Military Review

How to steal Russian platinum

30
How to steal Russian platinumHistory Platinum begins with 1737, when the Spanish astronomer Antonio de Ulloa brought grain from South America of an unknown metal, extracted from river sands and similar to silver (silver in Spanish - fee). But there were no large platinum deposits in the world.


In 1813, on one of the tributaries of the Ural Iset River, where poor gold-bearing quartz veins were being developed, a young girl, Katya Bogdanova, found a large nugget of platinum and brought it to clerk Poluzadova. The greedy clerk assigned a nugget, and Katya carved it so that she would be silent about the find. But the truth triumphed - and the site owner Kornet Yakovlev, in turn, hewed Poluzadov, took a nugget and decided that he accidentally fell out of the gold-bearing veins.

When in the 1814 a mountain steiner Lev Brusnitsyn discovered the richest gold placers in the Urals, it quickly became clear that platinum was accumulating in them along with gold, and the Urals miners initially used it instead of a lead shot. A dozen years later, rich platinum placers were found, where mining amounted to hundreds of kilograms per year. But what to do with platinum? Who needs it in such quantity? And then Finance Minister Yegor Kankrin came up with a brilliant decision: in 1827, he proposed to replenish the empty Russian treasury ravaged by the war with Napoleon, to start minting platinum coins because this rare and expensive noble metal is no worse than silver and gold.

Russia at that time was on the verge of bankruptcy: there was a catastrophic shortage of silver and gold, depreciated paper banknotes went around the country, and the 25 cop was given for a paper ruble. silver. In addition, Napoleon flooded Russia with fake banknotes, which he printed in deep secrecy before the start of the war 1812. to undermine the Russian economy. Nicholas I did not immediately decide on such an innovation and demanded "the conclusion of competent persons on this issue." Kankrin turned to the German naturalist Alexander Humboldt. He entered into correspondence with him on behalf of the Russian government, sent him trial platinum coins, invited him to go to the Urals, but the main thing Kankrin wanted was to approve the ratio of the price of platinum to silver, like 5: 1.

Sly Kankrin achieved what he wanted: the opinion of the famous scientist had an effect on Nicholas I and in 1828 in St. Petersburg the first platinum coins in the world — three ruble gold coins — were minted. The first gold coin weighing 10,35 grams, Kankrin sent to Humboldt; after the death of Humboldt, this coin was bought by Alexander II and returned to Russia in 1859. She is now on display in the Hermitage coin collection.

From the end of 1829, platinum six and twelve rubles were minted in Russia, they were called “white semi-imperials” and imperials. The population believed in a platinum coin, and the extraction of the precious metal in the Urals reached 2 tons per season — once more at 20 than in Colombia.


Of course, the success of this monetary reform was directly related to the fact that platinum cost the treasury much cheaper than gold. The placers were very rich, the Urals workers and factory serfs were paid pennies ... The cost of platinum was very low. But from the owners of the mines of the Demidovs and Shuvalovs, the treasury nevertheless collected a rather high “mining tax” for the processing of metal. With this tax, which the owners of the fields did not want to pay, the beginnings of the “platinum tragedy” of Russia begin.

The guardian of the juvenile Demidov, Prince Volkonsky, in agreement with platinum buyers from the English company Johnson, Matthey and Co., began to argue that Russia should not process the platinum ore itself, but rather sell the raw platinum abroad. At the same time, surrounded by the tsar, they began to actively spread rumors that fake platinum coins were allegedly made abroad and imported into Russia. In addition, in 1844, Mr. Kankrin resigned.

The new Minister of Finance F. Vronchenko, who received the nickname "Vranchenko", quickly found a common language with the British and with Prince Volkonsky. There is reason to think that Vronchenko was bribed. He presented a report to Nicholas I, stating that “a platinum coin does not correspond to the general principles of our monetary system and there are malicious people who will start to forge it ...”. The opinion is, at least, strange: no country will suffer if they begin to import high-grade (but formally fake) gold or silver coins into it!

