Deportation of the Crimean Tatars. how it was
From the stories of Grigory Vasilievich:
"In the 1942 year, the Tatars wanted to cut out the entire Russian population of Yalta. Then the Russians went to the Germans to bow and protect them. The Germans gave the command not to touch ..."
“I don’t know a single Tatar who was a partisan ...”
"May 18 told me that I would take the Tatars to Simferopol. I would do it again today ...."
"The Tatars, who had taken refuge after the eviction through the forests, began attacking individual soldiers. The soldiers would go off into the bushes to cast, and the next day they were found — hung by their feet, and a member in the mouth .... Then the troops were removed from under Sevastopol and they passed through the chain all the forests of the Crimea. Whom they found - they shot them. The conversation was short. And the sense is big ... "
In general, everything happened like this:
On the eve of World War II, the Crimean Tatars made up less than one fifth of the population of the peninsula. Here are the 1939 census data of the year:
Russian 558481 - 49,6%
Ukrainians 154120 - 13,7%
Tatars 218179 - 19,4%
Nevertheless, the Tatar minority was not at all infringed upon their rights vis-à-vis the Russian-speaking population. Rather the opposite. The state languages of the Crimean ASSR were Russian and Tatar. The basis of the administrative division of the autonomous republic was based on the national principle. In the 1930, national village councils were created: Russian - 207, Tatar - 144, German - 37, Jewish - 14, Bulgarian - 9, Greek - 8, Ukrainian - 3, Armenian and Estonian - according to 2. In addition, national areas were organized. In all schools, children of national minorities studied in their own language.
After the start of World War II, many Crimean Tatars were drafted into the Red Army. However, their service was short-lived. As soon as the front approached the Crimea, desertion and surrender among them became widespread. It became obvious that the Crimean Tatars are waiting for the arrival of the German army and do not want to fight. The Germans, using the current situation, threw leaflets from the planes with promises to "finally solve the question of their independence" - of course, in the form of a protectorate as part of the German Empire.
From among the Tatars who surrendered in Ukraine and other fronts, cadres of agents were trained, who were thrown into the Crimea to enhance anti-Soviet, defeatist and pro-fascist agitation. As a result, units of the Red Army staffed with Crimean Tatars proved to be incapacitated and after the Germans entered the peninsula the overwhelming majority of their personnel deserted. Here is what is said about this in the memorandum of the Deputy People's Commissar of State Security of the USSR B.Z. Kobulov and Deputy Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR I.A.Serov in the name of L.P. Beria, dated April 22 on 1944 of the year:
"... All those drafted into the Red Army were 90 thousand people, including 20 thousand Crimean Tatars ... 20 thousand Crimean Tatars deserted 1941 from the 51 army during the retreat from the Crimea ..." .
That is, the desertion of the Crimean Tatars was almost universal. This is confirmed by data on individual settlements. Thus, in the village of Koush, 132 people deserted from the 1941 to the Red Army who were drafted into the Red Army.
Then began the servitude of the invaders.
Crimean Tatars in the auxiliary troops of the Wehrmacht. February 1942
Eloquent testimony of German Field Marshal Erich von Manstein: “... the majority of the Tatar population of the Crimea was very friendly towards us. We even managed to form from the Tatars armed self-defense companies, whose task was to protect their villages from the attacks of partisans hiding in the Yayly Mountains .... The Tatars immediately took our side. They saw in us their liberators from the Bolshevik yoke, especially since we respected their religious practices. A Tatar deputation arrived to me, bringing fruit and beautiful handmade fabrics for the liberator of the Tatars “Adolf Effendi.”
November 11 The so-called "Muslim committees" were created in Simferopol and several other cities and towns of Crimea in November. The organization of these committees and their activities took place under the direct supervision of the SS. Subsequently, the management of the committees passed to the headquarters of the SD. On the basis of the Muslim committees, a “Tatar committee” was created with centralized subordination to the Crimean center in Simferopol with widely developed activities throughout the Crimea.
3 January 1942 was the first official ceremonial meeting of the Tatar Committee in Simferopol. He welcomed the committee and said that the Führer accepted the offer of the Tatars to come up with weapons in the hands of the defense of their homeland from the Bolsheviks. Tatars, ready to take up arms, will be enrolled in the German Wehrmacht, will be provided to all and receive a salary on a par with German soldiers.
