Stalin - the inspirer and organizer of victory in the Great Patriotic War [/ b]
9 May 2010 marks the 65 anniversary of the victory of the Soviet Union in the Great Patriotic War - undoubtedly the most significant event in the centuries-old stories our homeland. And no matter what anyone would say today, the Victory was achieved, including through the activities of the military-political leadership of the USSR, headed by Joseph Stalin.
In the past, there were quite a few hard wars in Russia, but for the first time in 1941-1945, the question was not just about the independence of a country or the loss of part of its territory, but about whether or not our Fatherland would be or not to be in the life and death of the peoples of the USSR. After all, the Hitler leadership intended not only to inflict a military defeat on the Soviet Union. It wanted to dismember it into protectorates, in which a large part of the population would be exterminated, and the survivors would become slaves to the German colonial masters.
And this is not a propaganda myth. Back in 20, Hitler wrote in “Mein Kampf”, this bible of the Nazis: “... when we speak today about the acquisition of new lands and new space in Europe, we first of all think about Russia and the subordinate outlying states ... ”Later, after the seizure of power in Germany, it became clear that the occupation of the USSR and its destruction as a state was a kind of obsession for the Fuhrer of the Third Reich. In his table talks, he clarified: “... the goal of my Eastern policy is to populate this territory with at least one hundred million German races ...”
The ideas aimed at liquidating the Soviet Union and bringing its people to the position of working livestock were constantly improved and clarified, they were set forth in many documents and orders, but most fully in the so-called Ost Master Plan, monstrous in its cannibal nudity. According to him, 7,4 million civilians were deliberately exterminated in the occupied territories of the USSR by Nazi "conquerors" and their local henchmen, 5 269 513 people were hijacked to Germany, of whom 2 164 313 died in German captivity. In addition, only in the regions of Russia temporarily captured by the enemy, 5,7 million people died from overwork, and 6 million more from the enemy’s combat impact in front-line areas, besieged and besieged cities.
Western strategists carefully read the "Mein Kampf" and Hitler's speeches, and therefore made any compromises and concessions to the Nazis, pushing the Third Reich to march east. The diplomatic dictionary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation is replete with countless agreements and treaties concluded in the pre-war years by Germany with England, France, Poland, Sweden and other countries, which gave Berlin complete freedom in arms buildup and unleashing aggression against the USSR. It was this policy of the Western powers that presented the greatest danger to the Soviet Union, since there was no certainty that European "democracies" would not find a common language with the Nazis, as it already happened in Munich.
That is why, in order to gain time to prepare the country for war, Stalin went to the German proposal to conclude a non-aggression treaty.
I recall, by the way, that the Western powers were even going to attack the Soviet Union, although they were already at war with the Third Reich. Here is an excerpt from a single document dated 23 on April 1940 of the year: “... point 10. The Supreme Council of the Allies (England and France. - N. S.) notes that detailed plans for air strikes against Russian oil areas in the Caucasus and plans for selecting air bases for these operations are already being prepared ... paragraph 11. The preparatory measures should be completed as soon as possible in order to begin their implementation at any time if Soviet Russia decides to take any action that runs counter to the interests of the allies ... "
And life meanwhile showed that the totalitarian Hitler regime was able to withstand and ultimately defeat only the totalitarian Stalin regime. It so happened that the Soviet Union, Russia from slavery and destruction saved Stalin.
WHAT WAS, THAT WAS ...
A lot has been said about Stalin in recent years, and above all, negative things. A lot of what has been said is probably true. Being an outstanding personality and, therefore, an extremely complex person who has gone through a severe school of life, the underground, prisons, exile, he apparently also possessed such traits as harshness and irritability, secrecy and cruelty, suspicion.
Stalin was a pragmatist and in reality was guided not by the utopias of Marxism-Leninism, but by his vital necessity. This should take into account the extremely complex and controversial environment in which he had to work. The Russian Empire was lost (the Bolsheviks had no relation to this), the Civil War and intervention had recently ended, the country was in ruin, a wave of crime swept over Russia, the Soviet authorities really had a lot of open and secret enemies. Trotsky and his foreign patrons, who had been expelled from the country, constantly poured oil on the fire, saying that the anti-Stalinist opposition, including in military circles, was growing stronger, and a military conspiracy was ripening in Moscow.
All of this laid on the painful suspicion of Stalin and eventually led to massive repression against innocent people. But if it is only responsible for this?
Now widely known is Order No. 270 of the Headquarters of the Supreme High Command of the Red Army of August 16 of 1941. This document is signed not only by Stalin and his closest associates - Molotov, Budyonny, Voroshilov, but also Tymoshenko, Shaposhnikov, Zhukov. The blame for the preparation of the monstrous in its cruelty order lies entirely with the leaders of the People's Commissariat of Defense and the Main Political Directorate of the Red Army, who sought to impose responsibility for their inconsistency and inability to competently lead the Armed Forces on the commanding staff of the fighting forces, to ordinary Red Army soldiers.
