Almost as a century they fought.
Almost a hundred years forgotten by you,
I want to date, I said
What is wrong your warrior.
Or I am not worthy in the line
Heroes of Russian proudly become.
With “King, Fatherland and Faith”
I went to defend Russia.
1 August in the Russian Federation will be celebrated for the first time in memory of the Russian soldiers who died in the First World War. 99 years ago the war began, in which about 1 million Russian soldiers and officers died, and 3 million more were taken prisoner.
Why did they forget about them for whole 90 years? Because Lenin called it imperialistic and aggressive. And so all of Russia was forced to repeat these words? Oh, quit! You never know what the Bolsheviks called for - do not drink, do not smoke, do not swear obscenities, refrain from extramarital sex. And what did the people do? The Bolsheviks ordered in 1926 to rename the famous Kronstadt fort "Krasnaya Gorka" to "Krasnoflotsky", and it remained "Krasnaya Gorka" even in the secret documents of the Great Patriotic War.
Alas, I have never heard in the conversations of ordinary people "The Great War" or "The Second World War". Before 2013, in a number of publishing houses I was repeatedly told: “The First World War doesn’t interest anyone, we’ll not publish a book about it, it’s better to write about the Great Patriotic War”. And my grandfather, Vasily Dmitrievich Shirokorad, who fought on an armored train in the 1915 – 1916 years on the Caucasian front, was not considered a veteran, and my father, Boris Vasilievich, who volunteered for 1941, was considered a veteran and had the necessary benefits. At the same time, neither my grandfather, my father, nor our other relatives had any doubts about the fairness of this.
RANKING OF Fallen on the battlefield
Of course, we must honor the memory of all our soldiers who died in all the wars of Russia. But between the dead in the Great Patriotic War and the First World War there is a difference, and a big one. And if big politicians say the opposite, then, to put it mildly, they are cunning. And you can bring them out to clear water with a simple question: “And during your visit to the PRC, would you dare to lay a wreath on the graves of hundreds of Russian soldiers who died on the march to Beijing in 1900? But our soldiers showed miracles of heroism, defeated many times superior enemy forces and took Peking. They were showered with awards by Nicholas II, and the name of Lieutenant Burakov, who died on the gunner "Koreyets", was called the captured Chinese destroyer.
No, not one of our statesman in China will ever dare to recall this war. The war with the “boxers” is officially forgotten both in the USSR and in democratic Russia.
In the same China, both the authorities and the population of 68 for years have made a clear distinction between the graves of our soldiers killed in 1904 – 1905 and in 1945. In the first case, the dead Russians and the Japanese are invaders and colonizers, and in the second - the liberators of the Chinese people.
The generals Krasnov, Shkuro, the marshals of Mannerheim and Budyonny participated in two world wars and for both received many orders. So, now they all do heroes and put them in one row? No, the Russian people will not understand this. Go to Kiev and Lviv, they will understand there, but we will not.
Someone will think that I am exaggerating. Unfortunately no. For example, in Tsarskoye Selo, a memorial is being created at the cemetery to the soldiers of the First World War. Very well. But for the company, as an element of this memorial, a monument is being erected to the "sailors-Kronstadt", that is, to the Kronstadt rebels who died in 1921. And this is not the same thing at all. If only because the insurgents were instigated by the sailors from the battleships Petropavlovsk and Sevastopol, who in the spring of 1917 brutally killed more naval officers than they died in the First World War at all fleets... It was not without reason that even in 1920, the red military men from the former officers were teased: “Hey you, lieutenant from“ Petropavlovsk ”.
But the project of building a huge memorial "Russian necropolis" in Belgrade, "where soldiers of the Russian army who died in the First World War are buried." (Order of the Government of the Russian Federation of 28 August 2012, the number 151-p). The rhetorical question, how did the Russian soldiers of the First World War end up in Belgrade? There is a white army cemetery. And besides, over half of those buried did not participate at all in the First World War.
