14 June 2013 of the year, a round table was held in the State Duma on the topic “The state of combat readiness of the Land Forces of the Russian Federation” (“MIC”, No. 26). The speakers identified the hottest, most painful problems that exist today in this type of troops and more broadly in all the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. “Clearly formulating the problem is the first step towards solving it,” said Vladimir Komoedov, chairman of the State Duma Committee on Defense, who assured those present that all speeches would certainly be conveyed to those who make the appropriate decisions.
Officers need much more
Ground forces are the main type of the Armed Forces in our country, because in the event of an armed conflict they will be the ones to solve the main tasks of protecting the state.
On the issue of the size of the Armed Forces, first of all, it is necessary to break the idea of the correctness of the 150 ratio of thousands of officers per million. We can not keep all the troops in constant readiness, the maximum 39 brigades - 10 divisions. Are they able to protect our huge country? Not. So the officers need much more.
Further. In order to have some kind of mobilization reserves, it is necessary to maintain military service. With a full transition to the contract method of recruitment, we will not have any mobilization reserves.
In India, where I was a military adviser for four years, a contract army. Ground forces - one million 130 thousand people, 61 division, plus an engineering brigade, six military districts. Competition - 10 man in place. The service begins with 17 years, there is a system of recruitment points and training. Recruit paid money. A year is taught to a soldier, then he comes to the troops and signs the first contract for five years. During this period, lives in the barracks, as an ordinary soldier, he can not marry. After six years, if he serves normally, he is sent to study for a sergeant. That is, he becomes a sergeant only in the seventh year of service.
After all the sergeant positions, he goes to study at the non-commissioned officer. In India, three categories of non-commissioned officers. Next, the non-commissioned officer goes to take exams and enters the courses for officers.
This is only one of the ways of recruiting officers in this country. The main way - universities. Three years of study at the National Academy, then two years at a military school. Tankmen, artillerymen and infantrymen study at the National Academy of Ground Forces, after which each specializes in his own school.
Soldier has the right to marry only at the conclusion of the second contract, at the same time he is given service housing. In general, living conditions look like this: in the brigade there is a cottage of the brigade commander and separate towns: officers, noncommissioned officers, sergeants and soldiers.
Can we create such conditions for contractors? Never. That is why we will not get away from military service.
Now for the increase in service life to one and a half years. Can you give at least six months to teach a soldier to be a soldier? Don't send him to the troops right away, teach him to shoot from all types of rifle first. weapons, machine guns, grenade launchers. A lot of problems will go away if he comes to the linear regiment, the battalion is a trained soldier.
In Vladikavkaz, they have now created a brigade of the so-called constant readiness, which takes personnel almost all year round and tries to put it into operation. It is more or less staffed, but we have no military enlistment office, and no one else is responsible for the call. The call lasts from April almost until September. Young soldiers go in batches, and the task of the brigade and the officers is to receive them, to train them. Day and night, they shoot at the landfill continuously, and in the fall will begin to quit. There is no talk of any coordination of divisions, companies, battalions.
Next, you need to tighten the responsibility for evading military service. We have 250 thousands of draft dodgers available, of which 14 people are somehow punished. And no one bears any responsibility. And this is despite the fact that our main problem is the absence of troops. There was a division in the Far East, seven regiments (Primorye, Khasansky district). I thought that even if they left the brigade, nothing at all. The towns are abandoned, everything is destroyed, the buildings of the most fortified areas are put to scrap.
Vladivostok - the main base of the Pacific fleet not protected at all. There was a division of the Marine Corps - eliminated.
And, of course, it is necessary to radically restore the control system, the military districts. They must be at least seven. It goes without saying that it is necessary to separate the districts from the fleet, restore the plan for the construction of ground forces. To lead the military districts in all matters, except perhaps strategic, must commander in chief.
Commander of the 58 Army (2004 – 2006), Lieutenant General
Army aviation - Potemkin village
The fulfillment of their tasks by the Ground Forces is impossible without achieving fire superiority over the enemy, which is provided by the artillery missile forces, tank troops and aircraft. In all armed conflicts after the Great Patriotic War there was not a single one where army aviation was not actively used.
According to the experience of the Chechen campaign, the recognition of my comrades, we know that a soldier does not attack if helicopters do not buzz over him. The soldier feels confident only when he feels aviation support.
This year, Army Aviation will celebrate the 65 anniversary of its formation. Of these 13 years we were part of the Ground Forces.
