Very dramatic events preceded his formation. In the middle of the nineteenth century, this land became a place of struggle between the Chinese, who massacre the population of the Dzungarian Khanate, and almost the same cruel Kokands. The only difference between the opponents was that the Chinese took into account the fact that the Kazakhs, who lived on these lands, were in Russian citizenship. Behind the Kokand rulers were the British, supporting all those who could have prevented the advancement of the Russians to Central Asia.
Despite the fact that the Kazakh clans were in Russian citizenship, in the beginning of the nineteenth century there were neither Russian troops nor settlements in these places. The only way out for local residents when Khivans, Bukharians or Kokands attacked them was the opportunity to retreat under the protection of the fortifications of the Siberian line, built in the eighteenth century. However, this method of protection was not suitable for the Kazakhs in South-Eastern and Southern Kazakhstan, many of them lived sedentary and could not suddenly abandon their homes and fields. It was these tribes Kokand and sought to capture in the first place.
Semirechye is an area in Central Asia bounded by the lakes Balkhash, Alakol, Sasykol and the ridges of the Dzungarian Alatau and Northern Tien Shan. The name of the region comes from the seven main rivers flowing in this region: Karatal, Ili, Aksu, Bien, Leps, Sarkand and Baskan.
In the end, the Russian authorities were tired of looking at the sufferings of their steppe subjects, it was decided to move the line of Russian fortifications to the south. The main stage was the formation of the Ayaguz outer district. In the north-east of Lake Balkhash, the first hundred Cossacks and their families settled in the village of Ayaguz. Their appearance was a guarantee against the Kokand raids on Kazakh lands lying north of Balkhash.
However, in 1841, power over several Kazakh clans was taken over by Khan Kenesary Kasymov. As Chingizid, as well as the grandson of Ablai, the last All-Kazakh Khan, Kasimov proclaimed the withdrawal of the Kazakhs from the nationality of the Russian Empire. Russian troops confined themselves only to strengthening the protection of caravans heading to Central Asia and China, and the defense of fortresses, near which Kazakhs began to gather, wishing to remain loyal to the Russian Tsar. Soon the Russians built two more fortresses - Turgai and Irgiz. Kasymov’s despotism, the imposition of Islamic laws on them, never revered by the Kazakhs, eventually provoked discontent among the local population. In 1847, the wild-brick Kirgiz tribe rebelled, took Kenesary into captivity, decapitated, and sent the head of the Khan to the Governor-General of Siberia, Gorchakov.
In the 1847 year, in response to the intensified hostilities of the Kokands, the detachment of Esaula Abakumov founded the Kapal fortress six hundred miles south of Semipalatinsk. And in the 1848 year, the post of bailiff of the Great Horde was taken by Major Baron Wrangel, who took over the administrative management of the whole region and the troops stationed there. The place of residence of the bailiff was just Kapal fortress. For the convenience of communications, between Ayaguz and Kapal, they were ordered to establish twelve pickets. And during the 1848-1850s, Cossacks from the ninth Siberian regimental district moved to the fortress, who later founded the village of the same name here.
4 On April 1850, a detachment consisting of two hundred Cossacks and two guns, led by Captain Gutkovsky, was sent from Kapala. Their goal was to capture the fortress Tauchubek - the main stronghold of the Kokand in the Trans-Ili region. On April 19, the Cossacks began a siege of the fortress, which represented a redoubt forty fathoms in each side and a hundred and fifty garrison men. However, three thousandth reinforcements came to the aid of the defending troops. Gutkovsky's squad was forced to retreat with a fight, and 25 of April, he returned. But even despite the failed task, the skillful and brave actions of the Russian Cossacks made a huge impression on the Kokand people. One year later, on June 7 of 1851, a new squadron under the walls of Tauchubek was led by Lieutenant Colonel Mikhail Karbyshev, the father of the famous Soviet general. His army included four hundred Cossacks, an infantry battalion, six guns, and Kazakh militia groups. Having decided that it was useless to fight the Russian units, the garrison of the fortress simply ran away. The fortress was demolished to the ground, and on July 30 the detachment returned to Kopal.
These successes led to the fact that some of the high-ranking Kyrgyz manaps began to ask for Russian citizenship. In order to strengthen the influence of 2 on July 1853, a new detachment consisting of four and a half hundred Cossacks of the Siberian regiments was sent to Zailis region. He led his new bailiff of the Great Horde, Major Przemysl.