Nevertheless, in 1845, Nikolai I signed a decree on the exchange of platinum money. A total of 1828 to 1845 was a platinum coin minted for 4.252.843 rubles. Coins returned to the treasury for 3.264.292 rubles; a million remained among the population, who were very reluctant to part with platinum money. No fake coins were found; this is natural, since Russia was a complete monopolist in the extraction and processing of this noble metal. Later, when the price of platinum significantly exceeded the price of gold, platinum Russian coins gained immense value and became an ornament to any collection.

A gullible king and a corrupt official - this “bundle” was the source of Russia's eternal ills. The decree of Nicholas I led to the complete cessation of platinum mining in the Urals and the loss of its processing technology. And then, according to a predetermined plan, the company Johnson, Matthew and Co. took on the role of “the savior of Russian entrepreneurs from ruin,” concluding contracts with them that were extremely profitable for themselves. Outstanding physicist Russian academic B.S. Jacobi strongly opposed the “reforms” of the government. He called the reformers "worms and reptiles, now blissful in his cheese dwelling." The Special Commission supported Jacobi’s proposal to restore the platinum coin, as it would "encourage the decaying platinum industry and support the paper ruble." But corruption has already eroded the Russian bureaucracy.

In 1862, Mr .. Alexander II issued a decree on the resumption of the release of platinum coins in denominations in 3 and 6 rubles. But it was not at all profitable for the British, and the secret forces continued their subversive work. The decree was, but the officials did not execute it. Two years later, the corrupt minister ordered to “suspend” the minting of platinum coins, although he knew perfectly well that they were not minted at all. Practically all the world reserves of platinum in the form of coins, ingots and ore concentrate "Vranchenko" were stored in the treasury as a useless cargo. For whom?

Soon the main interested person also appeared: they, of course, turned out to be the English company "Johnson, the Mats and K0". She bought all these huge treasures from the royal treasury on the cheap - about 35 tons of platinum! The greatest scam - the theft of all the platinum of Russia - was successful !!! Major Russian Platinum Specialist N.K. Vysotsky wrote in 1923 g.: “It’s a paradox that England, without extracting a single platinum spool, received a commercial monopoly in this industry, allowing it to set arbitrary prices.” (Just like now the monopoly of the former Soviet Baltic republics on the export of non-ferrous metals, deposits of which have never happened there!) Indeed, the monopolist company inflated the price of platinum so much that it cost 3-4 times more than gold!

For tsarist Russia, the result was deplorable: Johnson, Mattei and K0 became the true owner of the Urals platinum. She concluded with the owners of the mines - Shuvalov, Demidov, Pereyaslavtsevym contracts, in which the price was set forward for 5 years, excluding market conditions. As a result, in 1870, for the platinum spool (4,25 g), the earner in the Urals received from 10 kopecks, an intermediary in Moscow 40 kopecks, and the company sold it in Paris for 1 ruble 20 kopecks ... Before 1917, the English owned the entire Russian platinum.

In the troubled post-revolutionary time, the darkness of predators clung to platinum mines: rogues from Germany, England and other countries were buying precious metal from poor prospectors. In 1922, Johnson, Mattei and K0 tried to do everything possible to obtain a concession for the Ural placers. However, at this time the trust “Uralplatina” was created, which at the same time launched 17 drag and organized an artel.

The British did not calm down: they insistently offered the Soviet government to sell them, as before, the extracted raw platinum. They arrogantly believed that the Russians would not be able to organize the rather complex processing of the metal. But already in 1918, V.I. Lenin about the organization of the Institute of Platinum and Noble Metals under the guidance of world-renowned scientist Professor A.A. Chugaeva. Naturally, the British wanted to pay only for platinum, and Chugaev developed a method for efficiently obtaining platinum from the Urals platinum of other precious metals - iridium, osmium, palladium and ruthenium (discovered in 1844 by Kazan University professor KK Klaus). Russian platinum began to serve the interests of the Soviet state.

The conclusion from the story told is simple: Russia is rich in its subsoil, its mineral resources. Hunters seize these wealth has always been and will be countless. Foreign firms have always tried to strangle the Russian national industry: suffice it to recall that tsarist Russia imported from abroad all phosphate, potash and nitrogen fertilizers, all rare and doping metals, and even ... glass sand! The nationalization of natural resources quickly brought the USSR to the first place in the world in terms of reserves and size of extraction of almost all types of minerals. The collapse of the USSR led to the destruction of the world's most powerful mining and mining industry. Out of the country exported raw materials at least 500 billion dollars!


