Who created the AK?

Recently, there has been a lot of speculation on the topic of who created the legendary Kalashnikov assault rifle. Many believe that the famous German gunsmith Hugo Schmeiser, who after the war worked for several years in the Urals forcibly, had a hand in a Russian submachine gun. These statements are mainly based on the significant external similarity of the Schmeiser brainchild - Stg 44 and the Soviet AK-47. It is worth recognizing that for many years the USSR adapted other people's designs for production in its own conditions, it’s enough to recall the Gaz-AA car, which was a licensed copy of Ford-AA, the famous “penny” created under the license of Fiata and even the family tanks Bt-2,5,7 and the T-34 that grew out of them, which were developed on the basis of the Christie tank. True, in all these cases, the USSR officially acquired licenses.

All those who believe that the main role in creating the most successful machine gun in the world (approximately 100 million copies were made) belong to Schmeisser, are based on the fact that the German was a summer designer for 63 weapons, and Kalashnikov self-taught tanker with 7 education classes; to the fact that the famous German designer from 1946, was in our country; that awards to Kalashnikov fell only in modern times; Well, do not forget about the appearance of the weapon and the strange date of creation, referring exactly to the post-war time.

Kalashnikov did graduate from high school 7 classes, but he was interested in engineering and mechanics since childhood. Working before the conscription in the railway depot, Mikhail Kalashnikov talked a lot with locksmiths, machinists and finally ignited the idea to create something of his own. In the fall of 1938, he enters the army, where he graduates from junior commanders courses and masters the specialty of a tank driver. Then his first design abilities are manifested - he develops an inertial counter of shots from a tank gun, a special device for a TT pistol, which increases the effectiveness of firing through the slots in the tank turret, as well as a counter of the motor potential of the tank. The last invention was quite noticeable, with a report on it, Kalashnikov was summoned to G.K. Zhukov, who at that moment was the commander of the Kiev Special Military District. After a conversation with the renowned commander, Kalashnikov is sent to the Kiev Tank Technical School, where the first prototypes are manufactured.

Who created the AK?

Mikhail Kalashnikov with AK

In August, 1941, Mikhail Kalashnikov will begin the Great Patriotic War for himself as a tank commander. In October, near Bryansk, he will be severely wounded and will be sent to the hospital, where he will finally get an idea of ​​creating his own small arms. After being seriously injured for months after X-ray treatment, in three months Mikhail Kalashnikov creates his first submachine gun, which after some modifications was sent to the USSR Main Artillery Directorate, where they noted some flaws, praising the overall successful design. The submachine gun did not go into the series due to the laboriousness of manufacturing and greater cost compared to PCA-6 and PPP, although the commission noted its low weight, the ability to conduct a single fire, small length, the successful combination of the fuse and translator fire. After this development, the senior sergeant is sent for further training and from the 41 year to the end of the war he works at the Central Research Grounds for Small Arms GAU RKKA. Here, until the end of the war in 1942, he manages to create a self-loading carbine, in the design of which there was a noticeable influence of the American rifle M1944Garand. In the future, the developments on this carbine were used in the creation of the machine.

Thus, we have to admit that although Kalashnikov had education classes behind him, he initially showed himself as a person inclined to inventing, he himself developed a sample of small arms 7, and since the year 2 has been working only on developing small arms. In the end, and Schmeiser, too, when he started, he was not born immediately as a designer.

As soon as a competition for the creation of an automaton was announced in the country, the Kalashnikov was included in it. In November, 1946, his machine gun, among other samples, was approved for production, and Kalashnikov was seconded to the city of Kovrov to plant # XXUMX for the manufacture of an experimental batch. In December of this year, the AK-2 Kalashnikov assault rifle was put to the test with the Bulkin AB-47 assault rifles and the Dementieva AD automaton, and in the second round of tests the AK-46 was rejected by the commission. But, in spite of this decision, Kalashnikov, with the support of a number of familiar officers, with whom he served together with 46, obtained a review of the commission’s decision and received approval for fine-tuning the machine gun.

Having returned to Kovrov again, the AK-46 submachine gun undergoes radical processing, in which experienced designer Kovrov Zaytsev plant actively assists Kalashnikov. By the next round of tests, an actual machine gun was assembled, which had a slight resemblance to the AK-46, but received a significant similarity to the rival Bulkin's gun. The bolt carrier with rigid connection of the gas piston, the placement of the return spring, the arrangement of the receiver and its cover are borrowed. Many constructive solutions of the machine were borrowed from other systems. The trigger mechanism with minor changes from the Czech self-loading rifle, Holek, the safety lever, which served as a dust cover for the shutter handle window, was borrowed from the Remington 8 self-loading rifle by renowned designer Browning, the location of the bolt group inside the receiver was borrowed from the Sadev automatic machine.