The local population, namely the Kapal Kazakhs, who delivered food and mail to the detachment of Peremyshl, did not recognize any allotments. At the request of the major, they began to issue a salary not in paper money, but in silver coins. They were highly appreciated by local women, using them as decorations for their clothes. This tradition lived up to Soviet times, even in the seventies of the last century, it was possible to find elderly Kazakh women with chapans decorated with copper-nickel Soviet coins.
At the end of July, 1854 of the year, Peremyshlsky, together with Lieutenant-Engineer Aleksandrov, inspected the valley of the Malaya Almatinka River and decided to build a new fortification called Zailiyskoye, from which the city of Verny later grew (now called Alma-Ata).
1 July 1855, under the command of the next bailiff of the Great Horde Shaitanov, arrived in Zailiyskoye, the first Cossack settlers arrived and laid a stanitsa around it. Starting from 1856, every year hundreds of Cossacks with their relatives and two hundred families from the inner provinces of the Russian Empire were sent here.
In 1860, the Cossacks under the command of Major Gerasim Alekseevich Kolpakovsky organized an expedition to the Chu River and captured the Kokand fortresses Tokmak and Pishpek. After their return from the campaign, October 21, a three-day Uzun-Agachsky battle took place, during which the small forces of the Cossacks (about a thousand people) utterly defeated the sixteen-thousandth army of the Kokand commander-in-chief Kanaat-Sha. And 11 July 1867-year was officially established Semirechensk region, which became part of the Turkestan governorship. Gerasim Kolpakovsky became its first governor. And 13 July (old style) of the same year an independent Semirechensky army was created from the ninth and tenth regimental Cossack districts of the Siberian army.
Gerasim Alekseevich Kolpakovsky commanded the Semirechensky troops for almost fifteen years, although he was not at all a Cossack by origin. He was born in Kharkov province in the family of nobles. At sixteen, he joined the Modlin Infantry Regiment as a private soldier. All his further biography is the clearest example of selfless service to the Fatherland. He was a true warrior and defender of Russia. Suffice it to say that Gerasim Alekseevich is one of the few full Russian generals who had risen to such a high rank, starting with the rank and file and without having any special military education. Permeating the spirit of the Cossacks, he played a huge role in the formation and development of the Semirechye troops. Not being the elected chieftain, all semi-Jews unanimously recognized him as such. At the end of his life he worked in St. Petersburg as a member of the Military Council. He was awarded many Russian orders, including the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky, studded with diamonds. 12 January 1911, after his death, Gerasim Kolpakovsky was credited with the Eternal Chief of the first Semirechensky Regiment.
Semirechensky Cossacks included four counties and twenty-eight villages. The military center became the city center. The army grew rapidly, initially consisting only of Siberian Cossacks, at the end of the nineteenth century it began to be replenished by Kuban people, who traveled voluntarily and compulsorily to develop new lands. In peacetime, the Cossack army had one cavalry regiment with thirty-two officers and seven hundred horses; in the war, three cavalry regiments with forty-five officers and two thousand horses. From 1906, a platoon of Semirechensky Cossacks was part of the third hundred Life Guard Cossack Regiment.
The leadership was carried out by the Main Directorate of the Cossack troops through the commander of the Semirechensk region. The commander, in turn, was the appointed chieftain and was subordinate to the Turkestan Governor-General. The Semirechye Cossacks were distinguished by a developed self-government, in village communities almost full self-government was maintained. The main body of self-government, the assembly, even included non-aristocratic individuals who had any real estate in the area of the villages. However, they had the right to vote only in cases relating directly to them.
The main tasks of the Semirechensky army were to carry security and guard services, to defend the eastern borders of Turkestan and to perform certain police functions. Unlike, for example, Donskoy, the army did not have a permanent territory and was located in the villages with adjacent land. Cossacks-Semereks actively participated in expeditions to conquer Central Asia. In particular, together with the Siberians, the newly formed army under the command of Kolpakovsky was noted in the famous Gulja campaign of 1871. Semirechensky did not participate in the Japanese war, but they were mobilized and sent to suppress the unrest that broke out in Turkestan.
It is curious that the trade routes from Xinjiang to Russia and the original duty station of the Siberian Cossacks, Stanitsa Sofiyskaya, Lyubavinskaya and Nadezhdinskaya, founded to protect the daughters of the governor-general Gerasim Kolpakovsky, were founded to protect the trade routes.
