The legacy of the newly created Ukrainian state from the Soviet Army to the Armed Forces was a powerful electronic intelligence system (DER).
Despite the large-scale reduction of the Ukrainian army and constant underfunding, the leadership of the Ukrainian Armed Forces managed to maintain and improve the electronic intelligence system.
The main task in creating its own DER system was the formation of a centralized system with its integration into the general structure of the Armed Forces of independent Ukraine. Prior to this, all units of the DER were an integral part of the unified electronic intelligence system of the Soviet Army, and, accordingly, were subordinate to the GRU General Staff of the USSR Armed Forces.
To accomplish this task, a control body for the forces and facilities of the DER has been created in the Supreme Court of Ukraine, and regional radio electronic intelligence centers (RC REAR) and other units have been created on the basis of special purpose radio engineering brigades and individual units.
Today in the Armed Forces of Ukraine there is a powerful electronic intelligence system, which is an important component of the military intelligence of Ukraine.
The DER system of VSU has a specific structure. It consists of: the main center of the DER (control body), units and units of the DER of the Ground Forces, Air Force and Naval Forces.
Also an important source of information for the Main Intelligence Directorate of the Ministry of Defense (GUR MOU) is the National Center for Control and Testing of Space Facilities of the State Space Agency of Ukraine (NC UVKZ). SC UVKZ is not a military formation and is not included in the electronic intelligence system, however, it is an important source of information obtained by special technical means, including for GUR MOA.
Control circuit of the DER
Structure of the DER of the MAT
The main center of the DER (Kiev region)
In SV submission:
Regional Center REER "North" (Chernigov)
- Separate Center DER (Kharkiv region)
- Separate maneuverability center DER (Lugansk region)
Regional Center REER "South" (v. Krasnoselka)
- Separate Center DER (Odessa region)
- Separate Center DER (Odessa region)
- Maneuverability Center DER (Odessa region)
- Separate Center DER (Crimea Crimea)
- Separate Center for the Exploration of Radio Emission of Space Objects (Odessa Region)
Regional Center DER "West" (Brody)
- Separate Center DER (Transcarpathian region)
Separate Center DER (Vinnytsia region)
- Maneuverability center DER (Volyn region)
In the subordination of the Air Force:
19 separate regiment of radio and radio intelligence (Nikolaev)
- Separate Center RiRTR (Odessa region)
- Separate center RiRTR (Crimea Crimea)
- Separate Center RiRTR (Volyn region)
- Division RiRTR (Mykolaiv region)
Subordinate to the Navy:
Center REAR Navy (ARC Crimea)
Large reconnaissance ship "Slavutich"
Specialists for parts of the DER are trained at the Zhytomyr Institute of Radio Electronics (National Aviation University) - officers, and at the 9-th training center of electronic warfare and DER (junior Guyva) - junior specialists, operators.
RC REER "North"
RC REER "South"
RC REER "West"
Zhytomyr Military Institute of Radio Electronics
All the above-described parts of the DER are intended for strategic electronic intelligence, except for them - operational-tactical radio intelligence, using the available technical means, can conduct a battalion (regiment) of electronic warfare (EW) corps or species subordination, RRTR posts of warships.
Separately, it is necessary to tell about the National Center for Control and Testing of Space Facilities (NCHEC).
NTSUIKS of the State Space Agency of Ukraine was established in 1996 on the basis of military units of the 1272-th Main Center for Control and Testing of Space Facilities of the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine.
NTSUIKS is a part of DCAU, where it is entrusted with the tasks of controlling spacecraft and monitoring space. Despite participation in civilian programs of the DCAU, the main tasks of the NCUIKS are to participate in ensuring the defense capability of Ukraine.
Although NTSUIKS is a civilian structure, the majority of its personnel are military personnel of the Armed Forces of Ukraine (and other military formations) seconded to DCAU.
