Military Review

Boat pr.183

20



At the end of the 40-ies, the Special Design Bureau (OKB-5) of the NKVD, headed by P.G. Goinkis, began work on the creation of large torpedo boats. They were supposed to replace planing boats of prewar construction, which were not very successful.

The development process took into account the experience of using Lend-Lease American-made boats of the “Elko”, “Vosper” and “Higgins” types, which had high combat and operational characteristics.

In the manufacture of the hull of the designed boat, wood was used, and in order to increase seaworthiness, the hull was made unlimited and with sharp lines. Bulletproof armor was installed on the bridge and wheelhouse. The total displacement was 66.5 tons.

The total power of the power plant is 4 800 hp This provided the maximum speed in the 43-44 node. The autonomous navigation range reached 600 miles at a cruising speed of an 33 node, and an economical speed at 14 nodes provided a range of 1000 miles.



As the main armament of the boat, two 533-mm single-tube deck torpedo tubes were used, which were located at an angle of 3 degrees to the center plane.

To protect against aviation the enemy used two twin 25 mm anti-aircraft automatic fire installations. In addition, the boat could take on board up to six KB-3 sea mines, eight - AMD-500 or 18 - AMD-5. Instead of torpedoes, it was possible to take up to eight BB-1 depth charges.

The radio equipment included Radar Zarnitsa, identification station Fakel-M, as well as two radio stations. In the equipment was smoke equipment DA-7, 4 smoke bombs MDSh. Instrument equipment was used in the navigation equipment: Girya, Flight-55, KGMK-4, and autopilot Zubatka.

After the completion of state tests and corrections of deficiencies, from 1952 to 1960 a large batch of torpedo boats pr.183 "Bolshevik" was produced - more than 420 units. Throughout their entire service life, they were used at all fleetsawarding great references.

On the basis of this project, improved models and boats for other purposes were also created.

The boat of the 183-T project was used to test an additional gas turbine afterburner power unit with an HP 4000 power, which raised the speed to 50 nodes. In 1955-1957, 25 boats were built at the production facilities of Leningrad according to a revised project.

Border troops received 52 boats in the modification of the "small hunter" without torpedoes. There was also a staff version pr. 183-Ш.

One of the serial samples of the boat on pr. 183-A received an outer sheath of arcticite, an analogue of bakelised plywood, into which metal wire is pressed.

It was also built sixty radio-controlled surface target boats pr. 183-C. They were used as targets during training in the process of combat training.

But the world's most famous was the first serial missile boat in the world with guided anti-ship missiles, 183R Komar.

Boat pr.183


The design of the boat was approved in August 1957. The hull, the main systems and the power plant of the prototype boat remained in the same form. The changes affected the armament of the boat: he received two rocket hangars with P-15 missile launchers instead of torpedo tubes, a new radar for detecting surface targets and missile control equipment.



The use of a hangar type launcher was due to the fact that this type of anti-ship cruise missile did not have wings. The launchers had a constant elevation of 11.5 degrees, and their own weight was 1100 kilograms. The rockets could be launched at speeds up to 30 nodes during the swell up to 4 points. Also, only one 25-mm 2М-3М installation - the bow one was preserved on the boat.

Now the boat has a new "main caliber" - two cruise anti-ship missiles P-15.

This RCC was created in the ICB "Rainbow" headed by the chief designer A. Ya. Bereznyak. The complex with the P-15 rocket was adopted in 1960 year.

The P-15 rocket used a sustainer liquid-propellant jet engine, which was created under the leadership of A. M. Isaev. The engine used fuel TG-02 and oxidizer AK-20К and worked in two modes: accelerating and “maintaining” speed.

On the P-15 rocket, an autonomous guidance system was installed, which included the AM-15A autopilot, a radar homing head and a barometric altimeter, which was later replaced by a radio altimeter, which allowed sight in height.

High-cumulative warhead rocket weighed 480 kilogram. The rocket reached subsonic flight speed in 320 m / s, and the maximum range of the first modifications reached forty kilometers at an altitude of 100-200 meters above the water surface.



It is worth noting that among foreign specialists rocket boats and anti-ship missiles caused neglect. This kind weapons produced only in the USSR.