After the active peasant colonization of the region began in 1869, a passive confrontation began between the Cossacks, the natives and the peasants. The Cossacks-Semereks tried to separate themselves from other settlers, first of all, with clothes that carried not only distinctive features, but also demonstrated to civil society who is the true owner in this region. Everyday clothes of the Semirechensk Cossacks were brown men's top shirts and wide trousers, similar to those popular at the same time among Siberian Cossacks. Uniforms or jackets with buttoned hooks were of short length, but subsequently they were replaced with long ones. Under the uniform of the Cossacks wore quilted wadded "warmth" of a dark color. The hatches of Semirek were made of karakul lamb skin of a trapezoidal shape. In the summer, instead of them wore hats with a bandage. On the top shirt were allowed to wear cylindrical penalties - gas cartridges for cartridges, trimmed with braid. It was necessary to have a forelock, which was often curled with a nail hot on fire. They said: "The Cossack is not a Cossack without a forelock". Kubans in the early twentieth century were allowed to wear their own uniforms.
Cossacks wore wide sundresses and skirts, shirts with cuffs. Blouses were with full sleeves and tight-fitting body. They were trimmed with lace or tulle. On their heads women wore shawls, handkerchiefs, or eyelet laborers sewn from expensive material that looked like berets. Her hair was braided and wrapped around her head. From jewelry Cossacks preferred beads and earrings, they wore boots on their feet. In the 1909 year, the Semirechensky (as in other Cossack troops, except for the Caucasus) introduced a single marching uniform: tunics and t-shirts of a protective color, blue harem pants. Semirechye Cossacks received crimson colors - stripes, foolazhek bandages and shoulder straps were crimson.
The service life of the Semirechensky Cossack was eighteen years, and then another ten years he was in the village militia. At twenty years old, the young man was credited for one year to the preparatory level. He had to comprehend the course of elementary military training, to equip uniforms, ammunition and saber, to acquire a riding horse. At twenty-one, a matured Cossack fell into a drill for twelve years. If the time was peaceful, then the first four years he took up field service in a priority regiment, and the rest of the years in preferential service, in the regiments of the second and third lines. With benefits, only the autocrat could send back to the field service of the Cossack. At thirty-three, the Cossack went to the reserve for five years. From that time on, he was respectfully called the "old man." At thirty-eight, he retired, but was in the militia. He was already called "Mr. Old Man." Only at forty-eight years did the final completion of the service come. Thus, military training in the villages never stopped, training camps were held three times a year, in which three to four regular hundreds took part. More than a quarter of men from twenty to forty-eight years of age were in constant alert.
History sunset Semirechensky Cossack troops are closely linked to their struggle with the Soviet government. 1917 year in the life of Semirechensk Cossacks turned out to be extremely difficult. Almost all the host was "under the gun." The main forces - the first regiment, named after General Kolpakovsky - fought on the European front as part of the active army, the second regiment went to bear the occupying service in the Persian state. In the Semirechye, the Cossacks were forced to eliminate the consequences of the Kyrgyz insurrection of 1916, and in July of the following year, revolutionary unrest began in the region, already organized by the Russian population. In addition to this, the Cossacks did not in any way legitimately hold the election of ataman in order to concentrate all power in one hand. Finally, on July 14, the Provisional Government appointed Lieutenant General Andrei Kiyashko to this role. The new commander of the troops tried to restore order in the area, disbanded the Bolsheviks tuned infantry and artillery units, arrested the main instigators of the unrest, but the revolutionary shaft involuntarily rolled on the Seven Rivers.
In late October, the Bolsheviks in Tashkent supported the speeches in Petrograd, and the Semirechensky Cossacks had to openly oppose the new government. In all the villages began the formation of volunteer hundreds of Cossacks capable of wearing weapon. In order to suppress "Bolshevik-hooligan speeches" martial law was introduced in the region. The Military Government also decided to withdraw all the Semirechensk units from the active army and made an attempt to join the Southeast Union formed in Ekaterinodar. At the same time, among the population, the Bolshevik agitation continued to be held by the Council of Soldiers' Deputies, dissolved only by December 26. The measures taken by the Cossacks were not enough. Kiyashko was captured, brought to Tashkent and killed. 30 November 1917 of the year Soviet power was established in Omsk, and February 4 in Semipalatinsk. Seven Rivers fell into isolation. Products from the outside ceased to arrive, the telegraph and mail did not work.
Semirechye army was the owner of a huge land (more than seven hundred thousand hectares). Therefore, it is not surprising that arable farming was the most important and profitable subject of the economy. In addition, the Cossacks were engaged in horse breeding, breeding cattle, beekeeping, and, very slightly, fishing. Contrary to popular belief, drunkenness among Semirek was never cultivated and was not encouraged.
