In the pavilions, electronic firms working in the shipbuilding industry set the tone. Concern NPO "Aurora", engaged in the creation of ship automation equipment, offered the Russian Navy a draft center for training naval specialists of various specialties for surface ships and submarines. By the way, in Vietnam, under the auspices of Aurora, such a training center for submariners will soon begin to operate. Crews will be trained there for six submarines of the 06361 project, which are currently being built at Admiralty shipyards for the Navy. The first of these boats will soon be handed over to the customer.
Concern of the Central Research Institute Elektropribor demonstrated its unique navigation devices, Oceanpribor, the latest hydroacoustics tools, Granit-Electron, radar stations and homing heads of anti-ship missiles. The Morinformsystem-Agat concern is creating a cluster in the Far East on the development of control systems for underwater robotics.
And in the open area of the cabin, he demonstrated the enclosed Club-K missile system, designed to destroy naval and coastal targets.
USC CONFORMANCE DOES NOT DECORATE
But shipbuilders disappointed. For the second time in a row, the United Shipbuilding Corporation (USC) at the huge exhibition area arranges a common stand of enterprises belonging to this holding. The exhibitors themselves from USC behind the eyes called this exhibition "mass grave". And they are right, because to understand, at least from the first, who proposes what projects, and who builds what, was not possible. But potential foreign customers, whose attraction is primarily aimed at the salon, it is important to understand who they are dealing with. That is why the representatives of the companies belonging to the association were forced to arrange special tours to those corners of the vast USK stand, where their ship models were exhibited. Or they organized presentations of new projects. For example, the Sredne-Nevsky Shipbuilding Plant (SNSZ) presented a new road-sweeper minesweeper (RTSch) of the 10750 project with a displacement of 150 t. The assembly of the lead ship of this type will soon begin at the SNSZ for the Kazakhstan Navy.
The project of this FTS was created as an initiative of the Almaz Central Metallurgical Bureau, which owns the palm in terms of the number of projects of ships, ships and boats being built at various Russian shipyards, based on the minesweeper project 10750 “Sapphire”, developed in the Soviet era. But the project was radically reworked. In the monolithic fiberglass case - imported GAS mine detection Sea Bat Combo. Autonomous underwater vehicles Alister, K-Ster Inspector and K-Ster Mine Killer, too, as you might guess, of foreign origin, allow you to search and destroy mines ahead of the ship's course. The use of domestic contact and acoustic trawls is also envisaged, and the “Diez-E” automatic mine action control system, developed by the Morinformsystem-Agat concern, “conducts” with this complex economy.
Reproaches are already being made to this project. Like, there are too many foreign components in it. But what if the State Armaments Program until 2020 does not include funds for the development of mine-sweeping ships? But mines were the scourge of the Russian imperial fleet during the First World War and the Soviet Navy in the Baltic and the Black Sea during the Great Patriotic War.
The second novelty from USC is the anti-submarine ship “Sarsar” with a displacement of about 900 t developed by Zelenodolsk PKB. It was created on the basis of the small rocket ship project 21631 "Buyan-M". His main weapon - anti-submarine complex "Package-NK" or two 533-mm double-tube torpedo tubes for firing anti-submarine torpedoes. For the detection of submarines, a sap-like GAS is used. There are also 57 mm A220M artillery mounts, machine guns and unmanned aviation complex "Horizon Air S-100". But the anti-aircraft weapons of this tightly arranged small corvette look clearly archaic, since it is supposed to use the Osa-MA air defense system to ensure air defense. There is no word, when this complex appeared 40 years ago, then it was the last word of means of defense against an air enemy at close borders. Today, this single-channel air defense system is unlikely to cope with modern anti-ship missiles. But the choice in favor of Osa-MA is compelled. The domestic industry has not yet given the fleet a short-range air defense system that would meet the requirements of combating an air enemy in the XNUMXst century.
However, the situation may change. As an initiative, the Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant Kupol, which is part of the Almaz-Antey Air Defense Concern, suggests that the Tor-МХNUMXМКМ air defense system be deployed. This multichannel modular construction complex is designed for aerodynamic purposes of all classes at 2 – 1000 15 m ranges and altitudes from 000 to 10 10 m in a difficult noise and meteorological environment. The complex "Tor-М000МКМ" is successfully operated in the army. And to create a marine version will take a short time and not very large funds. Still, without government funding, this process may be delayed.
