Military Review

The anniversary of the battle of Molodinsk will be celebrated with a grandiose historical reconstruction.

21

Next Saturday, 27 July, in the vicinity of the village of Troitskoe, Chekhovsky District, Moscow Region, a grand festival-reconstruction of the Battle of Molodyah will be held. The event annually gathers thousands of spectators.


The battle of Molodins - the Molodinsk battle at the end of the summer of 1572 - the sad result of the most distant European campaign of the Turks, who then, accompanied by Crimean and Nogai vassals, got to the “101 kilometer” from Moscow - were in 50 versts from the Russian capital.

Krymchaks went to the north. The point, however, is not the failure of a separate military campaign - how many were and will be in Russia! - and in strategic destruction: after the Molods, the Crimean Khanate vassal to the Turks refuses to claim vassalism over the Kazan and Astrakhan Khanates, taken by the Russians in 20 years before, and thus from the Turkic claims to the Volga region; debugged slave traffic to the East has been undermined for centuries; The Siberian Khanate is approaching with its tributes and wild Caucasian tribes with their offers of devotion.

With the latter, by the way, little has changed. In the not too distant past, one “respected Avar” openly explained to Reedus: “Uh, beat you, Russians,“ Czechs ”- we are with you! There will be “Czechs” to beat you - we will be with them! ”The medieval Russians were familiar with this practice; in the summer, 1572, along with Krymchaks, Nogai, and Turks, went to cut up the Russians and troops of the Caucasian highlanders.


The prehistory of this campaign — run over Russia — was by no means successful, overwhelmed by famine, plague, and oprichnina, defeated by the same Crimeans a year earlier, beaten in the West, where it was not welcomed either — not only interesting, but also cinematic.

The plot is good - but, alas, not claimed. Devlet Giray only a year before, with the 40-thousandth army, he devastated everything to Moscow, burned it too - only the stone Kremlin survived, took tens of thousands of slaves. Who would not like it! - and the whole year after this successful march on Moscow, Khan Devlet Girey was preparing for the next successful one; collected army.

The commentators' figures have varying degrees of authenticity; Wikipedia, with reservations, suggests the following: the Ottomans provided “several thousand soldiers, including 7 thousands of selected janissaries” plus 20 thousands of swords of the Nogai Murza Tereberdey plus thousands of 60 Crimean Tatars; The Novgorod chronicle - “one hundred thousand and twenty” ... With such an armada, it was a sin to doubt something - and the Murza in good time did not even share the forthcoming prey, but the lands that would be seized: the Crimean Khan repeatedly stated that this time “he goes to Moscow to the kingdom, and not in the raid.


By the way, to know this - “to the kingdom” or to the raid - was of paramount importance for the people and then-guarantor Ivan Vasilyevich the Terrible.

Prince Mikhail Vorotynsky, who was responsible for 20 of thousands of Kolomna and Serpukhov border guards, had two behavioral patterns from the tsar - depending on the situation, which will happen: if Devlet moves to Moscow and searches for the battle with the entire Russian army - Vorotynsky will block the old Muravsky battle and rush to the river Zhizdre; if, however, it becomes obvious that this is a usual raid-robbery-withdrawal, Vorotynsky can arrange ambushes and organize guerrilla actions.

Glory to God, Vorotynsky’s power was not limited to twenty thousand, but a thousand Cossack mercenaries from “Kaniv Cherkasy” arrived, i.e. Ukrainian Cossacks. In addition to them - 7 thousands of hired Germans and Don Cossacks. In general, the composition of the Russian troops - oprichnykh, Zemstvo, Cossacks, foreign corps, and others — deserves a separate interesting work: here and the regiments of Ukrainian cities, and “people of the metropolitan and rulers,” regiments of princes and archers not only from Moscow, but also from Smolensk, Ryazan and The Epiphans, right there "vyatchane in the strait of rivers", and the "secret trump card" of the Russians - guns, artillery.