On January 31, the second Semirechensky regiment arrived in the town of Verny from Persia. However, while on the way the regiment was subjected to Bolshevik propaganda, many young soldiers, who believed the Bolsheviks' promises to preserve the Cossack lands, laid down their arms in Samarkand. February 13 held a new election, the post of Military Ataman was chosen as the commander of the second regiment, Colonel Alexander Mikhailovich Ionov. But on the night of March 3, revolutionary-minded Cossacks carried out an uprising in Verniy and dispersed the Military Circle. After the coup, the Military Revolutionary Committee was formed, which arrested the ataman of the Semirechensky army and dismissed the Council. Even the return of the first Cossack regiment and the Semirechensky platoon of the Life Guard from the army did not change the situation. Partially disarmed front-line soldiers left for their homes. But soon the Civil War broke out, and many of them, led by Alexander Ionov, took part in it on the side of the white movement.
In May, Red Guard detachments approached the city of Verniy, during the fighting the villages were taken: Lyubavinskaya, Malaya Almatinskaya, Sofiyskaya, Nadezhdinskaya. They carried out ruthless terror, Cossacks were publicly shot, their property, livestock and equipment were requisitioned. And at the beginning of the summer of 1918, a whole series of decrees of the Soviet government appeared about permanently canceling the class of the Cossacks, as well as their institutions and officials, confiscating property and sums of money, depriving them of voting rights and much more. Such a policy was called popularly "rasskazachivaniem". At the same time, detachments of defeated and demoralized Semireks, along with Ataman Ionov, retreated to the Northern Semirechye and to the Chinese border. However, 20 July from Semipalatinsk from white troops reinforcements came, and the Cossacks attacked. Soon they were freed Sergiopol, in many villages revolts broke out. In a number of places, old-timers and Kazakhs began to join the Cossack detachments. In the liberated villages, self-protective hundreds and militia units began to form, forces accumulate for a decisive march to the south. In response, the Soviet government decided to establish the Semirechensky front.
The policy of the Cossack genocide began to decline only in December of the 1919 year after the arrival of the former commander-in-chief of the troops of Turkestan, Ivan Belov. In particular, he forbade the shooting of captured Cossacks, as well as rape, rob and kill in the villages - "... do not rape, do not mock, do not scoff ...". Frunze noted: “For two years now there has been a fierce war on the lands of Semirechye. Burned villages, villages and villages, ruined and impoverished population, turned into a cemetery, once a flourishing land - this was its result. "
By the autumn of the 1918 year, the Semirechensky front kept along the line of Kopal - Abakumovka - Aksu - Simbyl-Kum. There was no solid front, of course, military units were stationed in populated areas, sending horse rides to the most key places. Between the battles, the Semirechensk Cossacks used battles to arm and re-form spontaneously formed military units. In particular, the first Semirechensky Cossack regiment was recreated, however, due to the lack of local officers, Siberian officers were sent to it.
After the Semirechensk Cossack army was liquidated, and the Cossacks who remained on their lands were subjected to “rasskazachivaniyu”, it was even forbidden to use the word “Cossack”. In the official biography of Nikolai Ananyev Panfilov, for example, it is written in black and white that he comes from a poor peasant family. In fact, the hero is a generic Cossack from the village of Sazanovskaya, standing on the coast of Issyk-Kul. And his family became poor just after the "raskazachivaniya."
At the end of 1918, Major General Ionov was given the idea of a general “rendering” of the region’s population. In his opinion, this event was necessary in order to smooth out all the contradictions between the peasants and the Cossacks, as well as to increase their army. However, ordinary people were afraid of military service and reluctantly went to the Cossacks, and those who actually recorded, caused retaliatory hatred of their fellow tribesmen. In December, with the order to free the Semirechie from the Reds, the elusive Ataman of the Siberian Cossacks, Boris Annenkov, arrived in the region, receiving the command of the second Steppe Corps. From the same moment begins his feud with Alexander Ionov.