The policy actively implemented by the current government of the Russian Federation for the sale of licenses to own mineral deposits leads to their seizure by nominees associated with foreign mining companies such as the diamond monopolist - De Beers or simply mafia. Minister of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation V.P. Orlov sold about 20.000 licenses to own Russian subsoil, a billion dollars was received for this, but the cost of the wealth sold is hundreds and thousands of times higher. Now we are talking not only about platinum, but about gas, oil, coal, uranium, diamonds, gold and other minerals worth more than 20 TRILLION DOLLARS: such is the monstrous cost of wealth, explored by Soviet geologists! That is why the policy of the corrupt minister "Vranchenko" is necessary for foreign monopolies and so successfully continues by thieves, "reformers" in our time!
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  1. Bosk
    Bosk 27 July 2013 08: 05 New
    +1
    People, and who knows how many three-ruble gold coins stand today?
    1. anip
      anip 27 July 2013 09: 43 New
      +5
      Quote: Bosk
      People, and who knows how many three-ruble gold coins stand today?

      The coin in the photo (3 rubles in 1828) now costs from 100000 rubles, depending on the quality of our catalogs, and up to $ 22000, depending on the quality of foreign catalogs and auctions.
      1. waisson
        waisson 27 July 2013 20: 26 New
        0
        who would know would return now 70
  2. deman73
    deman73 27 July 2013 08: 59 New
    +4
    Yes, our land is rich and there are no sensible owners
    1. psdf
      psdf 27 July 2013 12: 52 New
      0
      Speak only for yourself, that so immediately the whole country in defective record?
      1. Bosk
        Bosk 27 July 2013 15: 36 New
        +9
        My uncle near Cheboksary has a three-meter fence, the yard is lined with oak planks, which my aunt every day mops, plus a large household ... and there are a lot of such yards in that village, by the way, uncle is a former firefighter, now a pensioner ..., so -that they know how to manage in Russia, it’s just that we are accustomed to cycling on the bad ... maybe the mentality is like that, well, the good doesn’t tell us.
      2. psdf
        psdf 27 July 2013 19: 07 New
        +3
        Valuable addendum from Starikov N .:

        PS The above article dates back to 2000, the name of the Minister of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation V.P. No one now remembers Orlov. In the meantime, the Yukos affair raged, which Khodorkovsky was going to sell to the Americans, along with all the licenses. Most recently held

        Rosneft and BP shares swap deal. All deals have only one question - who will have the licenses, which means they have the right to extract the wealth of Russian mineral resources? Our British and American “private effective hands” or state-owned Russian companies.

        That, in fact, is the main question of Russian politics. And why such an indefatigable desire of the liberal wing of the Russian government, headed by Prime Minister Medvedev, to give everything into "private effective hands."

        That is - the Anglo-Saxons.
      3. papas-57
        papas-57 27 July 2013 19: 35 New
        +4
        Not yet in power - everyone is smart. It is worth the power to get the whole mind to evaporate somewhere.
    2. Gladiatir-zlo
      Gladiatir-zlo 28 July 2013 10: 28 New
      +2
      But there is a combination - "A trusting tsar and a corrupt official - this" bunch "was the source of Russia's eternal misfortunes."
    3. vladimirZ
      vladimirZ 28 July 2013 14: 23 New
      +5
      "Yes, our land is rich and there are no sensible owners"
      deman73 (1)  Yesterday, 08:59 AM


      Like not. The article also says that "Minister of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation V.P. Orlov sold about 20.000 licenses for Russian subsoil ownership".
      So there are owners. Only these are not Russian people, but "uncles" from the USA and the West. And to jump off this "needle", where the liberals drove it, led by Yeltsin and Putin, Russia oh how difficult. Yes, in practice, under the current liberoid, Putin’s power, it’s impossible. The situation on the contrary only worsens and will worsen.
  3. anip
    anip 27 July 2013 09: 33 New
    +6
    Quote: deman73
    The guardian of the young Demidov, Prince Volkonsky, having conspired with platinum buyers from the English firm Johnson, Matthew and Co., began to argue that Russia should not process platinum ore itself, but it is more profitable to sell crude platinum abroad.

