Military Review

US Air Defense

29



The United States-Canadian Air Defense Command of the North American Continent (NORAD), which was created in 1957 in the wake of bilateral agreements signed by the governments of the United States and Canada, is engaged in providing air defense to the North American continent.

The NORAD includes the command of the aerospace defense, which is subject to the forces and equipment of the American air defense, as well as the forces and equipment of the Canadian air defense group.

The base for the command headquarters is Peterson Air Base, and the permanent command post is located in a fortified bunker that is built inside Mount Cheyenne.

The Joint Command includes the USAF Air Defense Command, Canadian aviation Command (Canadian Air Command), Naval Forces (Naval Forces CONAD / NORAD) and Command of the Air Defense Forces (Army Air Defense Command).



The air defense structure consists of ground observation systems: sensors and radars deployed in both countries, air warning systems and fighter aviation: US E-3 AWACS airplanes and Canadian CF-18 fighter-bombers and American F-15, 16 and 22 fighters .

The airspace monitoring and reconnaissance system consists of a network of dual-command radar posts of the Air Defense System (ATC) of the continental United States and the Canadian Air Defense District, radar posts of the Northern Warning System (NWS) line, aerostat radar stations, 414L over-the-horizon radar, regional operational control centers (ROCC - Regional Operations Control Center) and AWACS aircraft.

Satellite image of Google Earth: stationary radar control of airspace (blue diamonds) and basing areas of the air defense system (red squares) in the United States


It is worth noting that after the US authorities realized the threat posed by a large number of Soviet ICBMs, it was decided to abandon powerful air defense, including a large number of air defense systems deployed in the country. According to former US Secretary of Defense Schlesinger, if they cannot protect their cities from strategic missiles, then you should not even try to create protection against the small bomber aircraft of the USSR.

In the 1980-ies began the process of a sharp reduction of air defense forces - all anti-aircraft artillery systems, as well as most of the air defense system, were removed from service. The number of aviation regiments on duty was also reduced.

As a result of a number of radical reductions, by the autumn of 2001, only air fighter groups of the US National Guard and the Canadian Air Force remained in the air defense of the North American continent. Until 11, September, 15-minute readiness for departure throughout the continent was carried by no more than six interceptors.

However, in recent years, the intensity of flights has increased significantly. Currently, NORAD daily monitors up to seven thousand air objects. Over the United States at a time can be more than ten aircraft. During the day, about 80 thousands of take-offs and landings of aircraft performing domestic flights are recorded at airports.

“Black Tuesday” put the NORAD system in a situation that was not only not provided for in combat algorithms and action sequences, but was never lost in the process of staff training of the aviation and radar on-duty units.

The events of 11 September 2001 of the year showed that the whole system, designed to prevent outside invasion, failed to cope with the terrorist threat. Therefore, it was subjected to serious reform.

Currently, the NORAD system is engaged in radar and aviation control of the air situation over the territory of the continental United States and Canada. For this purpose, additional stationary and mobile radars were used, fighters and AWACS aircraft were constantly in the air, and the number of interceptors on duty at aircraft bases was tripled.

Satellite image of Google Earth: E-3 airborne early warning aircraft at Tinker airbase


It also provides for the use of a system consisting of aerostat radar posts. It is worth noting that it is particularly effective in the southern part of the country, where it works in conjunction with the US border service, tracking low-altitude light aircraft that are often used to transport drugs across the border with Mexico.

Satellite image of Google Earth: a balloon of a radar surveillance system in the area of ​​the US-Mexico border


On the territory of the continental United States in peacetime, 75% of all RLPs are shared by the Air Force and the federal civil aviation agency. Ground posts are used by modern detection radars, including the ARSR-4, as well as the altitude detection radar, AN / FPS-116, using digital processing and data transmission.

Google Earth Satellite Image: JSS Radar System in Long Beach


A new procedure was also introduced to decide on the attack of aircraft captured by terrorists. At the moment, it is not only the American president who is responsible for this: in emergency situations, a decision may be made by the commander of the continental air defense zone.

The reorganization also affected the process of combat fighter duty over large urban centers. Thirty air bases are participating in it (against seven to September 11). Eight squadrons with 130 interceptors and 8 AWACS aircraft are on duty. The airspace above the capital of the United States is guarded by the 113 Air Force wing of the National Guard Air Force, which is deployed at an air base in Maryland. At the beginning of 2006, the 27 squadron, armed with the X-NUMX-generation F-5 Raptor, was in combat duty.

Google Earth satellite image: F-15C and F-22 fighter aircraft at Lingle airbaseи


The permanent duty system includes 127 radar posts that service 11 thousands of military personnel. More than half of them are national guardsmen. However, they still can not provide an absolute radar field over the territory of the North American continent.