Tasks of the NCUIK performed in the interests of defense:
• Remote sensing of the Earth by spacecraft, essentially conducting space reconnaissance, in the interests of the Armed Forces of Ukraine (and other military formations, and intelligence agencies). To this end, Ukraine is currently using its own Sich-2M satellite, and it is planned to increase the number of spacecraft in the future.
• Monitoring of seismic activity of the Earth. For this purpose, the National Specialized Control Center has a Main Center for Special Control, which, using 14 observation points, controls both natural and artificial sources of seismic activity. The obtained data can be used both for peaceful purposes - for predicting earthquakes, and in the military - for monitoring nuclear tests.
12 February 2013 The main center of special control probably recorded nuclear tests of the DPRK (http://mil.in.ua/news/svit/4958-dkau-zafiksuvala-iaderni-vyprobuvannia-kndr)
This information is important for analyzing and predicting threats to the national security of Ukraine.
• Monitoring of outer space - these functions include monitoring of foreign spacecraft (including military ones) to identify threats to national security and make decisions to conduct counterintelligence activities - there is opposition to “spy satellites”, and the provision of information for timely counteraction to technical means intelligence.
• Radiotechnical monitoring - the structure of NTSUIKS includes: “Southern” and “Western” centers of radio-technical observation (former stations of over-the-horizon radar, which until recently were leased by the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation). Now there is no information about their functions and activities in open sources, however, the stations are still used in the NCUIKS system.
In the short term, during 2013-2015, it is planned to eliminate the Western Center for Radio-technical Surveillance and take a set of measures to extend the technical resource of the Southern Center for Radio-technical Surveillance to continue the tasks of monitoring space in the Southern Center for Radio-technical Surveillance in the system for monitoring and analyzing space conditions.
And starting with 2017, it is planned to commission a new radar complex using digital chart forming technology. After commissioning of the new complex, the Southern Radio Observation Center is planned to be disbanded.
Underground facility with seismic monitoring equipment of the GC special control
"Southern" center of radio observation
Ukraine has a significant scientific potential - which allows it to modernize and create new types of equipment and weapons of the DER.
Among the achievements of Ukrainian scientists should be noted the most well-known in the world (thanks to information wars with competitors of our defense industry) a modernized version of the station of electronic reconnaissance "Kolchuga-M" and "Kolchuga-KE".
The upgraded versions of the RTR Kolchuga station, although not designed for conducting electronic intelligence in full (their function is radio intelligence), but are part of the DER structure.
Ukraine has the scientific potential to create both individual samples of DER technology and automated systems based on them. Among the modern weapons include the following:
-Kolchuga radio monitoring station
- Barvinok-B radio monitoring station (and modifications)
- “Prick-RK” radio monitoring station
- Stationary radio monitoring system "Vostok"
- Mobile radio monitoring station "Scorpion-M"
- Mobile radio monitoring station "Berkut"
- Portable radio monitoring station "Filin-A"
- Portable radio monitoring station "Panorama"
Station RTR "Kolchuga"
The principle of operation of the SRTR "Kolchuga-M" is based on the passive testing of the radio signal of enemy radar facilities.
- Kolchuga-M can enter the complex from 3-4 stations, which detects and identifies land and surface objects at a distance of 600 kilometers, and air objects up to 10 kilometers in height and up to 800 kilometers in distance.
- the station uses 5 antennas m / dm / cm ranges with sensitivity 90-110 dB / W;
- has an 36-channel receiver of parallel execution with instant detection of objects without frequency search, conducting analysis with subsequent classification of the detected signals in the frequency range 130-18000 MHz;
- provides automatic detection and recognition using the power of the on-board computer and a data bank of various parameters with the results displayed on the monitor;
- special selectors allowed to exclude signals interfering with detection and determination and track up to 200 objects;
- sector scan range from 30 to 240 degrees;
- error on bearing (UCS) 0.3-5 degrees;
- measurement range of pulses by duration 0.5-31.25 μs;
- measurement range of pulses on the passage of 2-79999 μs;
- error on measuring ranges (UCS) no more than 0.1 μs;
- frequency error ± 11 MHz;
- The warranty period 24 year;
- operating temperature ± 50 degrees;
- round-the-clock combat crew 7 man, in peacetime - 3-4 man;
- used KrAZ-6322REB-01 chassis.