Officially, the missile system was put into service in the 1960 year, but already at the end of the 1958 year, without test results, two factories launched the construction of missile boats of the 183Р project. Production lasted almost nine years. At the end of 1965, 112 boats were built according to the 183P project. In addition to the Russian Navy, these boats were in service with the allied countries: Algeria and Egypt received 6, 9 transferred to Indonesia, 18 went to Cuba, 10 to North Korea, 20 to China, where they were later manufactured under license. Most countries have already removed them from service, but in Algeria they continue to be used as patrols, and the DPRK uses them for its intended purpose.



That export boats first entered the battle.

October 21 The Israeli destroyer Eilat 1967 conducted reconnaissance of Egyptian defense electronic equipment, moving in zigzags and crossing the border of the territorial waters of Egypt.



In the end, he went very far, so the Egyptian Navy decided to attack the offender. At five o'clock in the evening local time, the Egyptian missile boats, pr.183Р, who were standing at the pier in Port Said, raised an alarm. Radar boats found the destroyer at a distance of about 23 kilometers. Two boats departed from the pier, which formed the combat course. In 17 hours 19 minutes the first rocket was launched, and after five seconds - the second.



The destroyer was able to detect missile launches against smoke plumes and flares, but the intensive fire from anti-aircraft guns and movement at full speed in zigzags did not save the ship. Within sixty seconds after the launch, the first rocket hit the engine room of the ship, and after a few seconds the second rocket joined it. The ship began to sink due to critical damage, but it was not possible to save it.

Five minutes later the rocket launched the second boat. The third rocket hit the sinking destroyer, the fourth hit the sailors and the wreckage of the ship. As a result, 47 crew members from 199 died, and 81 people were injured.

After the attack, the boats at full speed formed a course of withdrawal. The first boat managed to get to the base safely, and the second one cut the bottom, jumping onto the coastal stones due to a crew error.

This incident turned into a world sensation. In the Western media, it was noted that a new era had begun in the naval war.



Rocket boats continued to participate in hostilities, attacking coastal and sea targets.

In May 1970, the Egyptian military reported that they had managed to sink another Israeli warship, the Orit trawler, which was fishing in al-Bardavil Bay.

It is worth mentioning that the Israeli Navy was able to fully recoup for the losses. The Arabs lost several boats due to tactical illiteracy and poor technical condition.

Subsequently, anti-ship missiles P-15 of various modifications were successfully used in other conflicts. For example, in 1971, with their help, the Pakistani destroyer was sunk during the Indo-Pakistani war, as well as several civilian ships and minesweepers.



The successful use of Soviet weapons in battle greatly influenced naval theorists all over the planet. Feverish development and construction of anti-ship missiles, as well as their carriers, began.