    Just like now with oil, gas, forest, etc.

    A trusting tsar and a corrupt official - this “bundle” was the source of Russia's eternal misfortunes.

    Now a slight difference. The king is the same as the official.
  4. anip
    anip 27 July 2013 09: 55 New
    14
    The British did not calm down: they persistently offered the Soviet government to sell them, as before, mined raw platinum. They arrogantly believed that the Russians would not be able to establish a rather complicated metal processing. But already in 1918 the decree of V.I. Lenin on the organization of the Institute of Platinum and Noble Metals under the guidance of the world famous scientist Professor A.A. Chugaev. The British, of course, only wanted to pay for platinum, and Chugaev developed a methodology for efficiently obtaining other precious metals of the platinum group — iridium, osmium, palladium and ruthenium from Ural platinum ...
    The conclusion from the story told is simple: Russia is rich in its bowels, its minerals. There have always been and will be countless hunters to seize these riches. Foreign firms have always tried to strangle Russian national industry: it’s enough to recall that tsarist Russia imported from abroad all phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen fertilizers, all rare and alloying metals and even ... glass sand! The nationalization of natural resources quickly brought the USSR to first place in the world in terms of reserves and production of almost all types of minerals.
    .
    Question: It turns out that the Bolsheviks made a revolution not in vain?
    And the second: I think it’s clear why the Bolsheviks won?
  5. atomic
    atomic 27 July 2013 09: 56 New
    +2
    Having such wealth, citizens are drawn into a credit loop. Paradox. Thank you Putin compradors!
  6. vania
    vania 27 July 2013 10: 55 New
    +6
    pay attention to the title of the article “How They Stole Russian Platinum”, and now they steal more thanks to officials
  7. a
    a 27 July 2013 11: 27 New
    -2
    the article is interesting, but the conclusions are somehow trivial, chef, everything was gone.
    it turns out that we as a country can function only within the framework of the socialist system? but we lived in it a little more than 70 years. But Russia has existed for many centuries.
    1. mirror
      mirror 27 July 2013 12: 24 New
      -1
      Moreover, it is assumed that Russia, if it were not 17 years old, would have stood still all this time and had not developed, and no one would have found all these minerals. So after all, students of the Russian geological school were looking for them anyway, they were taught by old Russian professors. Tea, the Bolsheviks did not come to the Papuans to build "socialism" in the jungle.
    2. revnagan
      revnagan 28 July 2013 23: 00 New
      0
      Quote: uno
      it turns out that we as a country can function only within the framework of the socialist system? but we lived in it a little more than 70 years. But Russia has existed for many centuries.

      The question is HOW ordinary citizens lived (the majority)? And good results for all citizens are only within the framework of socialism. Well, we have such natural and other conditions that under capitalism there isn’t enough heat, food and other benefits for everyone. Well, God bless they aren’t enough anywhere at all, but here we have it, if at -40 in winter you won’t be able to pay for the heat-banally frozen and that’s all.
  8. 755962
    755962 27 July 2013 12: 01 New
    10
    By all means, by hook or by crook, to prevent foreign capital and Western investments from the country's raw materials !!!
    BECAUSE WE DO NOT FORGET THIS !!!
    1. mirror
      mirror 27 July 2013 12: 29 New
      +3
      I think that we should not confuse such necessary and useful foreign investments with the greed of domestic thieves, who sold cheaply everything the raking hands reached. We need real industrialists, who will turn any investment in development, and not into cheap sale of the country. Capital is a lever, it is needed, without it you can’t do anything and will not build.
  9. My address
    My address 27 July 2013 12: 10 New
    +4
    And now gold reserves from the sale of oil and gas where? And whose reserves actually? So is there a fundamental difference? Not.
  10. poquello
    poquello 27 July 2013 12: 42 New
    +5
    If you take out two wagons of "stools" somewhere, you can grow two wagons of platinum. The effectiveness of the red system was due to a very correct managerial moment - the commander evaluated the result, and the commissar "statehood of the result."
  11. omsbon
    omsbon 27 July 2013 12: 48 New
    +2
    The British did not calm down: they persistently offered the Soviet government to sell them, as before, mined raw platinum. They arrogantly believed that the Russians would not be able to establish a rather complicated metal processing.