After the approval of the general events, the Tatars asked permission to end this first solemn meeting - the beginning of the struggle against the atheists - according to their custom, prayer, and repeated the following three prayers after their mullahs:
1-I prayer: for achieving quick victory and a common goal, as well as for the health and long years of the Fuhrer Adolf Hitler.
2-I prayer: for the German people and its valiant army.
3-I prayer: for the soldiers of the German Wehrmacht who died in the battles.
Crimean Tatar Legions in Crimea (1942): battalions 147-154.
Many Tatars were used as conductors of punitive units. Separate Tatar units were sent to the Kerch Front and partly to the Sevastopol sector of the front, where they participated in battles against the Red Army.
As a rule, local "volunteers" were used in one of the following structures:
1. Crimean Tatar units in the German army.
2. Crimean Tatar punitive and security battalions of SD.
3. The police and field gendarmerie.
4. The apparatus of prisons and camps SD.
A German non-commissioned officer leads the Crimean Tatars, most likely from the “self-defense” police squad (under Wehrmacht jurisdiction)
Persons of Tatar nationality who served in the punitive bodies and military units of the enemy, were dressed in German uniform and provided with weapons. Persons distinguished in their treacherous activities were appointed by the Germans to command positions.
Help of the High Command of the German ground forces from 20 March 1942:
“The Tatars have a good mood. The German bosses are treated with obedience and are proud if they are recognized in the service or outside. The greatest pride for them is to have the right to wear a German uniform. ”
A poster calling people to join the SS forces. Crimea, 1942
It is also necessary to provide quantitative data on the Crimean Tatars among the partisans. On 1 June 1943, in the Crimean partisan units there were 262 people, including 145 Russians, 67 Ukrainians, and 6 Tatars.
After the defeat of Paulus 6 of the German army near Stalingrad, the Theodosia Muslim Committee gathered one million rubles among the Tatars to help the German army. Members of the Muslim committees in their work were guided by the slogan "Crimea only for the Tatars" and spread rumors about the accession of the Crimea to Turkey.
In 1943, the Turkish emissary Amil Pasha came to Feodosia, who called on the Tatar population to support the events of the German command.
In Berlin, the Germans created the Tatar National Center, whose representatives in June 1943 came to Crimea to familiarize themselves with the work of Muslim committees.
Parade of the Crimean Tatar police battalion "Schuma". Crimea. Autumn 1942 of the year
In April-May 1944, the Crimean Tatar battalions fought against the liberating Crimea of the Soviet troops. So, on April 13, in the area of Islam Terek station in the east of the Crimean peninsula, three Crimean Tatar battalions acted against parts of the 11 Guards Corps, which lost only 800 prisoners. The 149 Battalion fought stubbornly in battles for Bakhchisarai.
The remnants of the Crimean Tatar battalions were evacuated by sea. In July, the 1944 of the year in Hungary, of which the Tatar Mining and Chasseur Regiment of the SS was formed, soon deployed in the 1 of the Tatar Mining and Chasseurs Brigade. A number of Crimean Tatars were transferred to France and included in the reserve battalion of the Volga-Tatar Legion. Others, mostly untrained young people, were enrolled in the auxiliary air defense service.
Detachment of the Tatar "self-defense". Winter 1941 - 1942 Crimea.
After the liberation of the Crimea by the Soviet troops, the hour of reckoning came.
"By April 25 1944 g NKVD-NKGB and« SMERSH "NGO were arrested 4206 people anti-Soviet elements, are exposed 430 shpionov.Krome of troops of the NKVD on the rear of the protection from the 10 27 5.115 April detained persons, including the arrested 55 agents of German intelligence and counterintelligence agencies, 266 traitors to the Motherland and traitors, 363 accomplices and henchmen of the enemy, as well as members of the punitive detachments.
48 members of Muslim committees were arrested, including Izmailov Apas - chairman of the Karasubazar regional Muslim committee, Batalov Balat - chairman of the Muslim committee of Balaklava district, Ableyiz Belial - chairman of the Muslim committee of Simeiz district, Aliyev Moussa - chairman of the Muslim committee of Zuya district.