At the same time, it should be especially noted that at this time, copying and using other people's design solutions was not only not forbidden, but was welcomed. All intellectual property in the USSR was considered common, did not belong to a specific inventor, but to the whole people (state). It is also worth emphasizing that the use of other people's solutions does not guarantee their joint successful use at all - this requires significant design and engineering work, which Kalashnikov and Zaitsev did in a very short time.

Disassembly AK and Stg 44

As a result, three automata brought samples of Bulkin and Dementyev and in fact a new Kalashnikov and Zaitsev assault rifle went into the next round of state tests. Upon completion of the tests, not one of the samples was found to satisfy all the requirements of the technical specifications. The Kalashnikov assault rifle was recognized as the most reliable, while having insufficient accuracy of fire. The only machine that satisfies the commission on accuracy (Bulkin’s machine), on the contrary, had a number of problems with the reliability and survivability of a number of parts. In the end, the commission still preferred the Kalashnikov assault rifle, choosing reliability. Improved accuracy of shooting was delayed indefinitely. The Soviet army now needed a reliable machine than a more accurate and reliable, but it is not known when.

Therefore, the fact that Kalashnikov “sketched” his machine gun from the German Stg 44 is nothing more than a myth. Schmeiser worked in Izhevsk from 1946 to 1950 years, while Kalashnikov worked on development in Kovrov. He arrives in Izhevsk only at the end of the 1948 of the year, having in his hands a ready-made sample of the machine gun, which had to be released in small batches to carry out military trials.

Despite the similarity of the external layout of the AK and Stg 44, it can only be argued that they have a common concept for all automatic weapons - the use of an intermediate cartridge. Similar outlines of the trunk, the front sight and the venting tube are explained by the use of a similar venting engine, which was invented even long before Schmeisser. And the designs of the two automata themselves contain many fundamentally different solutions. So the AK is removed the cover of the receiver, and the Stg 44 leans down on the pin box with a trigger mechanism, together with the fire control handle. The barrel locking device is different (skewed at the Stg 44 and the butterfly valve on the AK), and trigger mechanisms are different. It is not excluded that Kalashnikov knew about the existence of Stg 44, however, he was guided by other models in the development. The main merit of the Russian gunsmith and his entire team was the optimal layout of already known and proven solutions, combined in one sample of small arms.

Kalashnikov was awarded for his designs and successes in weapons business in the Stalin years. So in 1948 and 1949, the designer was twice awarded the Stalin Prize, as well as the Order of the Red Star in 1949. The only argument of those who believe that the AK was copied from the Stg 44, is their external similarity.

When writing materials used sites:
1. www.world.guns.ru/assault/rus/ak-akm-r.html
2. www.cneat.ru/mtk.html
3. www.ok.ya1.ru/funny/other/49208-shturmovaya-vintovka-avtomat-mp-43-mp-44-stg-44.html
4. free internet inceclopedia "wikipedia".
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  1. Anton
    24 January 2011 20: 18
    All the persistence with which the author proves the difference between AK and ShtG can be spent on comparing a German automatic machine with other designs. Then it will become more clear who is borrowing from whom and what. Surely there is a bunch of products of other designers, which are much closer to ShtG than AK.
  2. Anders Breivik
    11 September 2011 20: 53
    We found something to compare with, the radically redesigned AK-46 released in 1949 after about two hundred changes with the 1943 assault rifle.
    And it is necessary to compare with AK-46 mod 1 and Sudaev 44 Assault Rifles.
  3. 0
    13 October 2013 11: 21
    Even Sturmgever looks like an M16, but no one says that Stoner directly copied Schmeiser's decisions ...
  4. 0
    20 June 2014 17: 48
    4. free internet inceclopedia "wikipedia".

    I do not like Wikipedia. Liberal O.V.N.O. contains her. In the Russian segment of this project, liberals keep Wikipedia.
  5. kvs45
    4 May 2015 14: 26
    It is not fair to call a product the name of one person when a whole team worked there. At the request of the commission, Kalashnikov could not make a mathematical substantiation of the project in his 7 classes of education, and there diffuses into the "long elbow"

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