Next Saturday, 27 July, in the vicinity of the village of Troitskoe, Chekhovsky District, Moscow Region, a grand festival-reconstruction of the Battle of Molodyah will be held. The event annually gathers thousands of spectators.
The battle of Molodins - the Molodinsk battle at the end of the summer of 1572 - the sad result of the most distant European campaign of the Turks, who then, accompanied by Crimean and Nogai vassals, got to the “101 kilometer” from Moscow - were in 50 versts from the Russian capital.
Krymchaks went to the north. The point, however, is not the failure of a separate military campaign - how many were and will be in Russia! - and in strategic destruction: after the Molods, the Crimean Khanate vassal to the Turks refuses to claim vassalism over the Kazan and Astrakhan Khanates, taken by the Russians in 20 years before, and thus from the Turkic claims to the Volga region; debugged slave traffic to the East has been undermined for centuries; The Siberian Khanate is approaching with its tributes and wild Caucasian tribes with their offers of devotion.
With the latter, by the way, little has changed. In the not too distant past, one “respected Avar” openly explained to Reedus: “Uh, beat you, Russians,“ Czechs ”- we are with you! There will be “Czechs” to beat you - we will be with them! ”The medieval Russians were familiar with this practice; in the summer, 1572, along with Krymchaks, Nogai, and Turks, went to cut up the Russians and troops of the Caucasian highlanders.
The prehistory of this campaign — run over Russia — was by no means successful, overwhelmed by famine, plague, and oprichnina, defeated by the same Crimeans a year earlier, beaten in the West, where it was not welcomed either — not only interesting, but also cinematic.
The plot is good - but, alas, not claimed. Devlet Giray only a year before, with the 40-thousandth army, he devastated everything to Moscow, burned it too - only the stone Kremlin survived, took tens of thousands of slaves. Who would not like it! - and the whole year after this successful march on Moscow, Khan Devlet Girey was preparing for the next successful one; collected army.
The commentators' figures have varying degrees of authenticity; Wikipedia, with reservations, suggests the following: the Ottomans provided “several thousand soldiers, including 7 thousands of selected janissaries” plus 20 thousands of swords of the Nogai Murza Tereberdey plus thousands of 60 Crimean Tatars; The Novgorod chronicle - “one hundred thousand and twenty” ... With such an armada, it was a sin to doubt something - and the Murza in good time did not even share the forthcoming prey, but the lands that would be seized: the Crimean Khan repeatedly stated that this time “he goes to Moscow to the kingdom, and not in the raid.
By the way, to know this - “to the kingdom” or to the raid - was of paramount importance for the people and then-guarantor Ivan Vasilyevich the Terrible.
Prince Mikhail Vorotynsky, who was responsible for 20 of thousands of Kolomna and Serpukhov border guards, had two behavioral patterns from the tsar - depending on the situation, which will happen: if Devlet moves to Moscow and searches for the battle with the entire Russian army - Vorotynsky will block the old Muravsky battle and rush to the river Zhizdre; if, however, it becomes obvious that this is a usual raid-robbery-withdrawal, Vorotynsky can arrange ambushes and organize guerrilla actions.
Glory to God, Vorotynsky’s power was not limited to twenty thousand, but a thousand Cossack mercenaries from “Kaniv Cherkasy” arrived, i.e. Ukrainian Cossacks. In addition to them - 7 thousands of hired Germans and Don Cossacks. In general, the composition of the Russian troops - oprichnykh, Zemstvo, Cossacks, foreign corps, and others — deserves a separate interesting work: here and the regiments of Ukrainian cities, and “people of the metropolitan and rulers,” regiments of princes and archers not only from Moscow, but also from Smolensk, Ryazan and The Epiphans, right there "vyatchane in the strait of rivers", and the "secret trump card" of the Russians - guns, artillery.
“And as the Crimean king came, and on the Senkin carriage stood on this side of Oka two hundred people of boyar children. And Tereberdey Murza with the Nagai Totara came to Senkin carriage in the night and those children of the boyars rozgnali and rozgromili and weaves of the tunnels were taken out and went to the same side of the Oka River " year
"Senkin transportation" at the confluence of the river Lopasni in Oku Tereberdey not limited and blocked the south-west to the environs of modern Podolsk. The invaders were also transported in another place upstream of Serpukhov, where the main positions of the Russians were with their “walking-city”, which consisted of “half-log shields the size of a log house, fortified in carts, with loopholes for shooting and around or in line, ”where secret secrets of cannons and arrows with peelers lurked.
Another collision is described by the German mercenary of events, Heinrich Staden, in his memoirs “On Moscow, Ivan the Terrible. Notes of the German guardsman ”: voivode Khvorostinin sent him with 300 warriors to the coast guard, and when they faced several thousand Crimeans, they took the battle and sent for reinforcements — they did not wait for him, they were pressed against the Oka by the Tatars. “All three hundred were beaten to death,” writes Staden, the only one who escaped, jumped over the coastal barrage and fell into the river to tell his descendants about all this.
While the two-thousandth detachment of the aggressors diverted the forces of the Russians from Serpukhov, Devlet crossed the river near the village of Drakino, defeated the regiment of the governor Odoyevsky in a hard battle and went to Moscow.
Vorotinsky took off the defenses and followed, hoping that his group in the rear would embarrass Devlet Giray. In conditions when the invasion army stretched from the vanguard at the Pakhra River to the rearguard near the village of Molodi in 15 kilometers from it, the unit of the prince Oprichnik Khvorostinin 29 July destroyed the “tail” of the Crimeans.