It is one thing to condemn the fact of voluntary refusal to resist the enemy, and quite another to declare all those who were captured as deserters and traitors to the Motherland, whose family members were subject to severe punishment. At that difficult time, this order played a clearly negative moral and moral role. The Germans took it with a gloat and read it in prison camps. It was an additional mockery of the fascists.
In addition, the document granted unlimited rights to commanders, political workers and members of special services, allowing them to decide the fate of a person at their discretion. Of course, this was used primarily by dishonest people, careerists and self-seekers. The soldiers, who were not captured voluntarily, went through all the circles of hell, of which only every second survived. But those who returned, waited a bitter fate. Hundreds of thousands of them went through the full program of "processing" in the test-filtration camps. Only in the 1956 year, these soldiers were equated to the participants of the war, but they were fully restored to their rights only in the 1995 by decree of President Yeltsin.
All this was.
BUT WAS AND OTHERS
Stalin created a powerful and highly effective administrative-bureaucratic system of government, which in 10-12 years was able to bring a country where many could not read and write, to a high level of economic and social development. The USSR became a powerful industrial power. Over the years of the first five-year plan alone, more than 1500 industrial enterprises were commissioned, completely new industries appeared - automobile, tractor manufacturing, aviation, machine tool, earned metallurgical plants, heavy engineering plants in the Urals and in the Volga region. The population of the country has reached almost 200 million people.
The USSR was not able to complete the pre-war five-year plan, but by June 1941, the Soviet workers had time to commission almost 3000 more plants, factories and mines. The development of a new oil-bearing region between the Volga and the Urals (Second Baku) began.
Special attention was paid to military production, which in 1940 was already 26% of the total production of the national economy. But the most significant breakthrough can be called achievements in the field of culture, science and education. To implement the plans of industrialization required millions of professionally trained people. The Stalinist leadership took giant measures and efforts to train the people. We have forgotten today such words and slogans of those turbulent days as an educational program, a workers' faculty, universal education, an ordinary reading room, “All to fight against illiteracy!”, “If you don’t read books, you will soon forget about literacy!” And others. It is not surprising that the people’s pursuit of education was omnipotent. In addition, they saw how the son of a peasant became a general or a marshal, the son of a worker — an academician.
AND NOT ONLY HE
Stalin knew that we would have to fight, he was preparing the country for the war, and he understood that he had time to prepare - time to spare. In the USSR, an incredible amount was done; he managed to survive under the blows of the German aggressors and their minions. Although not all the plans were fulfilled, not all had time to do. But it depended not only on Stalin; even the most prominent figures in world history rarely succeeded in accurately foreseeing and calculating what would happen in the near future. Who, for example, could have imagined that such a powerful country as France would collapse in 42 of the day?
The Soviet military leaders, it seems, did not pay due attention to the Wehrmacht operations carried out in Poland and on the Western Front, did not study them in the most thorough way. The strategic command and control bodies of the Soviet Armed Forces turned out to be completely unprepared for work in the conditions of modern war. Powerful German ramming strikes tank corps were largely unexpected for the military leadership of the country ... And the incompetence of the commanders of the Red Army, in turn, became unexpected for Stalin ...
... The Russian media over the past years are filled with the memories of the scouts that they all reported, informed about everything, knew about the beginning of the war. Perhaps this was so. But intelligence is a complex and multi-level organization, and not ordinary intelligence officers talked to Stalin, but the top leaders of the special services, presenting their conclusions.
It is known, for example, that in March 1941, the head of military intelligence, F. I. Golikov, concluded that “rumors and documents speaking of the inevitability of the war against the USSR in the spring of this year should be regarded as misinformation emanating from the English and even German intelligence. Already after Stalin's death, in a conversation with the historian V.A. Anfilov, Golikov admitted that “he personally was not sure of the correctness of his conclusions that Hitler would not risk starting a war against the USSR without finishing England, but because they (conclusions - N.S.) consistent with Stalin's point of view, afraid to report doubts. "
Wasn Stalin to blame for the fact that the tanks were without shells, most of the aircraft collected at border airfields, and the pilots were sent on vacation?
Now all the failures, failures, misfortunes, tragedies of the outbreak of war are laid only on Stalin, who supposedly did not want anyone to believe anything. Today it is easy to talk about it, simply and safely, because Stalin died, he is not. "A dead lion can even kick a donkey."
Stalin created one of the largest states in the world, confidently and firmly led him, and suddenly does not want to understand and accept information about the threat to the Soviet Union. It just can't be. In their memoirs, the commanders recalled more than once that when Stalin reasonably and convincingly reported, he changed his mind. Stalin was an extremely intelligent, deep and insightful politician, he had the gift of foresight, he even with great skill used the hard first period of the war to create the anti-Hitler coalition.
