So, let's begin.
Our country in the last 20 years has experienced powerful upheavals that have changed the social structure of the population. As a result of the 90 upheavals of the last century, the country almost went bankrupt. A very large number of people turned out to be below the poverty line. It was only with the advent of V.V. Putin's situation began to gradually improve. Some people managed to pull out of poverty. At the very least, state employees began to pay salaries. Yes, and sometimes raise it. The state gradually began to revive. Several factors contributed to this. Among them: the coming to power of more powerful people than the amorphous leaders of the country 90-s; the rising cost of Russia's main export goods, which led to the filling of the budget and various funds; crystallization of ideology. Of course, one cannot say that ideology has taken its final forms. But instead of the ideology of elementary survival of 90, at least some distinct ideology came to build, revive, be independent, rise from your knees, if you wish.
But during growth, appetites also grow. It is necessary to continue to raise the salaries of teachers and doctors, and other state employees. What would people, rising from their knees, could live, not exist. We need high costs for infrastructure projects. In order not to catch up with the whole world in technological development, but to be leaders or one of the leaders. Freed from the overly naive views of 90's, we all understand that just because no one will give up their place on the world Olympus. Moreover, there are quite a few hunters to shove us lower, away in the darkest times of the 90s. Therefore, our country needs a strong and modern army so that those who wish to shove do it with extreme caution. Modern technological equipment is not just expensive, but very expensive. The cost of a modern fighter at the level of the cost of a commercial airliner with a capacity of 130-150 passengers. Only commercial liners bring income to their owners. A military aircraft generates only expenses: fuel, maintenance, modernization, pilot training. In general, it is very expensive to protect the country. But extremely necessary. Need money, a lot of money.
The government has developed an army modernization program worth almost 20 trillion rubles. The amount is huge. And she will not fall from the ceiling. Moreover, the amount is constantly increasing due to the fact that the cost of developing and introducing new equipment is increasing from year to year. And the fact that it was laid down in the modernization program of the army several years ago has now become much more expensive. Visitors to the site know perfectly well the situation with the American F-35 aircraft, which at the development stage was estimated to be one sum, and already in production the price tag on it so increased that some countries either reduce orders for it, or even think of abandoning it in favor of cheaper ones F-18. I think that we have a similar situation. Maybe the scale of price increases is not the same, but also decent.
In view of this, there is always a lack of money for rearmament. Headaches add constantly emerging crises in the world. They may occur far from us, but still we get from them. Indeed, in any crisis leads to a decrease in consumer spending. This means less costs, less materials and energy are needed for production. Since we have a significant part of budget revenues formed by the sale of natural resources (primarily oil and gas), the global crisis leads to a lack of revenue for our companies and, consequently, a decrease in budget revenues. Less money and higher costs. As a result, a few years ago, our budget surplus became scarce, i.e. Money for all expenses is not enough. The question of where to get money from the state has become a chronic headache.
All this is not new to you, everyone who, more or less, understands how the economy works, understands that the question is really very serious. But a significant part of the readers of the site does not particularly think about it, and to the question of where to get the money very confidently answers, to take away from Abramovich, Prokhorovs, Deripasok. The logic is simple - people fraudulently seized a huge piece of the once public property. These people are not just oligarchs, they are thieves and bloodsuckers. And that means to take away from them that which once belonged to the state is a completely natural and even socially necessary business. If you rummage through the Forbs lists of the Russian rich, you can find several dozen people with billions or multimillion states in terms of dollars. The amount of wealth of only the first ten of domestic billionaires surpasses the 150 billion dollars. And this is almost 5 trillion rubles, it is a quarter of the entire rearmament program, calculated to 2020 year (if not mistaken). Huge money !!! They can easily patch all the holes in the budget. Enough of everything - the army, teachers, doctors. And even a lot of officials perepadet. Yes, I think that most of society will have nothing against such expropriation.
The source of additional income for the rearmament of the army was found !! The only question is how to remove all this from the overdue oligarchs. It is trivial how many cash collectors will need to take all this wealth from a handful of people. The answer is zero. Zero collector cars will be required. And not because someone will be against what would take it all. Even if there is a consensus between the society and the government on this issue. You will not need a string of armored vehicles for export for one simple reason - there will be nothing to take out.