    Have geybrit ever calmed down? It seems not, and now they continue to climb.
    Give them in the face and kick them in the neck!
  12. Cristall
    Cristall 27 July 2013 13: 10 New
    +5
    Great article, indicative. Now, when there is a return of memory until the age of 17, amazing coincidences are emerging.
    Although the state of affairs from what is happening now is not very cheerful.
  13. shpuntik
    shpuntik 27 July 2013 13: 38 New
    -3
    Nevertheless, in 1845, Nicholas I signed a decree on the exchange of platinum money.

    Oh, sorry, our kings did not know about such books:
  14. Zomanus
    Zomanus 27 July 2013 15: 09 New
    +5
    And history does not teach us anything ... More precisely, in our government there are no hard-working dealers who would work for the good of Russia.
  15. radio operator
    radio operator 27 July 2013 16: 25 New
    0
    The guardian of the juvenile Demidov, Prince Volkonsky, in agreement with platinum buyers from the English company Johnson, Matthey and Co., began to argue that Russia should not process the platinum ore itself, but rather sell the raw platinum abroad. At the same time, surrounded by the tsar, they began to actively spread rumors that fake platinum coins were allegedly made abroad and imported into Russia. In addition, in 1844, Mr. Kankrin resigned.

    Again these Anglo-Saxons!
    All that they stick their nose into is in decline.
    You must always keep an eye on them and keep your distance.
  16. radio operator
    radio operator 27 July 2013 16: 25 New
    0
    The guardian of the juvenile Demidov, Prince Volkonsky, in agreement with platinum buyers from the English company Johnson, Matthey and Co., began to argue that Russia should not process the platinum ore itself, but rather sell the raw platinum abroad. At the same time, surrounded by the tsar, they began to actively spread rumors that fake platinum coins were allegedly made abroad and imported into Russia. In addition, in 1844, Mr. Kankrin resigned.