In the spring and summer of 1919, fighting ceased and was conducted mainly around the Cherkasy defense zone. Despite the stubborn resistance of the Bolsheviks, in July, white troops captured most of the territory, and also repelled a number of attacks by troops of the Northern Front, aimed at breaking through and connecting with Cherkasy defenders. In turn, Red managed to repel blows on his flanks near Koldzhat, Dzharkent and Przhevalsk. In October 1919, Kolchak recalled Ionov to Omsk, replacing him with Major General, a Semirechensky Cossack, Nikolai Shcherbakov, who managed to find a common language with Annenkov. However, at the end of the year in Siberia, the situation for whites became threatening, Pal Omsk, was lost Semipalatinsk. The Semirechye army was cut off from the main forces, and the region itself was flooded with the hungry, typhoid and frostbitten remnants of the Orenburg troops. After the 12 of January 1920 of the year, the Bolsheviks took Sergiopolskaya stanitsa - the northernmost stronghold of the Semireks, the white army was trapped in a vice from the south, west and north. In the east, in the rear they had a Chinese border. However, Boris Annenkov decided to consolidate and hold positions. To this end, the existing units were reformed and divided into the Northern (remnants of the Orenburg Army), Central (headed by Annenkov himself) and the Southern Group.
After the arrival of heat, fighting resumed. By this time, the Cossacks were almost out of ammunition and food. Requisitions from the locals led to unrest and discontent not only among residents, but also within the army. When it became clear that it was impossible to keep the front, Annenkov gave the order to retreat to the border. However, not all the commanders fulfilled it, many preferred to capitulate (almost the entire Southern Group), surrendering along with the remnants of the troops after receiving security guarantees and preventing reprisals. The detachments of the Northern group managed to overcome the Kara-Saryk pass, after which they were interned. The last to leave Russia was the Annenkov Central Group.
One curious tragic fact. In 1924, the Bolsheviks founded the newspaper Semirechenskaya Pravda. However, the name very sharply reminded residents of the Semirechensk Cossacks. In addition, the very name of the region - "Semirechye" - was invented by the Cossacks. Soon after the release of the first issues, it was decided to rename the newspaper into “Dzhetysuyskaya Pravda” (in Kazakh, Jety Soo means seven rivers).
After the defeat of whites, the war in Semirechye, unfortunately, was not over, only the forms and scales changed. Instead of large-scale battles, the actions were reduced to the underground work of Cossack groups and small forays of partisan detachments. The new government flirted with the Kirghiz, the Uighurs, the Dungans, tried to create national units from the Muslim population. All this, with the incessant requisitions of food and the stripping of the villages, was the reason for the ferment among the Russian population, which resulted in the Vernensky insurrection.
Some of the emigrated Cossacks-Semerek went further to the Far East, the other settled in the Xinjiang region of China. Soon the remaining Cossacks resumed their armed struggle against the Bolsheviks. They made rapid raids on the territory of Russia, smashing and destroying small detachments of the Reds. The border between Western China and Semirechie began to resemble the front line. In turn, the Bolsheviks carried out propaganda campaigns for the return among the emigrating Cossacks, repeatedly bribed the authorities of Xinjiang in order to obtain permission to enter into the province of large punitive detachments that raided Cossack settlements. In the 1921 year, the trade missions of the RSFSR appeared in many cities of Xinjiang, and under their cover the Cheka agents flooded the country, starting to hunt for leaders of the white movement. Having underestimated the work of the Soviet special services, the main leaders of the resistance were killed: the ataman of the Orenburg Cossacks, Alexander Dutov, and Colonel PI. Sidorov was trapped and taken to the USSR for execution by Boris Vladimirovich Annenkov. Semirechensky ataman Nikolai Shcherbakov, without waiting for the arrival of assassins, moved with a small detachment to the east. However, in the Gobi Desert, he picked up spotted typhoid and died in September 1922. Cossacks from his squad reached Shanghai, where they founded the Semirechensk Cossack village.
One of the few surviving leaders of the Semirechensky Cossacks was Ataman Alexander Ionov. Evacuating from Vladivostok, he ended up in New Zealand, then in Canada, and finally in the USA, where he lived until the end of his life. Ionov died on 18 on July 1950 in New York City.
The result of the fratricidal Civil War was the reduction of the Cossack population of Russia from four million to two. Thousands of them, fleeing death, forever left their homeland. After the final elimination of their enemies, having risen to their feet, the Soviet government again began to destroy potential opponents. Beginning with 1928, arrests, cossack lifestyle, forced relocation from ancestral lands, dekulakization began again in Semirechye. Now Russian peasants, who were in the past enemies of the Cossacks, have already fallen under a common comb. The new government eradicated even the memory of the Cossack Semirechye, the ancestral names of villages, villages and cities disappeared from geographical maps. Historical facts are distorted, everything connected with the stay of not only the Cossacks, but also the Russians on this land is etched out from the memory of the people ...