“And as the Crimean king came, and on the Senkin carriage stood on this side of Oka two hundred people of boyar children. And Tereberdey Murza with the Nagai Totara came to Senkin carriage in the night and those children of the boyars rozgnali and rozgromili and weaves of the tunnels were taken out and went to the same side of the Oka River " year

"Senkin transportation" at the confluence of the river Lopasni in Oku Tereberdey not limited and blocked the south-west to the environs of modern Podolsk. The invaders were also transported in another place upstream of Serpukhov, where the main positions of the Russians were with their “walking-city”, which consisted of “half-log shields the size of a log house, fortified in carts, with loopholes for shooting and around or in line, ”where secret secrets of cannons and arrows with peelers lurked.

Another collision is described by the German mercenary of events, Heinrich Staden, in his memoirs “On Moscow, Ivan the Terrible. Notes of the German guardsman ”: voivode Khvorostinin sent him with 300 warriors to the coast guard, and when they faced several thousand Crimeans, they took the battle and sent for reinforcements — they did not wait for him, they were pressed against the Oka by the Tatars. “All three hundred were beaten to death,” writes Staden, the only one who escaped, jumped over the coastal barrage and fell into the river to tell his descendants about all this.


While the two-thousandth detachment of the aggressors diverted the forces of the Russians from Serpukhov, Devlet crossed the river near the village of Drakino, defeated the regiment of the governor Odoyevsky in a hard battle and went to Moscow.

Vorotinsky took off the defenses and followed, hoping that his group in the rear would embarrass Devlet Giray. In conditions when the invasion army stretched from the vanguard at the Pakhra River to the rearguard near the village of Molodi in 15 kilometers from it, the unit of the prince Oprichnik Khvorostinin 29 July destroyed the “tail” of the Crimeans.

Vorotynsky's hope came true: fearing for his rear, Devlet deployed his army. And the Russians have deployed their own promenade at these Molodevs - in a convenient place located on a hill and covered by the river Rozaia.

With a retreat, the enemy’s rearguard, Khvorostinin, led the Tatars to the walking-city. “And the king of the Crimea sent the Nagai and Crimean totar to twelve thousand. And the princes from the advanced regiment of the sovereign sent the regiment to a large regiment before strolling the city, and when the city walked right to the right, and at that time the boyar Prince Mikhail Vorotynskaya and his comrades ordered to shoot at the Tatar regiment from the whole side. And in that battle, many of the totar were beaten, ”writes the source of“ Reedus ”in the medieval resource“ The Entries of the Bit Book about the “Coast Guard”.

"And the king of the Crimean" stuck - the cavalry of the raiders was difficult to attack even if mobile, but still the fortress, from which it was "watered" of "all along." Time starts working for Russians - Russians help time.

Suddenly in one of the attacks Tereberdey-Murzu is killed. Another assault - July 31 - and along with large casualties of the Crimeans, the adviser of the Crimean khan Divey-Murza is captured. The German Staden writes that the Russians in the walking-city run out of water - but it was not over. The European describes that the Russians began to eat horses for transportation of the walking-city, but the horses in these parts ate - and eat - and without extreme situations, this tradition was ...

In any case, not malnutrition was a tragedy - the climax took a few days: August 2 Devlet Girey again sent his army to storm. It was not for nothing that the Nogai Khan, three Murz and thousands of nomads disappeared - the Russian 3 killed thousands of archers, and the Russian cavalry, which was defending the flanks of the walking-city, suffered serious losses.


When the Lord punishes a person, he deprives him of his mind: the Crimean Khan ordered the cavalry to dismount and attack the walking-city on foot along with the janissaries.