Vorotynsky's hope came true: fearing for his rear, Devlet deployed his army. And the Russians have deployed their own promenade at these Molodevs - in a convenient place located on a hill and covered by the river Rozaia.
With a retreat, the enemy’s rearguard, Khvorostinin, led the Tatars to the walking-city. “And the king of the Crimea sent the Nagai and Crimean totar to twelve thousand. And the princes from the advanced regiment of the sovereign sent the regiment to a large regiment before strolling the city, and when the city walked right to the right, and at that time the boyar Prince Mikhail Vorotynskaya and his comrades ordered to shoot at the Tatar regiment from the whole side. And in that battle, many of the totar were beaten, ”writes the source of“ Reedus ”in the medieval resource“ The Entries of the Bit Book about the “Coast Guard”.
"And the king of the Crimean" stuck - the cavalry of the raiders was difficult to attack even if mobile, but still the fortress, from which it was "watered" of "all along." Time starts working for Russians - Russians help time.
Suddenly in one of the attacks Tereberdey-Murzu is killed. Another assault - July 31 - and along with large casualties of the Crimeans, the adviser of the Crimean khan Divey-Murza is captured. The German Staden writes that the Russians in the walking-city run out of water - but it was not over. The European describes that the Russians began to eat horses for transportation of the walking-city, but the horses in these parts ate - and eat - and without extreme situations, this tradition was ...
In any case, not malnutrition was a tragedy - the climax took a few days: August 2 Devlet Girey again sent his army to storm. It was not for nothing that the Nogai Khan, three Murz and thousands of nomads disappeared - the Russian 3 killed thousands of archers, and the Russian cavalry, which was defending the flanks of the walking-city, suffered serious losses.
When the Lord punishes a person, he deprives him of his mind: the Crimean Khan ordered the cavalry to dismount and attack the walking-city on foot along with the janissaries.
Together, in the evening, they littered the hill with corpses, trying to climb the walls - "and here many Tartars were beaten and their hands cut countlessly." Here the Russians made a maneuver — Vorotynsky imperceptibly led a large regiment out of the fortification, conducted it with a hollow and struck the rear of the Crimeans, and at the same time, the soldiers of Khvorostinin, under powerful volleys of cannons, made a sortie from behind the walls. Under a double blow, the Crimeans and Turks ran, throwing weaponcarts and property; all seven thousand Janissaries, most of the Crimean murz, as well as the son, grandson and son-in-law of Devlet Girey were killed; Many of the highest Crimean dignitaries were captured.
“August in 2 day in the evening left the Crimean tsar to withdraw three thousand frisky people in the swamp of the Crimean Totar, ...; and the king of the night ran and the Oka River climbed the same night. And the governors learned in the morning that the king of the Crimean ran and all the other people came to the totar and all those totar struck the River Oka. But on the Oka River, the Crimean king left fortar two thousand people to protect him. And those totar were beaten by a man with a thousand, and many others of Totarova perished, and the others went beyond the Oka, ”the source of those times tells us. No more than 10 of thousands of soldiers of the “occupying army” returned to the Crimea - “innocently, not by roads, not in small squads; and our voivods at the Crimean king killed one hundred thousand on Rozhay on the rivers, on Sunday in Molodi, on the Blade, in the Khotyn district, it was up to Prince Mikhail Ivanovich Vorotynsky, with the Crimean king and his voivods ... and there was a case from Moscow for fifty versts ” .
Driving to my dacha, on a Sunday picnic or to look at the reconstruction of enthusiasts, those who wish can - drinking and eating - think about the past, present and future: about the battle of the village of Molodi as a turning point, after which the Steppe no longer dictated to Russia how “they were blown away” »Crimeans, as the Ottomans no longer dictate to the northern neighbor.
“On the Don and the Desna border fortifications were pushed south 300 kilometers, a short time later Voronezh and a new fortress in Yelets were laid - the development of rich black earths, formerly belonging to the Wild Field, began,” Wikipedia tells us.
She also notes that “serious research on the subject of the Battle of Young began only at the end of the 20 century”, and many “Ivanas, not remembering their kinship” still don’t know what their ancestors did for them five thousand years ago.
As the historian Valery Shambarov writes, the liberals of the 19th century, shedding mud at Ivan the Terrible, managed to “blacken” at one and all his era. It became automatically implied that nothing bright and great could have happened in his times. The memory of the battle at Molodya has also been erased. The author has repeatedly happened to be in her place. And even the local residents and gardeners do not know anything about long-standing events. Although this battle would have to stand in the same row with such battles as Kulikov, Poltava, Borodino. The battles in which the fate of Russia was decided. Academician R.G. Skrynnikov called the victory at Molodyah "the biggest event of the Russian stories XVI century. ". In fact, she stopped the Ottoman expansion to the north. And she stopped the last real attempt to restore the Tatar yoke in Russia.
If you drive a car along the old Simferopol highway, between Podolsk and Stolbovaya, pay attention to the village of Molodi. And if you go by train or train in the Serpukhov direction - to the station "Kolkhoznaya". Flows here and the river Rozhayka. It has now turned into a stream, and near Molody is blocked and forms a pond. On the very lowland where the archers were killed. And behind the pond, on the bank opposite to Moscow, you will see a hill with a church. Just on this hill stood a walk-city. Cross over and at least mentally remember the Russian warriors and Cossacks, who valiantly fought and died here in the hot summer of 1572 of the year.