According to representatives of the US military command, the current airspace control system makes it possible to monitor all movements of large aircraft in response to any route change, especially when approaching restricted areas. It is worth noting that there are hundreds of such deviations.

There are more than 4500 thousands of small private airfields operating in the United States, which are practically not controlled by federal agencies. According to various data, they are used from 26 to 30 of thousands of different aircraft, including jet ones. Naturally, these are not huge liners, but they can also cause serious damage if they fall into the wrong hands.

All important and potentially dangerous objects can be covered by anti-aircraft missile defense systems in the event of a terrorist threat.

The 21 anti-aircraft missile division is part of the National Guard and the regular army. Their armament numbers about 700 PU ZRK Avenger, about 480 PU ZRK Patriot, as well as NASAMS 1 ZRK.

After 11 September 2001 in the area of ​​Congress and the White House appeared 12 installations of the Avenger air defense system.



This is a low-altitude air defense system as part of a gyro-stabilized platform mounted on a Hummer vehicle, with a Stinger SAM system in TPK - two packages of four pieces. The complex is equipped with optical and thermal imaging means for detecting and tracking targets, a laser range finder, an identification device from Stinger MANPADS and communications equipment. Maximum range 5.5 kilometers. The height of the lesion is 3.8 kilometers.

Satellite image of Google Earth: position of the American Patriot air defense system in the UAE


It is worth noting that although there are platforms in the United States for the deployment of the Patriot air defense missile system, these complexes are used only outside the country.

About half of all Patriot complexes are deployed in Europe, South Korea and the Middle East.



In the United States, almost all of the Patriots are located in places of storage or deployment: Fort Sill bases, Fort Bliss, Fort Hood, Redstone arsenal. They are not used for combat duty on an ongoing basis in the country.

Washington is protected by three launchers of the Norwegian-American NASAMS ADMS, which are located in the shape of a triangle.

Satellite image of Google Earth: deployed launchers SAM NASAMS (red triangles)


This anti-aircraft complex uses AIM-120 AMRAAM aircraft missiles. Its development from 1989 to 1993 was done by the American Raytheon and the Norwegian Norsk Forsvarteknologia. The complex was created to replace the “Improved Hawk” air defense system. The main purpose is to counter maneuvering aerodynamic targets at medium altitudes. Its range is 2.5-40 kilometers, and the height of the defeat is 0.03-16 kilometers, which allows the intruder to be shot down before he gets close to the White House.



It is quite obvious that by staking on fighter-interceptors, it is impossible to guarantee absolute protection against airborne threats to important targets. Therefore, in the United States are working on the revival of object air defense and the creation of a solid radar field. However, this requires a large material investment.

Based on:
http://rbase.new-factoria.ru/missile/wobb/nasams/nasams.shtml
http://old.vko.ru/article.asp?pr_sign=archive.2001.3.0103_04
http://rbase.new-factoria.ru/missile/wobb/patriot/patriot.shtml
http://forums.airbase.ru/2006/10/t51454--razgrom-i-vozrozhdenie-sil-protivovozdushnoj-oborony-ssha.162.html
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  1. Sirocco
    Sirocco 29 July 2013 08: 35
    12
    The events of 11 September 2001 of the year showed that the whole system, designed to prevent outside invasion, failed to cope with the terrorist threat. Therefore, it was subjected to serious reform.
    And what kind of situation was outside, which the US-Canada air defense did not cope with? How many copies were broken on September 11, only the blind and deaf do not understand that all these "raids" by Boeing on the United States, a planned action of the special services in order to free their hands for action on Bl. East, and Africa.
    1. Refund_SSSR
      Refund_SSSR 5 August 2013 05: 01
      +2
      Quote: Sirocco
      And what was the situation from OUTSIDE that the US-Canada air defense did not cope with?

      I agree, but there is one more question: "Was there at least one serious attack on the United States to test the air defense system's performance?"
  2. Gardamir
    Gardamir 29 July 2013 08: 45
    +6
    Why is the sword looking up? No need to be a heraldist. to understand this is not about defense. These are attacking troops.
    1. Andrey77
      Andrey77 1 August 2013 12: 35
      +1
      And what is "attacking troops", explain. Is there a special attack weapon? Do not talk nonsense, heraldist.
      1. Refund_SSSR
        Refund_SSSR 5 August 2013 04: 51
        +1
        What is a "non-attack weapon"? laughing please explain to us.
        And as an interceptor fighter, maybe "non-attacking"? Moreover, the article itself does not give an ambiguous message - the US armed forces are not designed for defensive defense (fortification).
        US air defense is the force of a preemptive strike (and here heraldry is also not ambiguously hinting)
  3. carbofo
    carbofo 29 July 2013 08: 51
    +6
    The parasites twitched.
    1. carbofo
      carbofo 31 July 2013 12: 29
      +2
      Akhtung - they read us striped or the old woman Alekseeva slammed me minus.
  4. a52333
    a52333 29 July 2013 10: 47
    +9
    I conclude from this article that their doctrine is not designed for defense. Only part of the territory is covered. In principle, while no one is going to attack them (so far no one is ready), that is probably why it is so full of holes.
    1. Bongo
      29 July 2013 13: 35
      +8
      Quite right, all current efforts are aimed at repelling the "terrorist threat."
      On the scale of the deployment of the air defense missile system in the past can be judged by the map of the United States, white triangles, these are former, now abandoned positions.
      1. Rus2012
        Rus2012 29 July 2013 18: 02
        0
        Quote: Bongo
        On the scale of the deployment of the air defense missile system in the past can be judged by the map of the United States, white triangles, these are former, now abandoned positions.