Together, in the evening, they littered the hill with corpses, trying to climb the walls - "and here many Tartars were beaten and their hands cut countlessly." Here the Russians made a maneuver — Vorotynsky imperceptibly led a large regiment out of the fortification, conducted it with a hollow and struck the rear of the Crimeans, and at the same time, the soldiers of Khvorostinin, under powerful volleys of cannons, made a sortie from behind the walls. Under a double blow, the Crimeans and Turks ran, throwing weaponcarts and property; all seven thousand Janissaries, most of the Crimean murz, as well as the son, grandson and son-in-law of Devlet Girey were killed; Many of the highest Crimean dignitaries were captured.

“August in 2 day in the evening left the Crimean tsar to withdraw three thousand frisky people in the swamp of the Crimean Totar, ...; and the king of the night ran and the Oka River climbed the same night. And the governors learned in the morning that the king of the Crimean ran and all the other people came to the totar and all those totar struck the River Oka. But on the Oka River, the Crimean king left fortar two thousand people to protect him. And those totar were beaten by a man with a thousand, and many others of Totarova perished, and the others went beyond the Oka, ”the source of those times tells us. No more than 10 of thousands of soldiers of the “occupying army” returned to the Crimea - “innocently, not by roads, not in small squads; and our voivods at the Crimean king killed one hundred thousand on Rozhay on the rivers, on Sunday in Molodi, on the Blade, in the Khotyn district, it was up to Prince Mikhail Ivanovich Vorotynsky, with the Crimean king and his voivods ... and there was a case from Moscow for fifty versts ” .

Driving to my dacha, on a Sunday picnic or to look at the reconstruction of enthusiasts, those who wish can - drinking and eating - think about the past, present and future: about the battle of the village of Molodi as a turning point, after which the Steppe no longer dictated to Russia how “they were blown away” »Crimeans, as the Ottomans no longer dictate to the northern neighbor.

“On the Don and the Desna border fortifications were pushed south 300 kilometers, a short time later Voronezh and a new fortress in Yelets were laid - the development of rich black earths, formerly belonging to the Wild Field, began,” Wikipedia tells us.

She also notes that “serious research on the subject of the Battle of Young began only at the end of the 20 century”, and many “Ivanas, not remembering their kinship” still don’t know what their ancestors did for them five thousand years ago.

As the historian Valery Shambarov writes, the liberals of the 19th century, shedding mud at Ivan the Terrible, managed to “blacken” at one and all his era. It became automatically implied that nothing bright and great could have happened in his times. The memory of the battle at Molodya has also been erased. The author has repeatedly happened to be in her place. And even the local residents and gardeners do not know anything about long-standing events. Although this battle would have to stand in the same row with such battles as Kulikov, Poltava, Borodino. The battles in which the fate of Russia was decided. Academician R.G. Skrynnikov called the victory at Molodyah "the biggest event of the Russian stories XVI century. ". In fact, she stopped the Ottoman expansion to the north. And she stopped the last real attempt to restore the Tatar yoke in Russia.