MONEY DOES NOT GUARANTEE THE SOLUTIONS OF ALL PROBLEMS
True, government funding does not always help. In the harbor, the flagship of the Russian exposition at IMDS-2013 was the Corvette “Boyky”, built at the Northern shipyard, of the 20380 project developed by the Almaz Central Metallurgical Bureau. He surrendered to the fleet in May of this year. However, this well-balanced and elegant ship, in the architecture and design of which the newest technologies of low visibility are introduced, is not fully equipped. It is missing the “Redut” air defense missile system, which is supposed to be supplied by the Almaz-Antey air defense concern. As the newspaper already noted (“NVO” No. 20 from 14.07.13), the stumbling block is the Furke radar, which does not cope with the guidance of the missiles at the target. Without Reduta, the first serial corvette of this type, “Savvy”, serves. The Corvette “Resistant”, which is being prepared for testing at the Northern shipyard, will not receive it yet. By the way, “Furke” cannot cope with aiming the missile “Kortik-M” on the target of the corvette “Steregushchy” - the lead ship of the series.
In general, the Russian Navy and the Coast Guard of the Border Guard Service of the FSB were represented at the 2013 cabin of the year by “live” ships and boats, than in previous years. Suffice it to say that their total displacement was more than twice less than the displacement of two Dutch ships arriving at the IMDS: the frigate Evertsen and the diesel-electric submarine Dolphin. The frigate of the Royal Netherlands Navy has become the brightest star in the cabin. He is among the best in its class. With a displacement of more than 6000 tons, the ship carries powerful and well-balanced armament: anti-ship and anti-aircraft missiles, 127-mm automatic artillery, anti-submarine torpedoes, X-NUMX-mm multi-line defense of the near line, a helicopter. But the highlight of the ship - the radar SMART-L company Thales Nederland. It operates on air targets located at a distance of up to 30 km, while it also tracks up to 400 aircraft and up to 1000 offshore facilities.
However, soon the Evertsen and three other ships of this type will have to be upgraded, which will mainly concern the improvement of radio equipment. The capabilities of the SMART-L radar will be significantly expanded. They will be able to detect ballistic missiles at a distance of more than 1000 km. Thus, the Dutch frigates will become elements of the European missile defense system being created by the United States and its NATO allies.
Evertsen could have been competed by the Russian frigate “Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Gorshkov”, the leading 22350 project developed by the Northern PKB, which was planned to take part in IMDS-2013 a year ago. But, alas, he was not in the harbor. The absence was due to the "start of mooring trials" of the ship at the Northern shipyard. But in reality, due to delays in the supply of components and weapons, primarily the Polynom Redut missile system, the frigate is simply not ready for demonstration shows.
It became known at the salon that the command of the Russian Navy does not preclude an increase in the number of construction of the 11356P / M frigates of the Northern PKB design from six to nine units. In terms of their tactical and technical characteristics and armament, they are inferior to the frigates of the 22350 project, but they are well mastered by the industry: the Baltic shipbuilding plant Yantar, where they are currently being assembled, and the companies supplying components and armaments. Unfortunately, the finishing of the Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Gorshkov, the Admiral of the Fleet of Kasaton and the Admiral Golovko frigates of the 22350 project may be delayed until the fleet needs warships urgently. Therefore, if a decision is made to increase the order for the frigates of the 11356Р / M project, this will be, albeit a forced, but surest step.
MORE SHIPS GOOD AND DIFFERENT
It also became known at the salon that the Ministry of Defense and the fleet was once again awakened by an interest in amphibious assault ships of the Zubr and Murena type, developed by the Almaz Central Design Bureau. As Deputy Defense Minister Yury Borisov noted, “in the context of fleeting conflicts that are predicted for the next 10 – 20 years, such vessels will quickly deliver equipment and troops to the right place.” According to some sources, the contract with the St. Petersburg shipbuilding firm Almaz on the construction of the Zubr is almost ready. They, of course, will be different from the DKVP project 12322, which were created in Soviet times. They will be equipped with modern means of control and communication. It seems that interest in the DKVP initiated a Chinese order to Ukraine for such ships. The Mores Theodosia Plant has already handed over the head of the Bison-type DKVP, the counterfeit version of the Bison, to the Navy of the People’s Liberation Army of China, and the second building on the stocks. Then the production will be transferred to the Celestial Empire, to which Kiev illegally transferred all the technical documentation belonging to the Almaz Central Securities and Design Bureau.