The radio monitoring station "Barvinok-K", "Barvinok-B"
Control of the radio-electronic situation in the area within the range of radio visibility, i.e. to 30-40 km.
Search, detection and direction finding of new sources of radio emission (IRI), including sources that use frequency hopping in specified areas in the ranges:
20 - 180 MHz in stationary mode,
20 - 300 MHz in mobile mode.
- Classification of radio networks and measurement of radiation parameters detected by Iran.
-Control at work known, put on the observation of radiation sources.
- Opening of radiation modes and composition of radio networks operating at fixed and “jumping” frequencies (Frequency Hopping), with the selection of individual sources on the frequency-bearing map.
- Automatic detection and control of suppression of radio frequency sources in the frequency range 30-100 MHz.
-Registration of signals at the outputs of the audio and intermediate frequency tracking receiver.
- Carrying out technical analysis of signals of Iran in real time.
- Determination of the coordinates of the location of Iran with the display on the map of the area.
-Management of parameters and modes of operation, the collection of information from the slave stations of the direction-finding network.
-Automated processing and documentation of data radio-electronic environment.
-Informational interaction with similar stations.
- Informational interaction with the control station of the suppression complex over a UHF radio link.
Prick-RK radio monitoring station
The mobile HF radio monitoring station of short-term radio emission sources “Ukol-RK” is used for automated monitoring of the operation and location of modern radio communications in the 1.5 - 30 MHz frequency band in order to obtain current information about the radio-electronic situation of the monitored area and to form a radio interference jam task.
The station “Ukol-RK” is based on two vehicles of high maneuverability of the type “KrAZ”, “KAMAZ” (or of another type at the request of the Customer when agreed with the Contractor) with a KUNG van. Inside the first car, there are two automated workstations of operators equipped with high-speed panoramic detector-direction finder and executive direction finder. Operators' jobs are equipped with a computer, receiver-detectors and equipment for digital recording and classification of signals (W-CODE).
Navigation equipment (GPS-receiver) together with radio communication equipment provide the possibility of synchronous operation of the “Prick-RK” stations in the direction-finding network, both in the slave mode and in the mode of the leading station of the direction-finding network. In addition, the Ukol-RK station provides for receiving, via the HF radio channel, synchronous direction finding commands from the Vostok complex (optional).
Antenna elements of the direction-finding antenna system are deployed around the station within a radius of 25-50 meters.
The mobile HF radio monitoring station “Prick-RK” is capable of solving the following tasks:
Control of radio-electronic conditions in the area within the range of radio visibility: up to 30-50 km and more 100 ... 150-2000 km (reception of ionospheric waves);
Search, detection and direction finding of new radio emission sources (IRI) in specified sections of the HF frequency range (1,5 – 30 MHz);
Command execution direction finding of newly detected signals, as well as on commands from the synchronous direction finding system of the Vostok complex (optional);
Radio network classification and measurement of signal parameters detected by Iran;
Control of the work of known, put on observation, radiation sources;
Determination of radiation parameters and the composition of radio networks operating at fixed (Conventional) and "jumping" frequencies (Frequency Hopping), with the selection of individual sources in the frequency-bearing panorama;
Registration of signals at the audio outputs and intermediate frequency of the tracking receiver;
Conducting technical analysis of IRI signals in real time;
Determination of the coordinates of the location of Iran with the display on the map of the area (including the SSL method, if there is data from the ionospheric sounding forecast)
Control parameters and modes of operation, collecting information from the slave stations of the direction-finding network using channels provided by the Customer;
Sending commands to the direction finding system (optional);
Automated processing and documentation of radio electronic data.