If you drive a car along the old Simferopol highway, between Podolsk and Stolbovaya, pay attention to the village of Molodi. And if you go by train or train in the Serpukhov direction - to the station "Kolkhoznaya". Flows here and the river Rozhayka. It has now turned into a stream, and near Molody is blocked and forms a pond. On the very lowland where the archers were killed. And behind the pond, on the bank opposite to Moscow, you will see a hill with a church. Just on this hill stood a walk-city. Cross over and at least mentally remember the Russian warriors and Cossacks, who valiantly fought and died here in the hot summer of 1572 of the year.
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  1. Rodriques
    Rodriques 26 July 2013 09: 03 New
    11
    This date should be made Independence Day, then you can safely celebrate, congratulate and remember your heroic ancestors with a kind word, indeed, if it were not for them, it would be Ottoman territory, and not the current controversial liberal "holiday" of independence, hell knows what.
    1. Uhe
      Uhe 26 July 2013 11: 11 New
      -6
      You can’t make the day of the glory of Russian weapons, namely Russian, a holiday of this state system. Then the multinational Russian people may be offended;)
    2. Tatb
      Tatb 26 July 2013 20: 09 New
      +2
      From whom to celebrate a day of independence? All this is nonsense! Russia has been independent for centuries, Russia today is more dependent on the World Banking System! angry
    3. nnz226
      nnz226 26 July 2013 21: 13 New
      +1
      At least - Day of Military Glory!
    4. Gladiatir-zlo
      Gladiatir-zlo 28 July 2013 20: 57 New
      0
      But this is a great idea, it has both meaning and a great past, and not current holidays with Jewish roots, which I do not celebrate. For me, only May 9 is a holiday; everything else is days off.
  2. Field
    Field 26 July 2013 09: 06 New
    +5
    You need to know and appreciate the history of your country, your people, your family
  3. George
    George 26 July 2013 09: 10 New
    +1
    I am glad that the military glory of the fatherland is not forgotten.
    We are waiting for the photo from the next anniversary.
  4. eplewke
    eplewke 26 July 2013 10: 01 New
    +6
    how many centuries the Turks have been tearing their asses to chop off a piece of Russian land, and how many times they got it in the teeth ... with such a crash that for 100 years even the Sultans dispelled any thought of a military campaign against Russia. Pride must be taken for our ancestors. We are a people with a very bright thousand-year history! With a very vivid military history! Russia, as they did not tear ass-no one is victorious !!! That’s why you should be proud that you were just born on Russian soil ...
    1. Marek Rozny
      Marek Rozny 30 July 2013 16: 04 New
      0
      Well, actually this is Russia all the time getting the Ottoman Empire. The number of Russian attempts to seize the Crimean Khanate (which was under the protectorate of the Ottoman Empire), and then also the Balkan campaigns is excessively large. Crimean wars begin with the fact that Ivan the Terrible was the first to attack the Crimeans and burned two cities. And then it went, went.
      In addition, keep in mind that the Turks of Crimea were offended by the occupation of Kazan, Astrakhan and waged war with Muscovy not so much for the seizure of Russian territories, but in order to force Moscow to free the captured khanates. In itself, the Moscow state was not particularly interested in either Crimeans or Ottomans. Much more they were busy with their own affairs in the territory of present Ukraine / Poland.
      They were absolutely silent about the fact that the army of the Moscow state consisted to a large extent of ... "Tatars". After the final collapse of the Horde into small uluses that called themselves khanates and yurts, Ivan the Terrible organized a "brain drain" from the Horde establishment. Hundreds of Horde families moved to Muscovy to serve the new ambitious Russian "khan". Tens of thousands of yesterday's Horde wars became "Russian wars". With these "Tatars" Grozny took the Baltic states, Kazan, and also put the former Horde people as civil and military administrators in Muscovy.
      Of the more or less well-known names, it is enough to recall in the Russian service of the sovereign Sain Bulat Khan (Simeon Bekbulatovich, "Medvedev" at Grozny), who commanded the Russian army in Livonia, Shah Ali - the commander of the Russian army in the Kazan wars, Uraz Muhammad - the commander of the Russian army on the Crimean direction at Godunov, Pyotr Arslanovich Urusov (Urak bin Dzhan-Arslan) - the commander of Godunov (by the way, he killed False Dmitry), Arslan Khan - who sided with Minin and Pozharsky in 1612, etc.
      Even later, at the beginning of the 17th century, Tsar Mikhail Fyodorovich had 20 thousand "Tatars" in permanent service in the army, out of a total of 90 thousand in the Russian army. We do not know how many steppe dwellers Grozny had, but it was under him that the process of attracting Chingizids and Murzas of various ranks to the Russian service began, who transferred with thousands of their people.
      In other words, some of the former Horde fought against Moscow, some for Moscow. The influence of the "Tatars" was so great that Boris Godunov obliged all the sworn boyars to swear that "Tsar Simeon Bekbulatovich and his children and other people in the Muscovite kingdom do not want to see ...". Yes, and Godunov himself, by and large, is a Russified Horde (from the family of the Murza Cheta).
      Pre-Petrine Rus was essentially a copy of the rest of the "Tatar" uluses. And only Pyotr Alekseevich really stirred up the old Horde order according to the new European model. There is some irony in the fact that, according to his mother, Peter the Great comes from the Crimeans - the Naryshkins family originates from the Crimean (Karaite) Mordko Kubrat. And it was the Romanovs who finished off the Crimean state :)
      Well, and most importantly. Once again I say that it would be better if the Russians paid more attention to this battle at Molody than the Battle of Kulikovo. That would be fairer in terms of history. And such events make Russians study their history more closely, rather than be content with a school textbook. The Battle of Molodi is one of the key battles of Russian history.
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  8. kapitan281271
    kapitan281271 26 July 2013 11: 00 New
    +5
    This battle is akin to taking Berlin. Few people know thanks to this great victory, the expansion of the Ottomans in Europe was suspended. The Sultan lost almost a third of his combat forces. Our ancestors once again saved jo *** from Europe. Now in Austria instead of castles there would be mosques. But the most offensive in OUR history books is not a word about this battle. What rascals we are in the face of our great ancestors !!!!!
  9. Uncle
    Uncle 26 July 2013 11: 08 New
    +4
    Cross and at least mentally remember the Russian warriors and Cossacks who valiantly fought and died here in the sultry summer of 1572.