        Here's how they had it in the vicinity of 90xx - the famous “Bomark” missiles and a solid radar field.
        http://topwar.ru/23459-nebesnyy-schit-chuzhoy-otchizny-voennaya-politika-sverhde

        rzhav-v-dni-karibskogo-krizisa.html
        All this depreciated with the advent of Soviet ICBMs ...

        1. Bongo
          30 July 2013 03: 02
          +4
          ЦItata: Rus2012
          Here's how they had it in the vicinity of 90xx - the famous “Bomark” missiles and a solid radar field.

          SAM CIM-10 "Bomarc" never formed the basis of the US air defense. In total, these complexes were deployed in 7 positions. Removed from service in 72. Nike Hercules was much more numerous.
  5. Takashi
    Takashi 29 July 2013 13: 35
    +5
    interesting, but how are we in Russia?
    the Kremlin is also guarded by a triangle with a Wasp at the base of the UAZ? :)
    1. Bongo
      29 July 2013 13: 55
      +7
      With all the desire, the OSR of the Wasp on the UAZ mount will not work.
      As for the protection of the Kremlin, in the photo the red and yellow triangles indicate the operating air defense system around Moscow.
      1. carbofo
        carbofo 29 July 2013 15: 18
        +4
        Quote: Bongo
        active air defense systems around Moscow.

        Nice picture, for complacency, only little bear painfully tasty.
        If you are lucky, somebody will see the dawn after the Doomsday.
        But the Russians are famous for the fact that pissemism creates faith and hope.
        1. Bongo
          29 July 2013 16: 07
          +5
          Quote: carbofo Nice picture, for complacency, only little bear painfully tasty.
          If you are lucky, somebody will see the dawn after the Doomsday.
          But the Russians are famous for the fact that pissemism creates faith and hope.
          It seems to be true, only the main part of the air defense system, which protect Moscow, was produced in the USSR.
          1. carbofo
            carbofo 31 July 2013 12: 36
            +1
            Quote: Bongo
            that defend Moscow, made in the USSR.

            Well, to begin with, there are almost no modern systems developed in Russia in service.
            Everything was developed in the USSR.
            Then the Ukrainian alone argued that they said that the dviglo for the TVD-117 helicopter was the best Ukrainian, he zealously proved that these were their engines, and the fact that we just left the documentation with them when the USSR collapsed did not convince him, they are so independent, well, you’re me understand :).
            I once read an article about - if an atomic warhead explodes over Moscow, say 20 megatons, in general, after reading it, it made no sense to strain, even if I learn about a missile launch, I still won’t have time to run away.
            Smile and wave :)
            1. Bongo
              1 August 2013 13: 36
              +4
              Agree, when the complex is on alert for more than 20 years, and there is no replacement for it, is this not a reason for pride?
      2. Starover_Z
        Starover_Z 29 July 2013 15: 29
        +7
        And the white triangles are the former positions of the Moscow Air Defense System, the period of the Soviet Union, so you have to understand?
        If so, then sorry!
        1. Bongo
          29 July 2013 16: 05
          +5
          You are right, the white triangles are the former positions of the Moscow Air Defense System, the period of the Soviet Union. But a significant part of them is the outdated C-25, C-75 and C-200 complexes.
          1. Rus2012
            Rus2012 29 July 2013 17: 59
            +3
            Quote: Bongo
            But a significant part of them is the obsolete C-25, C-75 and C-200 complexes.

            yeah ...
            the famous S-25 "Golden Eagle" ...
            http://narynka.ucoz.ru/publ/zrk_s_25_berkut/1-1-0-3

  6. Savl
    Savl 29 July 2013 18: 21
    +4
    They simply have not been democratized by a good carpet bombing.
    1. carbofo
      carbofo 31 July 2013 12: 38
      +1
      In fact, everything is simple, cut off the light to the Americans, and niggas will do the rest!
  7. Odysseus
    Odysseus 29 July 2013 19: 09
    +6
    Very sensible article with excellent satellite images.
    In essence, given the fact that the air threat to the United States and Canada simply does not exist now, their air defense system looks even redundant in its capabilities.
    However, as China intensifies and a new strategic bomber is created there, such a threat may appear, and then they may really have to recreate the object's air defense.
    1. Rus2012
      Rus2012 29 July 2013 20: 46
      +1
      Quote: Odyssey
      And then maybe they really have to recreate the object defense.