Stationary radio monitoring system "Vostok"
It is intended for automated data acquisition on new IRI in specified parts of the 0,5 - 30 MHz frequency range against the background of the existing radio load of station interference and provides:
search and detection of the IRI in given parts of the frequency range (0,5 - 30 MHz) against the background of their actual load;
measurement of the radio signal bearing on a three-dimensional radiation pattern with a panoramic review of frequencies, as well as during the service of the flow of requests for detected IRI;
“Self-learning” of the detector on a real electromagnetic environment in order to optimize the detection thresholds with the display of the average level of noise in the relevant subranges; distribution of applications for signal processing posts of detected IRI;
control of the detected and monitored sources;
receiving and continuous digital recording of the original waveform from the outputs of the control and direction finding receivers (including the three-dimensional pattern of the automatic sectoral survey);
indication of amplitude-frequency, time-frequency and frequency-bearing bearing panorama of radio broadcast;
observation of the waveform of the detected IRI (amplitude spectrum, autocorrelation function of the automatic sector review) in real time;
submission of commands "ANALYSIS" to an external technical analysis system when radio emission is detected with new types of broadcasts;
digital registration in the database of information about detected signals synchronously with the Barkhan-PRSK panoramic HF-range signal recorder;
determination of radiation parameters and the composition of radio networks operating at fixed frequencies and with frequency hopping, with the selection of individual sources on the frequency-bearing panorama;
work in the direction-finding network as a master or slave station;
control parameters and modes of operation, collecting information from the slave stations of the direction-finding network;
informational interaction with stations included in the direction-finding network via LAN and FOCL;
assessment of the location of a single-point radio source (SSL method);
sending commands for direction finding to the radio data processing equipment of the receiving radio center Vostok-ORD.
Mobile radio monitoring station "Scorpion-M"
The VHF-UHF mobile radio monitoring station “Scorpion-M” is intended for detection, direction finding, auditory and visual monitoring, as well as recording of radio emission source signals in the 25 frequency range - 3000 MHz.
The VHF-UHF Scorpion-M station provides scanning of specified frequency ranges or frequency lists, spatial search and localization of the location of radio emission sources (IRI) over surface radio waves with vertical polarization.
The equipment of the Scorpion-M station is installed on the Customer’s vehicle (minibus or passenger car), in the cabin of which a high-speed panoramic VHF-UHF range finder-direction finder, frequency executive VHF-UHF direction finder and an automated workplace of the operator equipped with a PC Notebook are located and communications equipment.
The VHF-UHF antenna-feeder detection, direction finding, tracking and communication system is installed on the roof of the carrier in a radio transparent car cargo box.
Mobile VHF-UHF radio monitoring station "Scorpion-M" solves the following tasks:
Control of the radio-electronic situation in the area within the range of radio visibility, i.e. to 20-30 km in the frequency range 25-500 MHz and to 5-10 km in the frequency range 500-3000 MHz;
Search, detection and direction finding of new radio emission sources (IRI) in specified VHF-UHF (25 – 3000 MHz) sections of the frequency range (including signals from satellite Turaya, Iridium communication lines);
Scanning the specified frequency channels in the list;
Express analysis of signals and auditory monitoring of detected radiation sources;
Digital recording of signals at audio and intermediate frequency;
Automated processing and documentation of data on the radio-electronic environment;
Determination of the coordinates of the location of Iran with the display on the map of the area;
Control parameters and modes of operation, collecting information from the slave stations of the direction-finding network;
Information interaction with the stations included in the direction-finding network via GSM radio;
Interaction with the "catcher" when searching for GSM 900 / 1800 MHz handsets.
