-72K (Object 172МК) "Ural-K" - commander version of the linear tank T-72 (ob.172М), which was additionally installed shortwave radio, navigation equipment, charger, but reduced ammunition
• T-72 (Object 172M) sample 1975 of the year
• T-72 (Object 172M) sample 1976 of the year
• T-72 (Object 172M) sample 1978 of the year
• T-72 (Object 172M) sample 1979 of the year
• T-72 (Object 172M-E) - export version
• T-72 (Object 172М-Э1) - export version
• T-72 (Object 172М-Э2) - export version
• T-72K (Object 172MK-E) - export modification of the commander version and the linear tank
• T-72K (Object 172МК-Э1) - export modification of the command version of the a line tank
• T-72K (Object 172МК-Э2) - export modification of the command version of the a line tank
• Object 172МН - prototype tank T-72 (ob.172М), on which the 130 mm rifled gun 2А50 (LP-36Е) was installed. Passed the tests in 1972-1974. In mid-October, 1975 was demonstrated to Marshal A. Grechko. during his visit to the Research Institute in Kubinka. Not accepted for service
• 172MD object - prototype tank T-72 (rev.172М) with 125 mm smoothbore gun 2А49 (D-89). Not accepted for service
• Object 172MP - prototype tank T-72 (ob.172М) with 125 mm smooth-bore gun 2А46М. Made in May-July 1977 of the year in order to conduct an acceptance test of the system. According to the results of these tests, the gun 2А46М was recognized as conforming to the specified tactical and technical requirements and recommended for further tests.
• The 175 object is the result of the work carried out on 1970-75 in improving the 172М. Not accepted for service, the prototype was not made. Separate developments on the machine of this specification, as well as on ob.172-2М were used in improving the design of serial machines ob.172М (Т-72)
T-72 first modifications
And this was only the beginning of the glorious path of the legendary car. In order to tell about the stages of its further modernization, we need a series of articles, with a story about line-up and equipment, further upgrades, where a special place will be occupied by the “184 Object”, which entered service under the designation T-72B, at which the author of these lines had the honor of serving a large part of your life.
And the modifications of the first issues of the T-72 with simplified unclassified armor, an ancient optical range finder, a mechanical ballistic computer, an analog radio station R-123 and a B-46 engine fought in the Middle East, where the Syrians kissed them, in Iraq, where the Abrams escaped, not daring go on a battle without a fire shaft aviation and artillery. They are fighting now in Syria, if you take a closer look, then on the video chronicle of using Syrian cars you can see the elongated hump in front of the turret of the tank commander, this is an element of the optical range finder. If the optics are muffled, then the quantum equipment was installed later, but this is the same “old man”.
In this article, I did not specifically describe all the squabbles of the three design bureaus among themselves, especially between Kharkiv and Tagil, personal agreements with the highest echelons of power and lobbying the designers of their offspring.
Why write about this? Authors of unique cars competed for their inventions not for money and power, but for an IDEA. With all their heart they rooted for the Great Matter - the creation of the most powerful armored fist of their country.
HONOR OF THEM AND PLEASURE
This article is just about the history of the creation of the machine, which became the workhorse of tank units.
I hope the discussion will not be familiar comparing schools tank design, which rarely lead tankers themselves.
For us, the crews, after a long and hard work, there is no sweeter music than the RIGHT crash or whistle, the roar or the howling of the systems we include.
There is no better feeling when YOUR “iron” consistently “sings” its song under the influence of your arms or legs. And no matter what model of tank you are currently in.
In this “symphony” - you FEEL THE MAN, one cast organism with a multi-ton beast. So the consent of the crew with the equipment is born and they are inseparable.
And a “live” tank is born. He is UNBEATABLE.
T-72 is worthy of respect. He still protects his country with dignity on his tracks and his armor.
[i] Prepared Aleks TV [/ i
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