Many people, when they hear about the large sums of wealth of oligarchs, imagine their capital as factories, newspapers, steamers, and money. If you say that a person has so many billions of dollars, he will first of all think about huge packs of dollars, maybe even tied with a clerical eraser, which lies in the rich man’s pantry. Or in the bank, at worst. And the factories, newspapers, steamers, it seems, the oligarchs were received for surrender somewhere. So, this is a completely wrong idea. The bulk of the wealth of such people is tangible assets, and not money at all. That is, these are plants, banks, land, buildings (real estate), shares of some enterprises. And a certain amount of cache (cash, non-cash). Let's just say a small amount of cache. With a great interest in the Internet, you can structure the capital of an oligarch. I, of course, can be mistaken in details, but also only. None of these people keep money in the mattress. Even if this mattress has the sign “BANK”. Have you ever wondered why in times of crisis the deck of our oligarchs is shuffled and new people appear in the first places? The day before yesterday was Prokhorov, yesterday Lisin, today Usmanov. Because during the crisis, the shares of companies are very volatile. Today, the share of someone's company was worth 100 dollars. During the crisis, the stock price fell to 20 dollars. Today you are in the first place with 15 billions of dollars, tomorrow your fortune is “only” 3 billion and you are not the first in the list, but you close the twenty / thirty of the richest. All this, of course, conditional. But the essence is exactly that. These guys have little money. All their wealth is enterprises, stocks, real estate, movables.
So, we stop on a consensus that it is necessary to withdraw wealth in order to arm the army, to feed the state employees. Let's take shares. The bailiffs with bailiffs arrived, seized a pile of shares for many, many hundreds or even billions of dollars. What's next? How to arm the army and feed the state employees with shares? With state employees easier. You can give them shares. They will sell them if they want. It does not matter that for a penny, as it was with vouchers. But as an option, this can be imagined. And what about weapons for the army? By using the seized shares arm the army? You can put shares in the depository. And when they will distribute dividends to the owners of the shares, the state can take away its dividends. Only the amount of dividends will be small compared with the capital that the state was going to withdraw from the oligarchs. The surest way to get big money for the withdrawn shares is to sell them. Relatively speaking, they seized shares for a billion dollars, and sell them for a billion. There is a question, to whom to sell? If we withdraw from our own Russian oligarchs, then there will be no money inside the country for the purchase of shares. There remains only the option of selling the shares of the company to some foreign investor. If you sell the shares to a foreigner, then it turns out that we took away the company's shares from the Russian businessman, and sold it to a foreign businessman. That is, the shares of factories, newspapers, steamboats were ours, they will become theirs, in the sense of American, British or German? Do you want this? Me not.
Further, what else can be withdrawn from the Russian oligarchs? Factories, pipelines, mining companies, etc. We will remove And how will this money for the army? The pipe lying in the ground, the pumping of oil in Siberia or the metallurgical plant in Norilsk are not money. This is a pipe, a rocking chair, a factory. This means of production. But only. To get a lot of money from this, it means that after withdrawal, you must immediately sell it. Again the question is who. Ours already have no money, but we have “all of them" dispossessed them. " Yes, and sell to someone of ours, this means that there will again be some kind of oligarch. Sell to foreigners? So this is our all. How do they sell it?
There is an option to leave all this in the possession of the state. But then you need to forget about the extra money for the army. After all, if some privately-owned enterprise paid taxes on 100 million rubles, then by transferring to state ownership, this company would not pay taxes on either 500 million or 200 million. And the same 100 will pay millions of rubles. That is, the budget will not be particularly hot from transferring the ownership of an enterprise to state ownership. Well, yes, again, the state can pay dividends to itself. But the amount of dividends is a penny. Yes, and let's speak bluntly - our government managers are still managers. See what Serdyukov was directing. Do you think that the rest of our managers are all extremely honest? I'm not so naive.
The result of the above. All the talk about the withdrawal of wealth from domestic oligarchs is extremely harmful. This will not benefit our economy. It hurts social relations in the country. But the oligarchic capital itself in our country is, of course, not very good.
I say goodbye to this. I don’t write about alternative ways of filling the military budget, as I was told: write at least the same article (without offering alternatives). Here I wrote. There are thoughts about alternative ways.