Based on:
AB Shirokorad "Weapons of the Russian Navy", Minsk, Harvest, 2001.
http://www.rusarmy.com/vmf/rk_pr_183.r.htm
http://www.warships.ru/Russia/Weapons/PKR/P-15/
http://rbase.new-factoria.ru/missile/wobb/p15/p15.shtml
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  1. cobalt
    cobalt 25 July 2013 07: 20 New
    +6
    By the way, the DPRK Navy is still armed with 12 Komarov missiles.
    1. Bongo
      25 July 2013 14: 53 New
      +5
      They and the armored boats built 40-ies are still on the go.
  2. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 25 July 2013 11: 38 New
    +3
    Let's start with the fact that the DPRK Navy also has the older brothers of the Project 183R RCA, about 40 units of Project 183 torpedo boats, Soviet, Chinese and their own production called Sinnam. Secondly, there is information that there was a Soviet team on the missile boats, well, or at least Soviet specialists, although I personally do not believe in this, the retreat was too stupid, since one broke the bottom, jumping out onto the coastal stones due to a team error. It should also be noted that the game really did not go with one goal, so the Syrians lost 4 missile boats of project 183, 2 of which themselves threw themselves ashore, evading Israeli attacks and were shot there by the Israelis. Yours faithfully!
  3. Captain45
    Captain45 25 July 2013 11: 42 New
    +4
    "Mosquito" he is, small, but harmful ... laughing
  4. washi
    washi 25 July 2013 12: 58 New
    0
    RTOs are cheap but cheerful. The most is for the protection of our thermal waters, which, thanks to Gorbachev and Medvedev, have been significantly reduced both in the west and in the east. Instead of one aircraft carrier, a hundred RTOs and the Kuril Islands can be calm.
    Yes, and torpedo boats can still say their weighty word in the Baltic and Far East. Moreover, torpedoes can be used not only against NK, but also submarines, but in the presence of air defense, and aircraft.
  5. Terrible ensign
    Terrible ensign 25 July 2013 13: 06 New
    +5
    Vasya, let me ask how torpedoes are used against aircraft in the presence of air defense? ..
    Honestly, the depth and extent of your thoughts did not master ...
    1. washi
      washi 30 July 2013 13: 58 New
      0
      Talk about RTOs
  6. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 25 July 2013 13: 30 New
    +4
    Especially for Vasya, the last case in the world history of naval combat with the use of torpedo boats took place on June 15, 1999, when 6 North Korean (1 TKA project 183 hydrofoil-R-6 and 5 Chinese-built "Shanghai") collided with a South Korean patrol ship and several patrol boats. During the battle, when a torpedo boat tried to attack a South Korean patrol ship with torpedoes, it was sunk by concentrated artillery fire from the patrol ship and patrol boats YUK. Also, during the battle, all 5 North Korean patrol boats were damaged, and 1 of the boats, which temporarily lost its speed due to damage, was rammed by a South Korean patrol boat, but not only was able to stay afloat, but also to start and get out of the battle under the cover of other boats that picked up from the water the surviving sailors of the sunk torpedo boat. In response, the North Korean patrol boats and the torpedo boat caused damage to the patrol boat and the South Korean patrol boat, which rammed the North Korean patrol boat. Moreover, the sinking of the torpedo boat was quite natural. For a guaranteed defeat of the maneuvering patrol boat, Kater had to approach it at a distance of 400-500 meters. His torpedoes are straight forward and when launched from a long distance the enemy could evade. Currently, in the presence of gun mounts with radar firing control, a torpedo boat with such torpedoes has no chance against a warship. Teach Vasily materiel! Yours faithfully! hi
    1. washi
      washi 30 July 2013 13: 59 New
      0
      Sorry, but do you have a complaint against RTOs?
  7. Captain45
    Captain45 25 July 2013 13: 50 New
    +3
    I am not an expert in naval affairs, but here came a crazy thought. A torpedo boat built on new technologies "stealth" and other bells and whistles, and add a couple of devices with a rocket-torpedo "Shkval". Here is a huge pellet with planes called an aircraft carrier dangling about a hundred miles from the coast, preparing to inflict another airstrike, and then a couple of TCs jump out of an inconspicuous bay at a speed of 40-45 knots, they go for an hour and a half or two, the target is a high-speed small-sized, unobtrusive yes There are three or four torpedoes in the stern and side of this tub. I think it will not seem a little, and the air defense will not always react. Alexander Shabalin in the North carried out what raids on torpedo boats in the Great Patriotic War. And caravans smashed and landed troops. One raid with Viktor's scouts Leonov to the port of Liinakhamari, a classic landing party. Here's something like this. If not right, correct.
    1. Bongo
      25 July 2013 16: 28 New
      +4
      And that there was a variant of "Shkval" not with a special warhead or are they still being produced?
      1. Captain45
        Captain45 25 July 2013 20: 56 New
        0
        Quote: Bongo
        And that there was a variant of "Shkval" not with a special warhead or are they still being produced?

        Yes, I'm talking about "Shkval", that it seems to be the fastest torpedo, ie. how life, passing by, thrust a feather under the rib, no one noticed until he collapsed, and the one who poked the wind fistulas in the field.
    2. loft79
      loft79 25 July 2013 20: 17 New
      +3
      I'm not a specialist either, but:

      Quote: Captain45
      Here dangles miles a hundred from the coast a huge pelvis with planes called an aircraft carrier

      I think 100 is unlikely, he has nothing to do.

      Quote: Captain45
      Torpedo boat built on new technologies "stealth" and other bells and whistles

      How effective these stealth technologies are at sea is unknown. Amer is still experimenting. And now the radars are advanced.

      Then at the Flurry, the range is small and SBC. Easier ground-based missiles. coastal defense complexes to use.