Monuments of the White Czechs, that is, the Czechoslovak Corps, which in May-June 1918 of the year began a civil war in Russia, following the instructions of the Entente government, are erected all over Russia. Started and moved aside. The Czechs quietly left the front, but occupied the strategic highway Transsib from Novonikolayevsk to Irkutsk. Of course, the Americans, the British and the French had already run the railway, and the Czechoslovakians were only guards. The Czechs gave Admiral Kolchak and many Russian generals and officers red for reprisals, but successfully brought about a quarter of Russia's gold reserves to the newly-created homeland.
And so they installed a whole series of monuments: in Vladivostok in 2006, in Buzuluk in 2007, in Yekaterinburg in 2008, in Nizhny Tagil in 2009. So let's go further, we will establish monuments to Hetman Skoropadsky, Marshal Mannerheim, Generals Wrangel and Krasnov. Or maybe it's time to stop and limit ourselves to honoring the memory of those who died in 1914 – 1917? Let's put their cemeteries in order. But the burial of whites, reds, interventionists, nationalists, Makhnovists and other participants in the Civil War is a separate issue that has nothing to do with the First World War.
We will create the museums of the First World War, restore where they survived, the fortifications of 1914-1917. Finally, let us recall the Kronstadt fortress, which is a monument to all the wars of Russia, starting from the North. From 1921 until the mid-1990s, the Kronstadt forts belonged to the Navy, whose command was not in the best way to deal with historical rarities. So, not a single cannon installed there in 1867–1920 was preserved at all forts of Kronstadt. And look at the Sveaborg fortress, which in 1918 passed to Finland. For the Finns, the Russians are occupiers, but they retained both the fortifications and dozens of imperial army guns. And in other places in Finland, Russian fortifications and Russian guns have been preserved. Well, now we have the Kronstadt forts began to be transferred to private individuals. What will remain of them in a few years is not hard to guess.
At one time, Alexander Tvardovsky wrote: "He who hides the past jealously is the one who does not come together with the things to come." Alas, we still do not know why and how Russia entered this war. For the poor Serbs who did not agree with the Austro-Hungarian demand for an investigation on the Serbian territory of the assassination of the Archduke Ferdinand by the Austrian police?
How is the United States and Israel reacting to the attacks? What are the requirements, what kind of police? A rod across the border of a sovereign state Tanks, bombers and cruise missiles are flying, and all the powers of the world are being shut up in a rag.
FRIENDS OR ENEMIES
A lot of pearls appeared in our media, justifying Russia's entry into the war: “Russia cannot abandon its ally (Serbia) and lose the outpost in the Balkans, demonstrating an obvious weakness. Germany would still find a reason to start a war. ” “Sazonov decides to take the position of armed neutrality. The mobilization of the Russian army is a way of pressure on the powers. ”
But let's turn to the obvious facts. For 99 years, our politicians and historians have been trying to turn Germans into sworn enemies of Russia. In fact, the German people have always been a potential ally of Russia. And the point is not that the Germans suffered completely from Russophilia. Nature (for atheists) and the Lord God (for believers) made Russia and Germany natural allies against their original enemies - Poles and French. Another question is that domestic scholars roughly tear out individual examples of rare Russian-German conflicts from the context of history. Well, there was the Battle of the Ice, in which up to hundreds of knights participated, “and the miracles were beaten without a number” (quote from the Novgorod Chronicle). And how many times did the Novgorodians and the Germans beat Lithuania?
The first non-aggression pact against Poland was signed by Yaroslav the Wise and the German emperor Konrad. In 1031, Russians and Germans struck simultaneously from the west and east, and “tasted the dashing and fearful”.
Negotiations with the German emperors about the military alliance were conducted by all our sovereigns: Vasily III, Ivan the Terrible, Boris Godunov, the head of the Yaroslavl government of 1611 – 1612, Prince Pozharkovo-Starodubsky (Pozharsky is a nickname given by the old prinods of kings for the old-prinubsky princes. it is “Prince Pozharkovo-Starodubsky”), Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich, Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich and others.