Army aviation is intended primarily for the aviation support of the Ground Forces. Without it, it is impossible to increase the mobility of this kind of troops. But army aviation can operate successfully only when there is a control system that includes controls, command and control points and communications equipment for the ACS.
We often look to the past - in Soviet times, to go further from that level, looking with horror at the hole in which we now find ourselves. Then, in each district, the Aviation Administration consisted of 18 – 35 people. In every army, there was an 10 man in the aviation department.
In Moscow, the whole army organization was headed by the Army Aviation Administration headed by Colonel-General Pavlov - just 111 people. KP Aviation District consisted of 50 – 70 people. The level of training of officers of the District Aviation Administration was higher than that of the regimental commander. This officer had to come to the regiment of the army aviation to the regimental commander, set the task and monitor its implementation.
Overnight, the whole system collapsed. What do we have now for the management of army aviation in the commander-in-chief of the air force, a department of army aviation? Reduction to two people in the head office. We reconstructed the army aviation department to eight people. It is typed while four. The aviation bases include a group of aviation gunners - seven people: the chief, his deputy, two officers, a driver, a tablet player, a radio operator. That is, only two people can manage army aviation on the battlefield. Are they able to complete the task?
It seems that our aviation in general and the army in particular is such a Potemkin village, only to fly by parades.
Ground troops should, as a boxer, have two long arms: rocket troops and aircraft. The infantry commander whistled - and the aircraft immediately appeared over the battlefield, as it was in Afghanistan. With the existing state of affairs - as long as the task is set, until it arrives, until it is imposed - relevance will disappear.
250 man level above the regiment commander thrown into the trash. They do not need Russia.
Three years there was no set in school. And this is with a natural decline of five to seven percent annually: of old age, due to illness, etc. Add to this the reform reforms, dissatisfaction with the service, other things, and the decline in aviation will actually be 10 – 15 percent. You can imagine what a personnel collapse awaits us.
According to the State Armaments Program, up to 2020, everything will be fine in our fleet. I report: the team, which is scheduled to create, will have a 88 – 92 helicopter. They plan to deploy 13 pieces. How many helicopters are needed? We now have 865 helicopters, and of them 50 percent are operational. And for reference: Americans have 8680 helicopters.
Modern warfare will be fought with the forces and assets that have been accumulated before it began. Fill the lack of how it was in the Great Patriotic War, will not succeed. Not the technique, not the pace of production, not the loss.
It is necessary to smoothly and gradually recreate the aviation control system of the Ground Forces, in order not to plant aviation in a naked field, like potatoes, as Grachev said at the time.
The Main Command of the Air Force must carefully consider how to minimize losses from personnel collapse as part of army aviation, how to fill these cadres, first of all commanders, when recreating the command and control bodies of the Ground Forces.
Head of Army Aviation Administration (2003 – 2005), Lieutenant General
The disease is curable.
After the new appointments in the Air Force, the command was immediately given to return to the 2008 states of the year. All have risen, but nothing has happened: the disease originated by the previous Minister of Defense gives certain metastases. And we must fight them more courageously.
There will already be two years, as there are Troops of the East Kazakhstan region, and the issue of responsibility for covering the state border in airspace has not yet been resolved.
The problems related to the scientific and educational base were aggravated. Heads of administration, deputies of the commander in chief, where are you applying for the young recruitment? How much do you need young officers, officers?
Now for the checks. The place and time chosen for them are, of course, surprising. May - preparations are underway for a new period of training, the dismissal of personnel on call-up, conscription. It is clear what the staffing and coherence. Four regiments have been torn from combat duty. One sits down, three smoke in the smoking room, that is, one presses the buttons, three wait. The second regiment climbed on this technique, and the third already lacks targets. We thought, figured, decided to work on the ground. And do not get into the ground - this is the wonders of anti-aircraft rocket art.
In addition, these four regiments under all regulatory documents, if I am not mistaken, are not checked for the year. That is, this is the most important final check - everything, a positive assessment of the regiment or group is already in your pocket.
The disease is still curable. The Armed Forces got into a military tropopause, as long as it does not lead to a military-political tropopause. This will be a tragedy. We need decisive political measures and military courage. Or you will have to negotiate with the West to live in the world until 2020, until we accumulate resources and strength.
Commander of the Air Force Air Defense Missile Forces (2000 – 2008), Lieutenant General
No one knows what war will be.
The fact that it has been deliberately destroyed for almost six years cannot be recovered, even for 15. A state that does not manufacture 300 tanks a year cannot consider itself a country with a tank-building industry. We are not 20 for years. The same can be said about airplanes, and about everything else.