A large program of modernization of the ships of the Russian fleet is carried out on the stocks of the Severodvinsk Ship Repair Center "Zvezdochka". On the eve of the opening of the St. Petersburg salon after the repair, the Marshal Ustinov missile cruiser of the 1164 Atlant project of the Northern PKB was launched. Next year, after finishing work, he will return to the Navy, then the same type of cruisers “Moscow” and “Varyag” will be modernized at this plant. Finally, funding was opened and repair work began on the strategic nuclear-powered submarine cruiser Yekaterinburg, which was seriously affected by the December 2011 fire (for more details, see NVO No. 46 for 2012 a year). A deep modernization of the Tigr nuclear submarine of the 971 project developed by the Malachite SPMBM is being carried out at Zvezdochka. According to authoritative sources, this submarine and other boats of this type will be brought up to the level of the 4 + generation, that is, they will even surpass the newest multi-purpose submarine "Severodvinsk" of the 885 "Ash" project for a number of characteristics.
At the salon, it also became known that Rosoboronexport is in talks with Algeria to supply the Navy of this country with two more diesel-electric submarines of the 636 project developed by the TsBB MT Rubin. Earlier, four such submarines were built at the Admiralty shipyards for the fleet of this Arab state. Other news concerned the upcoming deliveries in Nicaragua of two 12418 “Molniya” missile boats and four patrol boats of the 14310 “Mirage” project (both developed by the Almaz Central Design Bureau), which will be built at the SNMP and the Vympel shipyard in Rybinsk. The total portfolio of orders for Russian naval equipment destined for shipments abroad, according to Deputy Director General of Rosoboronexport Igor Sevastyanov, is about $ 8 billion, that is, 18% of total exports of military products.
But back to the quayside harbor. The only “live” novelty of the Russian exposition at the cabin was the boat of the modernized 12150 “Mongoose” project developed by the Almaz Central Design Bureau and the Vympel plant building. This 25-ton speed walker, which develops the 50-node passage and is intended for the special forces of the Navy, differs markedly from the prototype, from which only the hull lines, engines and part of the navigation equipment remain. The architecture has changed, the volume and comfort of the rooms have increased. In the nose of the appeared remote-controlled machine gun. The boat, of course, is not a frigate, but still it was nice to meet him.
The Petersburg salon confirmed the tendency of increasing the number of ships being built for the Navy and the Coast Guard by enterprises that are not part of the USC (see “NVO” No. 20 for 2013 year). In total, eight pennants belonging to these law enforcement agencies arrived at IMDS-2013. Of these, only the “Boky” corvette was built by the Northern shipyard, that is, the plant from the USC team. All other seven units (small artillery ship "Makhachkala" of the 21630 project, anti-diversion boat П-104 of the 21980 project "Rook", amphibious assault boat D-67 of the 11770 "Serna" project, border boats of the 12200 "Sobol" project and 12150 "Mangust" project, the small hydrographic vessel “Vaigach” of the 19910 project, as well as the upgraded Mongoose already mentioned above for the Navy special forces) were built by outsiders, that is, not included in the shipbuilding holding. True, all these ships and boats are designed by the design bureau of the USC. But after all, there were no “free” design bureaus, in any case capable of designing warships and boats, with rare exceptions.
At the end of last year, the Zelenodolsk plant named after A.M., not part of the USK, broke into the leaders of the domestic surface shipbuilding. Gorky. He handed over to the Navy the rocket ship 2 of the “Dagestan” rank, two anti-sabotage boats and a sea tug. The plant closed its warranty obligations to the Vietnamese Navy, for which it built two frigates of the type "Cheetah-3.9". And this year the company took a high rate. On the Black Sea, tests of the next anti-sabotage Grachonka are being conducted, and on the Caspian Sea, in the days of IMDS-2013, tests of the small rocket ship Grad Sviyazhsk, the main 21631 project Buyan-M, began. Soon, the second MRK - Uglich will go to the Caspian Sea. It is assumed that by the end of the year they will become part of the Navy. And in August, the laying of the sixth ship of this type will take place. On the building berth of the plant is the border patrol ship 1 of the 22100 “Ocean” project. At the salon in St. Petersburg, the plant showed mainly its export capabilities. It is understandable. In September of this year, the company will begin construction of a second pair of frigates for the Vietnamese Navy.