      ...hardly. For by chance, the first "selectively-sterilizing" strike will be an ICBM, and YES - only the cleaning of the remaining unprotected targets ... Or KR - from outside the zones of air defense.
      Like our strategists though ...
      1. Odysseus
        Odysseus 30 July 2013 02: 01
        +3
        Quote: Rus2012
        ..hardly. For by chance, the first "selectively-sterilizing" strike will be an ICBM, and YES - only the cleaning of the remaining unprotected targets ... Or KR - from outside the zones of air defense.

        Eee, I don’t quite understand. If you are talking about the USA there, the emphasis is on YES (plus SLBMs). But the ICBMs after the collapse of the USSR became of little relevance to them.
        If about the PRC, then YES is really underdeveloped there, but I was talking about the future. And the PRC intends to play with the United States "for a long time." Why would they not in the future place their military bases (including air force bases) on the territory of its allies? Socialism, for example in Venezuela.
        1. studentmati
          studentmati 30 July 2013 02: 06
          0
          Quote: Odyssey
          But the ICBMs after the collapse of the USSR became of little relevance to them.


          Are they - "not in the subject"? Or is the countermeasure scheme worked out? Or maybe ....?
  8. ivanovbg
    ivanovbg 29 July 2013 22: 10
    +5
    Every year on Christmas Eve The joint command of the aerospace defense of the North American continent (NORAD) traditionally tracks the movement of Santa Claus (Santa Claus) around the planet.

    From December 1, the official website of the US-Canadian command begins the countdown to tracking. Anyone who wants to find out the location of Santa’s western colleague from 24 to December 25 in Moscow and get ready to visit him, including in Russia, can do this by visiting the special website noradsante.org and by calling the special NORAD telephone number. The position of Santa Claus on the website map will be adjusted every five minutes. On the site you can also watch videos about his movements.

    The NORAD headquarters, which is located at the Patterson air base in Colorado, begins to monitor the preparations for the Santa Claus sleigh flight at midnight on December 24 across the American “mountain time zone”. This corresponds to 11 in the morning of Moscow time on December 24. In 13: 00 Moscow time, Santa Claus and his faithful assistant - the deer Rudolph - will travel around the world from the North Pole. And Santa Claus will end his tour at midnight local time in Colorado - 11 in the morning in Moscow on December 25. More than 40 radars deployed in various areas of the USA and Canada will monitor the movement of Santa Claus and the Rudolph deer, who will carry a sleigh with gifts. In addition, satellites with infrared sensors in geostationary orbit,

    The tradition of tracking the movements of the main Christmas character originated in NORAD in 1955 yearwhen the owner of the store published an advertisement in the newspaper in which he invited the kids to "talk to Santa". The newspaper made a typo and, ironically, quite reluctantly, published the top-secret at that time direct telephone number of the chief of the air defense operations department, Colonel Garry Schaup. Having received hundreds of calls from children, he was not at a loss and began to explain to the children that the military performs the functions of Santa Claus's air traffic controller so that he does not get lost in the sky. So the missile launch control system became the wizard's faithful navigator.
  9. eplewke
    eplewke 30 July 2013 11: 39
    +1
    From this article we conclude. Google is the most powerful revealer of military secrets! laughing
  10. GUSAR
    GUSAR 30 July 2013 21: 04
    0
    Of course, our complexes are better, but as for covering the entire territory ...
  11. Woldemar
    Woldemar 16 August 2013 21: 50
    +3
    A plus sign is not yet allowed, but about Google laughed laughing
    and about Santa is also interesting)
  12. scientist
    scientist 19 August 2013 10: 42
    +2
    Russia has long studied the experience of NORAD and unfortunately it is only suitable for minimizing the terrorist threat from within and creating fly swatter for smugglers. Pthe problem of air defense and aerospace defense in Russia is completely different and the threats are significantly different from US threats. I have been developing this topic for a long time and created a fundamentally new system for creating a noise-resistant hidden radar field, which allows you to very effectively control the entire aerospace with minimal cost. In the description of the invention, active noise interference from a moving object with a priori indefinite parameters is considered, as the most difficult case, but in fact there can be any radiation source, star, navigation and communication satellite, and terrestrial broadcasting stations. He defended his thesis and filed a patent here is the link: http://www.freepatent.ru/patents/2240576. However, I still cannot break through science officials in the Russian Federation. Advise how to continue these studies and create a prototype, whom to contact.