In 1854 – 1855, Britain and France attacked Russia and organized an economic blockade for it. The only state that supported Russia as a sale weapons, and diplomatic activity, was Prussia. Thanks to her, the blockade was reduced to a minimum.
When, in 1870, the emperor Napoleon III declared war on Germany, Alexander II ordered the Russian corps on the western border to be fully operational. In St. Petersburg, they feared that the cheeky nephew decided to repeat his uncle's feats and, having defeated Prussia, would move further east. It would have been fateful for the Prussians to enter Paris, and only then did Prince Gorchakov publish his famous circular, which destroyed the articles of the Paris 1856 of the Year demeaning for Russia.
In the 1877 – 1878 years during the Russian-Turkish war, England was prepared to attack Russia. And then through the railway station Verzhbolovo and by sea hundreds of heavy Krupp guns of caliber 229 – 356 mm were sent from Germany to Revel and Kronstadt. Russia bought several ocean liners from Germany with the aim of converting them into cruisers for action on British communications.
In 1891 – 1892, Tsar Alexander III concluded a military alliance with France. However, the aim of the Russian government was not an attack on Germany, but on the contrary, an attempt to stabilize the situation in Europe, reasoning both sides. Another no less important goal was to curb the expansion of England in the Mediterranean, in Africa and Asia.
The French willingly went to the union with Russia. However, their goal was just a new European war to the last soldier, of course, Russian and German. The whole country dreamed of revenge and the seizure of Alsace and Lorraine - the controversial lands, many times passed from hand to hand. For this, Paris slowly agreed with London, and the entire anti-British dimension of the treaty disappeared.
Alexander II, Alexander III, Nicholas II were well aware that the seizure of Russian German territories inhabited by Poles, or Austrian Galicia would create much more problems for the empire, given the nationalism of the Poles and the dominance of the “Ukrainians” in Galicia. Equally, William II was not eager to get hold of the Polish clergy in full. During the Russian-Japanese war, England actually fought on the side of Japan. After the Gulsky incident, the English fleet prepared to attack Admiral Rozhestvensky's 2 Pacific squadron off the coast of Spain. And only a sharp cry from Berlin stopped the "enlightened navigators."
The 2-I and 3-I Pacific Squadrons passed dozens of French ports in Europe, Africa and Asia. But our brave allies didn’t let our ships go to any of them. Russian squadrons managed to reach the Far East solely through the help of German supply vessels, primarily coal miners. Few people know that the German tugboat Roland was sunk by Japanese ships in Tsushima along with our squadrons.
In the meantime, echelons with the newest guns, 15-cm howitzers, projectiles of all calibres, torpedoes continuously flowed through Verzhbolovo. At German shipyards, destroyers and submarines for the Russian fleet were built under the guise of yachts.
CONTRIBUTION OF VERIFIED
Nicholas II truly appreciated the position of England and France in the Russian-Japanese war. October 15 1904 of the year Nicholas II sent Wilhelm II a secret telegram: “I can’t find the words to express my indignation about the behavior of England ... Of course, it is time to put an end to this. The only way to achieve this, as you say, is for Germany, Russia, and France to agree to destroy Anglo-Japanese arrogance and insolence. Make and draft a draft of such a contract, please, and report it to me. As soon as he is accepted by us, France will have to join her ally. This plan often comes to my mind. He will bring peace and tranquility to the whole world. ”
Artillery shells during the First World War. 1918 poster of the year
October 30 received William's reply: “I immediately turned to the Chancellor, and we both secretly, without informing anyone, made up three articles of the contract. Let it be as you say. We shall be together. Of course, the alliance must be purely defensive, directed exclusively against the attacker or the attackers in Europe, something like a mutual fire insurance company against arson. ”
And now 11 July 1905 of the year on the yacht "Polar Star" near the island of Bjorko Nikolai II and Wilhelm II signed a treaty of alliance. If the Björk Treaty entered into force, there would be no guarantee of World War I and the whole history of mankind would have gone the other way. However, agents of influence of France and England ruled the ball in Russia. Deeply conspiratorial "Freemasons" acted at the very top, and in the provinces, slobbering intellectuals and anxious young ladies, forgetting about the ruins of Sevastopol, were credited with "Pyshka" by Maupassant. But on his return to St. Petersburg, the king was literally attacked by his ministers, including Prime Minister Witte, Foreign Minister Lamzdorf and others. The king was forced to ask "cousin Willy" to denounce this treaty.