Revealed and arrested a significant number of persons from the enemy agents, henchmen and accomplices of the German fascist invaders.
In the city of Sudak, the chairman of the regional Muslim committee Umerov Vekir was arrested, who confessed that on the instructions of the Germans he organized a volunteer detachment from the kulak-criminal element and led an active struggle against the partisans.
In 1942, during the landing of our landing force near the town of Feodosiya, Umerov's detachment detained 12 Red Army paratroopers and burned them alive. 30 people were arrested in connection with the case.
In Bakhchisarai, a traitor Jabar Abibulayev was arrested, voluntarily joining the punitive battalion created by the Germans in 1942. For active struggle with Soviet patriots, Abibulayev was appointed commander of a punitive platoon and executed civilians suspected of being in connection with partisans.
Field court Abibulayev sentenced to death by hanging.
In the Dzhankoysky district, a group was arrested among three Tatars who, on the instructions of the German intelligence service, in March 1942, were poisoned by Roma in the 200 gas chamber.
As of 7 May this year. 5381 arrested persons of enemy agents, traitors to the Motherland, accomplices of the German fascist invaders and another anti-Soviet element.
The weapons of 5395 rifles, 337 machine guns, 250 machine guns, 31 mortar and a large number of grenades and rifle cartridges illegally stored by the population are seized ...
From the units of the Red Army to 1944, over thousands of Tatars deserted over 20, who changed their homeland, went to the service of the Germans, and fought against the Red Army with arms ...
Fighter squad Tatar "self-defense." Winter 1941 - 1942 Crimea.
Considering the treacherous actions of the Crimean Tatars against the Soviet people and based on the undesirability of the further residence of the Crimean Tatars on the border outskirts of the Soviet Union, the NKVD of the USSR submits for your consideration a draft decision of the State Defense Committee on the eviction of all Tatars from the Crimea.
We consider it expedient to resettle the Crimean Tatars as special settlers in the areas of the Uzbek SSR for use in work both in agriculture - collective farms, state farms, and in industry and construction. The issue of the settlement of Tatars in the Uzbek SSR was agreed with the secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Uzbekistan, t. Yusupov.
People's Commissar of the Interior of the USSR L. Beriya 10.05.44 ".
The next day, on May 11 of 1944, the State Defense Committee adopted a resolution No. 5859 on “On the Crimean Tatars”:
“During the Patriotic War, many Crimean Tatars changed their Motherland, deserted from the units of the Red Army defending the Crimea, and went over to the enemy, entered the volunteer Tatar military units formed by the Germans who fought against the Red Army; During the occupation of the Crimea by the fascist German forces, participating in the German punitive detachments, the Crimean Tatars were especially notable for their brutal reprisals against the Soviet partisans, and also helped the German invaders in organizing the violent hijacking of Soviet citizens into German slavery and mass extermination of the Soviet people.
The Crimean Tatars actively cooperated with the German occupation authorities, participating in the so-called “Tatar national committees” organized by German intelligence and widely used by the Germans for the purpose of bringing spies and saboteurs back to the Red Army. The “Tatar National Committees”, in which the White Guard-Tatar emigrants played the main role, with the support of the Crimean Tatars, directed their activities towards the persecution and oppression of the non-Tatarian population of the Crimea and worked to prepare forcible rejection of Crimea from the Soviet Union with the help of the German armed forces.
Crimean Tatars in the German service. Form Romanian. Crimea, 1943 year. Most likely, these are policemen from the “Schuma” battalion.
Given the above, the State Defense Committee decides:
1. All Tatars should be evicted from the territory of the Crimea and settled for permanent residence as special settlers in the areas of the Uzbek SSR. The eviction to impose on the NKVD of the USSR. To oblige the NKVD of the USSR (Comrade Beria) to evict the Crimean Tatars to finish by June 1 1944
2. Establish the following procedure and conditions for eviction:
a) allow special settlers to take with them personal belongings, clothing, household equipment, dishes and food in quantities up to 500 kilograms per family.