    I go to this temple on weekends, I have a summer residence there. smile Thanks to the author, recalled an important milestone in our history.
    1. omsbon
      omsbon 26 July 2013 13: 27 New
      +6
      Quote: Uncle
      I go to this temple on weekends, I have cottages there

      Dear Dmitry!
      Light a candle from all members of the forum in memory of the valiant defenders of the Russian land!
      1. Uncle
        Uncle 26 July 2013 13: 54 New
        +4
        I believe there will be a prayer service for the dead soldiers. If not, I will order.
  10. Rodriques
    Rodriques 26 July 2013 13: 20 New
    +1
    Here, very clearly. Urgently enter into history books and make a feature film!)
    http://via-midgard.info//uploads/posts/2012-07/1341351510_010712-2.png
    Here the table is big.
  11. washi
    washi 26 July 2013 15: 12 New
    +3
    They saved Europe from the Ottomans, saved from Napoleon, saved from Adolf. Maybe enough already. You won’t even get from them.
    Let them deal with their own problems.
  12. Radoslav
    Radoslav 26 July 2013 15: 25 New
    +4
    Russians cannot be defeated in open battle, Russians can only be defeated by betrayal.
  13. slaventi
    slaventi 26 July 2013 17: 20 New
    +3
    The significant victory of the Russian army, which is on a par with the Battle of Poltava, Borodino and Kursk, is not deservedly forgotten. This day should at least be marked on the calendar, and events should be held at the state level in honor of the victory at Molody.
  14. C2H5OH
    C2H5OH 26 July 2013 19: 39 New
    +2
    Quote: slaventi
    The significant victory of the Russian army, which is on a par with the Battle of Poltava, Borodino and Kursk, is not deservedly forgotten. This day should at least be marked on the calendar, and events should be held at the state level in honor of the victory at Molody.