    Again these Anglo-Saxons!
    All that they stick their nose into is in decline.
    You must always keep an eye on them and keep your distance.
  17. datur
    datur 27 July 2013 17: 56 New
    0
    Again these Anglo-Saxons!
    All that they stick their nose into is in decline.
    You must always keep an eye on them and keep your distance. radio operator radio operator radio operator ---- thank God we have the right radio operator !!!!
  18. Double major
    Double major 27 July 2013 18: 05 New
    +2
    The British consider us enemies for more than 200 years: http://newsland.com/news/detail/id/1132435/
  19. knn54
    knn54 27 July 2013 20: 45 New
    +2
    -similar to silver (silver in Spanish - fee).
    For its color, the Spaniards scornfully called the "silver" platinum.
    A bit of history.
    With the advent of platinum in the XVI counterfeiters became more active. Indeed, the density of platinum is 21 g / cc, and gold - 19 g / cc. It is much more difficult to distinguish such a false “gold” coin with an admixture of platinum than, say, a silver-gold counterfeit. (after all, platinum-gold weighs almost as much as pure gold!). When it became known that Spanish gold coins, not quite gold, they fell sharply in price throughout Europe, and what they were made of (platinum-gold alloy) became contemptuously called "rotten" or "Spanish" gold. This led to the financial crisis in Spain. And in 1735, the king of Aragon and the regent of Castile Carlos I issued a decree ordering not to import platinum from now on. When developing placers in Colombia, it was ordered to carefully separate it from gold and to heat it under the supervision of royal officials in the deep places of the Rio del Pinto river, which they began to call Platino del Pinto. And that platinum, which has already been brought to Spain, was ordered to be publicly and solemnly drowned in the sea. This disgrace lasted quite a long time: right up to the second half of the 1776th century. In 1778, the first platinum products appeared in the shop windows of Paris, the world trendsetter: jewelry (rings, earrings, necklaces) and technical (vessels and coils for cleaning strong acids, sugar, metals). Advertising did its job, and platinum began to go into fashion. In Spain, they learned about this, and in XNUMX an order was sent to New Granada - stop drowning platinum, collect it and wait for further orders. In the Urals, gun bullets were made from it, which, due to the fragility of the metal, burst into pieces, falling into the animal’s bone.
    PS By the way, platinum, which "has the weight of gold in bars", was known in ancient Rome and was not confused with silver, it was called "white lead." And some of the gold products of Ancient Egypt contain inclusions of “raw platinum”, alloy plates were also found in which the main component is platinum ...
  20. family
    family tree 27 July 2013 23: 48 New
    +1
    The Spaniards faced platinum in America. Galleons transporting valuable gold and silver carried platinum, too ... but only as ballast request
  21. Cristall
    Cristall 28 July 2013 00: 49 New
    0
    It's rather strange how the Incas and others smelted it at all
    Melting temperature
    1 ° C Platinum,
    961,8 ° C Silver
    1 ° C Gold,
    1 ° C Copper
    1 ° C Iron
    as if the Incas didn’t know iron (or maybe they couldn’t get the right temperature), and then platinum with a higher temperature. As usual, a riddle giving birth to a bunch of theories.
    I wonder - did people know metals according to their melting point?
  22. Not a patriot
    Not a patriot 28 July 2013 00: 53 New
    0
    I don’t know what about the coins, but about the use for fractions, this is complete nonsense. The melting point of platinum is 1786 degrees, for steel 1200, so if it was too lazy to pour from lead, then it's easier from iron.
    1. common man
      common man 28 July 2013 09: 02 New
      +2
      well, they probably didn’t cast it. in placers, it is just in the form of pellets, only of irregular shape. collect, fall asleep, shoot.
  23. Consul-t
    Consul-t 28 July 2013 10: 45 New
    +4
    I have always been against foreign investment in our economy.
    They just buy us up. And it presents us with our government as a blessing.
    It is necessary to develop our industrialists, and in the west to buy machines and technologies.
    It is foolish to think that we ourselves will not be able to organize and raise the country.
    This is crushed by corrupt media.
    1. Ingvar 72
      Ingvar 72 28 July 2013 15: 43 New
      0
      We have long been bought. By paper. And they chatted to sell resources for paper. And as for technologies, whoever sells them to us, there are no fools. An example is Volvo, Opel. They have different goals.
  24. Monster_Fat
    Monster_Fat 28 July 2013 11: 46 New
    +3
    What is an investment? It’s beautiful, so, looking “little thing” on paper is an overseas word that hides laziness and unwillingness of state leaders to engage in economics, finance, real production, etc. That is, instead of plowing from dawn to dawn for the good of their country, to raise their intellectual level and education, and then, to invest all this in managing the economy and production of their country, our rulers want to do nothing, dive behind anphora, fly planes, lead cranes, catch pikes, etc. (as if children who didn’t play as a child), and to invite, like, overseas “investors”, who will bring them everything on a “silver platter”. Like the dream of Lenin Golubkov’s "synecure": "We are sitting, and denyuzhki are coming to us." Moreover, our rulers are absolutely illiterate in matters of production and believe in all tricks that have managed to squeeze closer to them and whisper in your ear, the so-called "advice" about the inability of our people to entrepreneurship, efficient work, etc. Laziness and unwillingness are working for our ruling "elite ", multiplied by its ignorance and lead our state to a disaster, which is not at all just around the corner ....
  25. Cristall
    Cristall 28 July 2013 13: 20 New
    +1
    I read Tolstoy-Peter the Great (one of my favorite books), there was an excerpt from the king’s regret that local merchants didn’t take their crafts. And the British take it. Like, the question is, why do not the Dutch take ours and the British like pies. Then, from passages such a picture, they bought fat at a cheaper price, and they didn’t even sell it to Moscow merchants (repayable rights), the Pomeranians were impoverished. The British bought a concession for the forest, the price was set by them, in Europe they sell at a very high price and do not reduce it - they build their ships rather cheaply, and they take other forests for expensive.
    In general, the meaning is like 300 years ago, a kind of investment (the treasury then received the money for the purchase, and there was no way out, at least something or nothing, because they don’t want their own), generating income, harming the state and the industries. And what is strange, the same English! It seems to me that since the time of the organization of trade with Russia, they have firmly seized on this opportunity to "bargain"
  26. kind
    kind 28 July 2013 18: 43 New
    0
    it quickly became clear that platinum accumulates in them along with gold, and the Ural mountain workers first used it instead of a lead fraction

    In Russia, everything is from the heart !!!