Remaining property, buildings, outbuildings, furniture and homestead lands are accepted by local authorities; all productive and dairy cattle, as well as poultry are accepted by the People's Commissariat of Industry, all agricultural products by the People's Commissariat of the USSR, horses and other working cattle by the People's Commissariat of the USSR, pedigree cattle - by the People's Commissariat of the USSR.
Acceptance of livestock, grain, vegetables and other types of agricultural products to produce with the extract of exchange receipts for each locality and each farm.
Instruct the NKVD of the USSR, the People's Commissariat of Agriculture, the People's Commissariat of Agriculture, the People's Commissariat of Agriculture and the People's Commissariat of the USSR by July 1 this year. submit proposals to the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR on the procedure for returning the exchange receipts to special settlers of cattle, poultry and agricultural products taken from them;
b) to organize the reception from the special settlers of property, livestock, grain and agricultural products left by them in places of eviction, to send a commission of the CPC to the place.
To oblige the People's Commissariat of the USSR, the People's Commissariat of the USSR, the NKMiMP USSR, the People's Commissariat of Agriculture of the USSR to provide the necessary number of workers to Crimea to receive livestock, grain and agricultural products from special settlers;
c) oblige the NKPS to organize the transportation of special settlers from the Crimea to the Uzbek SSR by specially formed echelons according to a schedule drawn up jointly with the NKVD of the USSR. The number of trains, loading stations and destination stations at the request of the NKVD of the USSR. Payments for the carriage to be made at the rate of transport of prisoners;
d) the People's Commissariat of Health of the USSR should allocate one doctor and two nurses with an appropriate supply of medicines for each echelon with special settlers, in terms of coordination with the NKVD of the USSR, and provide medical and sanitary services for special settlers on the way; The People's Commissariat of the USSR provide all trains with special settlers daily with hot meals and boiling water.
For catering for special settlers on the way, allocate products to the People's Commissariat in quantity, according to Appendix No. XXUMX.
3. Oblige Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Uzbekistan T. Yusupov, Chairman of the SNK UzSSR t. Abdurakhmanov and People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of the Uzbek SSR T. Kobulov until June 1 this year. carry out the following measures for the reception and resettlement of special settlers:
a) to accept and resettle, within the Uzbek SSR 140 – 160, thousands of special settlers - Tatars, who were sent by the NKVD of the USSR from the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.
Special settlers should be resettled in state farm settlements, existing collective farms, subsidiary farms of enterprises and factory settlements for use in agriculture and industry;
b) in the areas of resettlement of special settlers, create commissions consisting of the chairman of the regional executive committee, the secretary of the regional committee and the head of the UNKVD, entrusting to these commissions all activities related to the reception and accommodation of the arriving special settlers;
c) in each area of the settlement of special settlers to organize district troikas consisting of the chairman of the district executive committee, the secretary of the district committee and the head of the NKVD Regional Directorate, entrusting them with the placement and reception of the arriving special settlers;
d) prepare guzhavtotransport for transportation of special settlers, mobilizing for this the transport of any enterprises and institutions;
e) to provide the allotment of arriving special settlers with personal plots and to assist in the construction of houses with local building materials;
e) to organize in the areas of resettlement of special settlers of the special commandant's office of the NKVD, bearing their content at the expense of the estimate of the NKVD of the USSR
g) Central Committee and SNK UzSSR to 20 May this year. to submit to the NKVD of the USSR, t. Beria, a project for the resettlement of special settlers in regions and districts, with indication of the echelon unloading station.
4 Oblige Agricultural Bank to issue special immigrants sent to the Uzbek SSR, in the places of their resettlement, a loan for the construction of houses and economic furnishing up to 5000 rubles per family, with installments up to 7 years.
5. To oblige the USSR People's Commissariat of Commerce to allocate to the SNK of the Uzbek SSR flour, cereals and vegetables for distribution to special settlers during June-August of this year. monthly in equal amounts, according to Appendix No. 2.
Issuing flour, cereals and vegetables to special settlers during June-August of this year. produce free of charge, in the calculation for their agricultural products and livestock in their places of eviction.
6. Oblige NPOs to hand over during May-June of this year. to reinforce the vehicles of the NKVD troops deployed by the garrisons in the resettlement areas of the special settlers — in the Uzbek SSR, the Kazakh SSR and the Kirghiz SSR, the “Willis” vehicles - 100 units and trucks - 250 units, which were out of repair.