    about this day, well, in general, the history of Russia is better to print on labels from beer bottles then exactly everything will be known to our father .... especially schoolchildren
  15. The centurion
    The centurion 26 July 2013 19: 40 New
    +5
    In 1571, the Crimean Khan Devlet I Giray successfully chose the moment and successfully broke through with a large detachment to Moscow, burned its surroundings and took tens of thousands of people into captivity. The Tatars had long developed a successful tactic of a secretive and lightning breakthrough into the Moscow limits. Avoiding the river crossings, which greatly reduced the speed of movement of the light Tatar cavalry, they passed along the river watersheds, the so-called "Ants of the Shlyakh", going from Perekop to Tula along the upper reaches of the tributaries of the Dnieper and Seversky Donets. These tragic events demanded an improvement in the organization of the protection and defense of the border strip. In 1571, the king entrusted the governor M.I. Vorotynsky develop the order of service of the border Cossack troops. High-level “border guards” were summoned to Moscow and the Charter of the Border Service was drafted and adopted, detailing the procedure for carrying not only the border guard service, but also the guard, intelligence and patrol service in the border area. The duty of service was assigned to parts of the service urban Cossacks, part of the service children of the boyars and the settlements of the Cossacks. Watchmen of service troops from the Ryazan and Moscow region lands descended to the south and southeast and merged with the patrols and pickets of the Don and Volga Cossacks, thus observation was conducted to the limits of the Crimea and the Nogai Horde. Everything was written down to the smallest detail. The results were not slow. The following year, the breakthrough of the Crimeans in the Moscow region ended for them a great catastrophe at the Young. The Cossacks took the most direct part in this great defeat, and the ancient and ingenious Cossack invention “walk-city” played a decisive role. On the shoulders of the defeated Crimean army, Don Ataman Cherkashenin, with Cossacks, broke into the Crimea, captured many loot and prisoners. The unification of the upper and lower Cossacks also belongs to this time.
  16. The comment was deleted.
  17. FC SKIF
    FC SKIF 26 July 2013 20: 17 New
    +3
    It's time for prof. historians take the bananas and eggplants out of their ears and do fucking history. One of the most important battles in our history is somehow forgotten, it is not interesting. The entire epoch of Ivan the Terrible has been foolish, but without his deeds there would not have been such a lump - Russia. For the sake of interest, I ask all his detractors - fellow countrymen (Ural) one question: from which station do you have to leave in order to come to Yekaterinburg? Answer: Kazansky. That is, for the development of the Urals, Siberia, D.V. it was necessary to solve the "Kazan issue" (at the same time the Astrakhan, Siberian, to eliminate the Crimean threat), which was done. As always, the helmsman of our great victories in history is ridiculous, silly, bloody and just dumb. We got it.
  18. soldier's grandson
    soldier's grandson 26 July 2013 21: 08 New
    +2
    such an event should be held on the Crimean peninsula
  19. Radoslav
    Radoslav 26 July 2013 23: 56 New
    -1
    Quote: FC Skiff
    It's time for prof. historians take the bananas and eggplants out of their ears and do fucking history. One of the most important battles in our history is somehow forgotten, it is not interesting. The entire epoch of Ivan the Terrible has been foolish, but without his deeds there would not have been such a lump - Russia. For the sake of interest, I ask all his detractors - fellow countrymen (Ural) one question: from which station do you have to leave in order to come to Yekaterinburg? Answer: Kazansky. That is, for the development of the Urals, Siberia, D.V. it was necessary to solve the "Kazan issue" (at the same time the Astrakhan, Siberian, to eliminate the Crimean threat), which was done. As always, the helmsman of our great victories in history is ridiculous, silly, bloody and just dumb. We got it.
    Yes, it’s all useless, while the Anglo-Saxons will year in the World, wars are inevitable, this is the Cain family, (read the BIBLE) WE RUSSIANS JUST HAVE TO BE READY FOR WARS AND WE WILL WIN ALL (we are descendants of HYPERBORIES) we need to read history, it’s not invented and his Russian chronicle
  20. bublic82009
    bublic82009 27 July 2013 02: 37 New
    0
    What do we all attribute to ourselves the salvation of Europe from the Tatars and Turks there? we saved the east from Europe. Europe and Asia wanted to sneeze on this feat. we save ourselves first of all. and the rest is so an appendage.
    1. lesnik340
      lesnik340 27 July 2013 07: 11 New
      0
      between .......