For the second time, Nicholas II wanted to negotiate with Wilhelm during a meeting in Potsdam on October 22 1910. However, Foreign Minister Sazonov, who accompanied the king, refused to sign the treaty. In the end, in 1911, in St. Petersburg, a truncated part of the contract was signed, which dealt exclusively with the construction of railways in Turkey and Persia.
There were no economic reasons for the war with Germany either. The share of Germany in Russia's imports was 50%, France - 4,6%, England - 13,3%.
It is still unknown how Russia entered the war. In correspondence with Wilhelm Nicholas II 15 July 1914 of the year (old style) bitterly writes: "I expect that very soon, yielding to the pressure produced on me, I will be forced to take extreme measures that will lead to war."
Nicholas II was forced into a world war, although he had no shortage of warnings. As early as February 1914, a prominent statesman, former Interior Minister Pyotr Nikolayevich Durnovo, submitted an extensive report to Nikolay II. Durnovo wrote that a purely defensive Franco-Russian alliance was useful: “France was secured by an alliance with Russia from Germany’s attack, the latter by the tested peace and friendship of Russia from the desire for revenge from France, Russia by the need for Germany to maintain good neighborly relations excessive intrigues of Austria-Hungary in the Balkans.
The Tsar was warned and frightened by the Grand Duke Nikolai Mikhailovich by revolution. Against the war was the queen. Strongly opposed the war and Gregory Rasputin. Accidentally or not, the “old man” on the eve of the war was seriously wounded by a psychopath in Tobolsk and could not effectively influence the king.
In 1907 – 1910, our generals and admirals proved to the king that the Black Sea Straits could not be captured by Russia during a unilateral action. But it will be easy to do during the world war, speaking on the side of Britain and France against Germany and Austria-Hungary.
Already during the war, England and France promised Russia to Constantinople, while they themselves concluded a secret separative agreement, under which they mutually promised in no way to give the Straits to Russia. Moreover, both London and Paris hatched plans for the division of the Russian Empire after the defeat of Germany. Priislinsky Krai (the name of the Kingdom of Poland, used in official acts of the tsarist government since 1888), the Baltic states, Finland, and, whenever possible, Ukraine and the Caucasus, were subject to extraction.
For the first time in history, Russia fought not for joining any territories, but for its own dismemberment! And it is now called the "Second World"? The question arises, what if for some reason the alliance with Germany did not take place? Was there any alternative way? Was. Russia had to fight with Germany, as it was planned during the reign of Nicholas I and Alexander II.
MILITARY EXPENSES AND CORRUPTION
Entering the throne in 1825, Nicholas I decided to cover the western border of the empire, building a number of new fortresses there, which, in combination with the old ones, would form three lines of defense. The first line includes the fortresses located in the Kingdom of Poland: Modlin, Warsaw, Ivangorod and Zamost. In the second half of the 19th century, all the great fortresses of the Kingdom of Poland were interconnected by highways and railways. In addition, telegraph and telephone (cable) communication was established between the fortresses.
The second line of the western fortresses included (from north to south): Dinamünde class II fortress (Ust-Dvinsk from 1893, Ust-Dvinsk in 1959 entered the city line of Riga), II class fortress Osovets and I class fortress Brest -Litovsk.
The third line of fortresses was located in the rear, the main of which were Kiev, Bobruisk and Dinaburg.
A number of officers of the Main Artillery Directorate and the Main Military Engineering Directorate suggested that the Minister of War and the Tsar should combine the fortresses with fortified areas (UR). There was a large population there that could be voluntarily-coercively involved in the construction of SDs. Russian artillery factories could produce the most powerful guns caliber 305, 356 and 406 mm. Stocks of heavy guns on ships and coastal fortresses were enormous. Thus, plans to strengthen the fortresses and the construction of URs were very real. Nevertheless, the generals won, demanding a campaign against Berlin.