7. To obligate Glavneftesnab to allocate and ship up to 20 of May 1944 of the year to points on the instructions of the NKVD of the USSR 400 tons of gasoline, at the disposal of the SNK of the Uzbek SSR - 200 tons.
Supply of gasoline to produce due to a uniform reduction in supply to all other consumers.
8. To oblige Glavsnables under SNK of the USSR at the expense of any resources to supply NNPS 75 000 wagon boards for 2,75 m each, with their delivery before 15 in May of this year; transportation boards NKPS to make their own funds.
9. Narkomfinu USSR to let the NKVD of the USSR in May of this year. from the reserve fund SNK USSR for special events 30 million rubles.
Chairman of the State Defense Committee I. Stalin ".
Note: Norm per person 1 per month: flour - 8 kg, vegetables - 8 kg and cereal 2 kg
The operation was carried out quickly and decisively. The eviction began on May 18 of the year 1944, and already on May 20 of the USSR Deputy People's Commissar of Internal Affairs I.A.Serov and Deputy People's Commissar of State Security of the USSR B.Z. Kobulov reported in a telegram to the USSR People’s Commissar of Internal Affairs L. Beria:
“We hereby report that started in accordance with your instructions 18 May this year. The operation to evict the Crimean Tatars is completed today, May 20, at 16 hours. 180 014 people evicted, shipped to 67 echelons, of which 63 echelon has 173 287 people. shipped to destinations, the rest of the 4 echelon will also be shipped today.
In addition, the Crimean military committees mobilized 6000 Tatars of draft age, who were sent to the cities of Guryev, Rybinsk and Kuibyshev in accordance with the orders of the Red Army Chief of Staff.
From among those sent according to your instructions to the disposal of the trust “Moskovugol” 8000, people of special contingent 5000 people. also make up the Tatars.
Thus, 191 044 persons of Tatar nationality were exported from the Crimean ASSR.
During the eviction of the Tatars, anti-Soviet elements of 1137 people were arrested, and 5989 people during the entire operation.
Seized weapons during the eviction: mortar - 10, machine guns - 173, machine guns - 192, rifles - 2650, ammunition - 46 603 pcs.
In total, the following operations were seized: mortars - 49, machine guns - 622, machine guns - 724, rifles - 9888 and ammunition guns - 326 887 pcs.
There were no excesses during the operation. ”
From 151 720 of the Crimean Tatars, sent in May 1944 to the Uzbek SSR, 191 people died on the way.
From the moment of the deportation on 1 of October 1948 of the year, 44 887 people from among those evicted from the Crimea (Tatars, Bulgarians, Greeks, Armenians and others) died.
As for the few Crimean Tatars who really honestly fought in the Red Army or in partisan detachments, contrary to popular belief, they were not evicted. In Crimea, there are about 1500 Crimean Tatars
No. 875 / 41 Translation To His Highness Mr. Hitler!
Allow me to convey to you our cordial greetings and our gratitude for the liberation of the Crimean Tatars (Muslims), languishing under the bloodthirsty Jewish-Communist yoke. We wish you long life, success and victory of the German army all over the world.
Crimean Tatars are ready to fight your call with the German People's Army on any front. At present, partisans, Jewish commissars, communists and commanders who did not manage to escape from the Crimea are in the forests of Crimea.
For the speedy elimination of the partisan groups in the Crimea, we urge you to allow us, as good experts on the roads and trails of the Crimean forests, to organize from former "kulaks" moaning already for 20 years under the yoke of Jewish-communist domination, armed units led by the German command .
We assure you that in the shortest possible time the partisans in the forests of the Crimea will be destroyed to the last man.
We remain loyal to you, and again and again we wish you success in your endeavors and long life.
Long live His Highness, Mr. Adolf Hitler!
Long live the heroic, invincible German people's army!
The son of a manufacturer and grandson of a former city
heads of the city of Bakhchisarai - AM ABLAEV
Simferopol, Sufi 44.
True: Sönderführer - MUDES
FUND P-9401 CASE 2 CASE 100 SHEET 390 "
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