FLOATING AIRFIELD REMAINS IN DREAMS
Large surface ships and nuclear submarines while being built with us painfully and for a long time. Against the background of this circumstance, speeches on IMDS-2013 about Russia's readiness to build an aircraft carrier sounded somewhat ridiculous. In a part of the Krylov State Research Center (KGNC) exposition closed to the public, a conceptual model of a promising Russian floating aerodrome was even demonstrated. This is a ship with a displacement of the order of 80 000 t, carrying 40 fighter jets MiG-29K and the suspended version of the PAK FA (T-50). A nonatomic power plant should provide an 30-node stroke. And the air group, and the GEM raise questions. First, the work on the T-50 for the Air Force is far from complete. Secondly, it will take more years to create the deck version of the aircraft. The machine itself is heavy, its take-off weight is 26 – 30 t. Its dimensions are also rather big: length is 19,4 m, height is 4,8 m, and wingspan is 14 m. Obviously, this is why this large aircraft carrier can take only four dozen aircraft.
Confused by the choice of the GEM. Why is she nonatomic? Do they really want to place the boiler-turbine installations on which the Admiral Kuznetsov suffers and from which Vikramaditya suffered? At MVMS-2013, NPO Saturn demonstrated a dual-fuel gas turbine engine of the marine execution E70 / 8РД. His bench tests ended at the end of last year. But this GTE has not yet worked on "live" ships.
The refusal of a nuclear power plant can be explained by its high cost. And without it, the estimated cost of the Krylov aircraft carrier is impressive - 400 billion rubles, that is, 12,5 billion dollars. In other words, it is comparable to the cost of creating a new American nuclear aircraft carrier "Gerald Ford". Only that opportunity will have at least twice as much as the Russian ship - at the expense of twice the largest air group, nuclear power plant, full electrification of the ship’s aggregates, the availability of electromagnetic catapults and the network-centric data exchange system. The sum of expenses for the KGNC aircraft carrier does not take into account the costs of building or upgrading a shipyard for assembling such a giant, for training shipbuilders, sailors and pilots, for developing aircraft, including those that have not been implemented in our country, for example , carrier-based long-range detection and guidance aircraft.
The architecture and design of the Krylov aircraft carrier are unusual. If the two islands on the starboard side are borrowed from British aircraft carriers such as the Queen Elizabeth, then catapults and two springboards for the take-off of aircraft are a purely domestic invention. Although this musical and tractor solution can be found an explanation. The developers themselves do not believe in the possibility of creating reliable steam catapults, not to mention electromagnetic, which, because of the absence of an atomic power plant, simply do not have enough energy.
The construction of an aircraft carrier, if it does begin, will become a long-running “Panama” for cutting state funds, before which the Sochi Olympics will fade, and destroy domestic shipbuilding, which is hardly restored after the failure of 90, the first decade of 2000. After all, there will simply be no money left for other shipbuilding programs.
And at the IMMS, more than once or twice there were speeches about the growing power of the Russian Navy. “During this year, 36 warships, combat boats, auxiliary vessels will be accepted into the Russian Navy,” Vice-Admiral Alexander Fedotenkov, deputy commander-in-chief of the Navy, said at a press conference on the completion of the cabin. “This has never happened before.” This was the case at the end of 50, in 60, in 70, and in 80. But the structure of the replenishment of the Navy, the admiral did not bother to decipher. Of the 36 units that he talked about, the majority will be small auxiliary vessels and boats (offshore tugs, diving boats, integrated port service vessels, and so on). The fleet really needs them, but it also needs warships. This year, the industry promises to commission two 955 SSBNs, one of which was to appear as part of the Navy last year, one 885 multi-purpose submarine of the 21631 project, also from last year’s “stock”, two 20380 IRAs, several anti-submarine boats and, maybe Corvette "Resistant" project XNUMX. This, of course, is quite a lot, considering the failed results of the past years, but still not enough to return to the fleet the status corresponding to the status of a great maritime power.