Mobile radio monitoring station "Berkut"
Mobile radio direction finding station “Berkut” is intended for detecting and direction finding signals of radio emission sources in the frequency range 1.5 – 30 MHz. The station provides scanning of a specified frequency range, spatial search and localization of the location of the radio emission source (IRI) by surface and gently dipping radio wave of vertical polarization.
Direction finding of radio emission sources at a given frequency;
Scanning in a given frequency range or a list of frequency channels in order to detect Iran;
Indication of the amplitude spectrum of the signal being taken on the computer screen;
Registration of bearing information and voice signals to the hard disk of the computer;
Displays the location of the source and direction-finding station on the background of a digital terrain map;
Information exchange via a communication channel with an external monitoring system or similar direction-finding stations;
Archiving and automated processing of measurement results;
Automatic performance check, equipment diagnostics and control of battery discharge and their automatic recharging while driving.
Portable radio monitoring station "Filin-A"
The radio finder "Filin-A" is designed for passive detection, reception and determination of the direction of a radiation source of radio signals with vertical polarization of the frequency range from 25 MHz to 3000 MHz on a predetermined channel or when scanning the radio channel through channels. The radio finder "Filin-A" is a wearable compact radio direction finder with an automatic bearing reading and a set of antennas.
During the operation of the product the following functions are ensured:
in manual mode - direction finding of radio emission signals by turning the operator's body and determining the direction to the source of the received signal by changing the tone with an instrumental error of no more than 20 degrees (CEW);
in automatic mode - automatic circular direction finding of radio emission signals with an instrumental error of no more than 25 degrees (RMS);
listening to the received signal in the process of direction finding;
Radio Control Unit IC-R20M provides reception of signals both in stand-alone and automatic modes of operation.
Portable radio monitoring station "Panorama"
Panoramic signal detector "Panorama" is designed for the operational control of the operation of radio electronic means in the frequency range 20-3000 MHz.
scanning sections of the 20 – 3000 MHz frequency band with automatic detection and selection of signals according to specified parameters;
display of amplitude-frequency and frequency-time panoramas of loading the radio frequency spectrum on the screen of the operator’s console;
logging of the group radio frequency spectrum loading onto a computer hard disk, visual analysis of the signal spectrum and measurement of frequency parameters;
auditory monitoring with an AM / FM detector;
real-time tuning of the hearing control radio receiver to the frequency of the detected channel (optional);
queuing the detected signals with their subsequent processing (listening, observation, registration) and the possibility of extraordinary processing of signals from the list of priority frequencies;
registration of the fact of detection of broadband signals with a frequency band up to 300 kHz;
registration of IF signals as a sequence of I / Q samples on a computer hard disk;
visual analysis of detected signals and measurement of their frequency parameters;
viewing, sorting and analyzing the accumulated data on the radio-electronic environment
Prospects for the development of electronic intelligence:
Ukraine has significant potential for the development and improvement of the electronic intelligence system of the Armed Forces of Ukraine.
There is a gradual re-equipping of parts of the DER to new equipment and automated complexes of the DER. In 2005, the RC REER “Yug” received a multifunctional automatic reconnaissance post, and in 2008 - the Kolchuga-KE-20 complex. The integrated radio direction finding system “The Ring” has been put into operation and is functioning.
The positive aspects of the development prospects of the DER should include:
-The presence of a powerful scientific base (research institutes, institutes, research and production associations)
- Preservation of production base
-The introduction of an automated system for collecting, processing and analyzing electronic intelligence data
-The presence of a spacecraft for conducting space reconnaissance
The negative aspects of the development of the DER system are as follows:
- “Aging” scientific staff
-Lack of investment in production and scientific activities
- Low level of financing re-equipment and low rates of re-equipment
-The absence of the aviation component of electronic intelligence (aircraft DER)
In the near future, despite the adoption of a new program for reforming the Armed Forces of Ukraine, the DER system will undergo structural changes - a transition will take place from the species structure of the DER to interspecific (that is, interspecific organs will manage the parts of the DER)