Around Stalin were individuals of different sizes, in his work he relied on them. Of course, there were various people among them: honest and dishonest - sycophants and careerists. There were those who escalated the situation of distrust, pushed for reprisals, told Stalin a lie or a half-truth. Of course, there were party and government officials who, for various reasons - personal, departmental, national, religious, careerist, out of purely selfish motives, fear, envy - went to a deal with their conscience to the detriment of the country.
Of course, Stalin had his own opinion about events in the world and the country, his own idea of how and in which direction the Soviet Union should develop - the first socialist state in the world. But he ruled the country not alone and not alone is responsible for the victims of collectivization, unreasonable repression, beating of military cadres and arrests of defense industry leaders on the eve of the war, which put our country in the most difficult conditions in the initial period of the Great Patriotic War. That is why the former comrades-in-arms of Stalin, with unprecedented zeal after his death, whitening themselves, tried to place all responsibility for these negative phenomena only on the deceased leader.
At the same time, it should be noted: all Stalin’s brutal acts are not something new in our history - the authorities have always been hard on their people. In addition, these acts represent only a small part among the thousands and thousands of Stalinist affairs that contributed to the construction of a great world power. And not only negative phenomena alone determine the essence and content of the Stalin era.
Seeing the confusion of the highest Soviet military leaders in the early days of the war, Stalin firmly took over the entire administration of the fighting country: from August 8 1941, he is the Commander-in-Chief.
It was not immediately understood what kind of enemy came to our land. Essentially, only by the fall of 1942, after the most severe defeats, it became finally clear that with Budyonny and Voroshilov not to overcome the aggressors, we need new personnel and new approaches to waging war. Bright, talented generals — Zhukov, Rokossovsky, Konev, Tolbukhin, Vatutin, Vasilevsky, and others — advanced. In October, unity of command was introduced on 1942 — henceforth, the commissars were called deputy political politicians. The role of the General Staff has increased dramatically. New orders were established - Suvorov, Kutuzov, Nakhimov, Alexander Nevsky and others. At the beginning of the 1943 th introduced epaulets.
As for the order No. 227 from 28 of July 1942 of the year so cursed today by some politicians, historians, and publicists, for the first time it honestly told the people and troops the truth about the situation in the country. This stunning document had a huge mobilizing effect on the Soviet military and inspired them to fight the invaders. And then the Soviet soldier defeated the Germans at Stalingrad, the expulsion of the enemy from our land began.
The war was the greatest test, not only for the people, for the Armed Forces, but also personally for Stalin. He endured it, confidently and firmly led the country from the very first days of the war, took upon himself the entire responsibility for the fate of the state. On all documents, orders, plans and decisions is his signature, and everywhere his iron will is visible, aimed at achieving victory.
The people knew that Stalin was in the Kremlin, was convinced that Stalin would not betray, would not surrender the country to the Germans and would be with him to the end, until the final defeat of the enemy. This belief in Stalin was of the greatest, if not decisive, importance for the successful completion of the Great Patriotic War. The people went to unprecedented suffering and losses, and no punitive, detachment and penal battalions would have forced him to go through these tests, if not for Stalin’s belief, if Stalin’s will and decisions did not coincide with the will and desire of the Soviet people to win.
The words of Stalin, he said 3 July 1941 of the year: “All for the front. All for the victory! ”, Were perceived by the people as a sign of the determination of the authorities to fight and win. It is worth remembering Stalin's personal decision to hold a military parade on Red Square 7 in November 1941 in honor of the Great October Socialist Revolution, when the Germans were on the outskirts of Moscow. Only one this unprecedented political significance of the decision showed the world and the people of the country of Stalin as an outstanding person, unparalleled among military and political figures of the twentieth century.
The war ended. The country quickly recovered, in 1947, the rationing system was canceled two years earlier than in the USA and England. There was a clear and clear plan for the development of the USSR - what to build, when, at what time and who answers. The people were clear perspective and goals.
Now there are a lot of those who are trying to take away the name of Stalin from our people, to blacken, erase from national history. These people cannot forgive him for the gigantic success that the country has achieved under his leadership, because they themselves are incapable of any creative activity. But what would have happened to them if Hitler had won? This can be seen, for this you only need to go to Poland and visit Auschwitz - the factory for the destruction of people and the area of the former Jewish ghetto in Warsaw. It is not far.
The 65 anniversary of the Great Victory is near and it would be fair and fair to return the name of Stalin to the city on the Volga, and in Moscow, on Red Square opposite the Historical Museum, put a monument to the savior of the Fatherland, the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union during the Great Patriotic War, an outstanding political and military figure of our country to Stalin. Such a decision would be worthy of a great country, which he led more than 30 years and made a mighty world power. The merits of Stalin before
Russia are significant and undeniable.
Cursed, but memorable
- Nikolay SPASSKY editor-in-chief of the Weapons and Technologies Publishing House
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