      IMHO.
      1. Captain45
        Captain45 25 July 2013 20: 58 New
        0
        Quote: loft79
        I think 100 is unlikely, he has nothing to do.

        Well, by the way, I’m not specifically interested in how far from the coast this fool is when airstrikes. If you know, tell me, thanks in advance.
        1. loft79
          loft79 25 July 2013 21: 46 New
          +2
          I definitely do not know what is written in their charters.
          Just considering:
          "By the tactical standards of the US Navy, the range of counter-
          go combat aircraft carriers 700 - 1100 km, although in the exercises,
          the destruction of the alleged enemy - Russian heavy
          aircraft-carrying cruiser "Admiral of the Soviet Union N.G. Kuznetsov",
          the ability to strike
          bast aviation against a Russian ship from a range of 1600-1700 km "
          At 100, he does not need to approach.
          1. Captain45
            Captain45 25 July 2013 23: 24 New
            0
            Quote: loft79
            "By the tactical standards of the US Navy, the range of counter-
            th battle of aircraft carriers 700 - 1100 km,

            Well yes, almost 400 miles, it will be too much.
        2. smiths xnumx
          smiths xnumx 25 July 2013 22: 22 New
          0
          Well, here's a semi-loaded torpedo boat of the Iranian Navy, built according to a North Korean project using stealth technology
          1. smiths xnumx
            smiths xnumx 25 July 2013 22: 25 New
            0
            Sorry, that’s of course a photograph. Yours faithfully!
            1. smiths xnumx
              smiths xnumx 25 July 2013 22: 34 New
              0
              Here is another Iranian torpedo boat of the North Korean production of the BOGHAMMAR project. Displacement of 28 tons, speed of 52 knots, armament - 2 mm torpedoes.
              1. smiths xnumx
                smiths xnumx 25 July 2013 22: 52 New
                +1
                Well, this is the dream of the respected Captain45, embodied in the Cubans in metal, a minisubmarine, a marvelous torpedo installation.
                I am not an expert in naval affairs, but here came a crazy thought. A torpedo boat built on new technologies "stealth" and other bells and whistles, and add a couple of devices with a rocket-torpedo "Shkval".

                Cap, do not be offended by loving. Yours faithfully! hi
                1. Captain45
                  Captain45 25 July 2013 23: 19 New
                  0
                  And I don’t take offense, I asked to clarify, for which thanks !!!
                  1. smiths xnumx
                    smiths xnumx 26 July 2013 00: 07 New
                    0
                    Not at all! drinks Please contact me again, I am always glad to help a good person. By the way, here's another miracle of the gloomy Juche genius for you. A stealth boat with a length of 35 meters, weighing about 250 tons, with a speed of 50 knots, a radio-absorbing coating, armed with a bow 53 or 57 mm, aft 30 mm. The Japanese claim that at least one of these is in service with the North Koreans. The photo is not very good. Yours faithfully! hi
  8. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 25 July 2013 16: 51 New
    +2
    "... It should be noted that missile boats and anti-ship missiles caused neglect among foreign specialists ...." - before the first successful combat use.

    "... This type of weapon was produced only on the territory of the USSR ......" - from the middle of the 70s, everyone and everyone was building.
  9. Bongo
    25 July 2013 17: 06 New
    +4
    The original article was:Foreign experts at the beginning of 6-x, disregarded rocket boats and anti-ship missiles. Production of this type of weapon at that time was carried out only in the USSR.
    For some reason, the "co-author" imposed on me by the administration of the site changed the text not for the better.
    1. loft79
      loft79 25 July 2013 21: 53 New
      +5
      I think that if the "co-author" wrote:
      "... It should be noted that foreign specialists have missile boats and anti-ship missiles in early 6th caused disdain .... "

      That’s all OK. smile

      And so a good article. I read it with pleasure.
  10. xomaNN
    xomaNN 26 July 2013 18: 42 New
    +1
    At least in this type of "Mosquito Fleet" priority is recognized :)) And the Arabs from Eilat made a rustle then grandiose :)
  11. Mooh
    Mooh 30 October 2013 13: 34 New
    -5
    The topic is interesting, but the article is unfinished. There are no performance characteristics, neither boats nor missiles. And the names of devices such as "weight" and "catfish" say little to a wide audience.