By placing its armies behind the three lines of fortresses, Russia could become the monkey that climbed the mountain and enjoyed watching the tigers fight in the valley. And then, when the "tigers" would have pretty much patted each other, Russia could launch a large landing operation in the Bosporus. The only chance for us to take the Straits could arise only in the midst of war.
And by capturing the Straits — Russia's only goal worthy of war — Nicholas II could also play the role of a peacemaker, becoming an intermediary between the warring powers. Even if the Entente refused to negotiate and achieve the surrender of Germany, exhausted France would never go to war with Russia, even for the sake of Constantinople.
The construction of fortresses and SDs would be Russia's armed neutrality during the world war. But the total mobilization, which announced the Chief of the General Staff, General Yanushkevich, breaking the phone that connected him to the king, was in fact a declaration of war. To keep the army mobilized for months without fighting in Russia meant an economic crisis and revolution.
Recall that the French in 1914 – 1918 managed to sit behind the forts of their fortresses Verdun and others, not letting the enemy go further than 100 – 150 km deep into their territory. And in Russia, with 1894, the fortresses were not actually engaged. By the year 1914 in the Russian land fortresses there was not a single modern heavy weapon with a rollback along the barrel axis. The 14 consisted of thousands of serf guns of the 1877 and 1867 types and even the smooth-bore 1838 models of the year.
By the 1914, in the land fortresses of France, Germany, Austria-Hungary and Belgium there were hundreds of armor-mounted artillery installations, and in Russia there was one (!) In the Osovets fortress, bought in France “for experiments”. By 1918, the French army had more than 400 heavy implements on railway installations. And in Russia there were two (!), And even then an unsuccessful design.
On the eve of the war, the Minister of War Sukhomlinov published the famous article “We are ready!” In the newspaper “Exchange Vedomosti”, for which politicians and historians had scoffed at him for decades. However, the brave general was largely right. By the beginning of the war, Russia had 7112 field guns, and Germany had just 5500. So the efforts of the French politicians, military, industrialists and masons Russian army was really ready to march on Berlin. But, alas, the Russian army was not ready for a positional war. She had neither modern heavy artillery, nor battalion artillery, nor mortars, which, by the way, the Germans had hundreds of 1914 – 7,5 caliber by the year of 25.
The Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich, the artillery inspector-general, presented the Tsar with a plan to rearm the siege artillery by the year 1917, and the serf artillery by the year 1930.
Alas, the First World War is still terra incognita for our historians, but for now, readers are told tales about the Ilya Muromets bombers, Fedorov assault rifles, Lebedenko's wheeled tank, etc. This is about the "victory stolen in 1917". But few people know that in Russia by 1918 there were no tanks produced, manual, aviation, large-caliber machine guns, but only one "Maxim". We didn't even produce pistols, let alone submachine guns. Again, only one revolver.
And who knows that in Russia 95% of guns, rifles and machine guns were made at government factories. Private factories prohibitively inflated prices. Here, for example, Izhora state factory produced ship armor at the price of 4 rubles. 40 cop for the pood, and the Marine Ministry gave the order to the Mariupol private plant at the price of 9 rubles. 90 cop per pud (newspaper "Morning of Russia" for 26 September 1906 of the year). But the price of ammunition in 1916 year: 76-mm shrapnel cost at a state-owned factory 9 rubles. 83 cop, and on the private - 15 rub. 32 cop., That is, the overpayment was 64%. 76-mm grenade (in this case, high-explosive fragmentation projectile) cost 9 rubles. 00 cop and 12 rub. 13 cop respectively; 122-mm grenade - 30 rub. 00 cop and 45 rub. 58 cop; 152-mm grenade - 42 rub. and 70 rub. etc.
Finish a banal resume. We must remember all the victims, learn history and draw proper conclusions.