All this negative will continue until those responsible for what is happening appear, and then they fidgeted what they wanted and left. And it all starts on a new expense of taxpayers money.
What should be done? First of all, it is mandatory to raise the role of all three commanders, not only the Ground Forces, to the previous level. The commander should do everything, and the proposals should go from him. In the state in which the high posts are, they cannot do it. But it is also almost impossible to increase them to working condition now.
There is no rear, there are no weapons, finance, personnel, mobilization, medicine — nothing. Right now they proposed to make a deputy in the army for MTO. Urgently at the General Staff Academy in three months to train men to put them in the army. These are all half measures, but if we do not strive to overcome this destructive process, we will not see anything at the exit in the near future.
Or military education. Well, yes, now military education is being returned under the General Directorate of Personnel, as it always has been. The aunts who ruled for education have been removed, and there is still no head in the Directorate of Military Education.
We had 126 universities in the Red Army, and officers were always lacking. It was not from a good life that we took biennial students with an institute, at which the platoon commanders looked with a shudder. Now, of course, the process has begun in one academy, in a second academy, in schools, but the faculty has been lost.
At the Academy of General Staff there were 18 departments, two left. This year, you need to recruit 80 people, that is, at least eight departments need to be taught to really military matters. The question rests on the absence of teachers. You can, of course, ring up the people who quit, maybe they will come. But, unfortunately, not everyone wants to come back, people have already settled down, they work elsewhere, they receive money no less. But without cadres in military education, we will not move anywhere. And this question is very acute. What you need to do to get teachers back? How to prepare new ones?
About the contract service here have already spoken a lot and correctly. The point is purely public. Until we really interest people to go to contract service, until a normal contingent comes, from which it is possible to select, there will be only conversations. All this we have already passed - and deployed, and folded. Now the same thing: how much they scored, they fired so much.
The contractor should not live in the barracks, but in the service camp, have a small apartment - a one-room or two-room apartment, because in a maximum of five years he will have a family.
Now about the state of equipment and weapons in the Ground Forces. For five years no one has been doing this technique. And now the question is still not fully resolved. First, all the repair factories of the center, starting with the army bases, were transferred to Oboronservis. What came out of it, everyone knows. Virtually no contract with the industry was not concluded. And this last four years equipment was not serviced at all.
Now the ministry decides to go another way: repair facilities for maintenance should be restored in parts, and the average and overhaul repairs should be left at these plants, which should be transferred to industry. That is, we are talking about the second reorganization. The first was when they were driven under the "Oboronservis" this insolvent organization. Now the idea was born to pick them up from there and transfer them to industrial enterprises.
I do not undertake now to evaluate whether this is correct or not, so as not to be unfounded. I can only say that 85 percent of the equipment during World War II was restored and returned to service by means of army repair.
They say: such a war will not be. I do not know, no one knows what it will be.
What to do with technology - not even new, but with the one that is now there? It is necessary to maintain it, to carry out the regulations, to do medium and major repairs. And we are talking not only about the Ground Forces, but also about aviation technology, air defense equipment.
Now for social issues. A year has passed, as the leadership has changed, but the questions remained. The heads of the departments of the academy were without apartments, and still live in a dormitory.
Right now they form the Main Directorate of Combat Training. We need to recruit normal officers, because with combat training the last time is just a disaster. In this case, the directive goes: to complete only at the expense of officers who have an apartment in Moscow. In Moscow, for five years, apartments have not been given to anyone. Who to equip? Who will work?
Air Defense Department - nine people. Artillery control - 11 man. A shame! 40 percent of the Ground Forces - gunners.
All these questions have long overdue. And to fix the situation, it takes time. Breaking, we know, is very easy, longer periods of time are needed for recovery.
Chief of the Military Academy of the General Staff of the RF Armed Forces (2007 – 2009), Army General
Question for the president
I have introduced several bills to raise the prestige of the service in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. The first. If a person has not served in the army, he cannot be elected president, appointed prime minister, minister, as well as a deputy and a civil servant. We have many good reasons why a person may not serve, but 250 thousands of people just run away from the agenda until 27 is years old.
High-ranking officials all have children, most of them study abroad, get two educations there, then they will work a little and come back here and come to the civil service. And our army, thus, again becomes workers' and peasants, consisting of those who managed to catch from the village. And the children of officials do not serve, but then they manage the state.
Further, I proposed to increase the income tax to 20 percent for those who ran and hid before 45 for years, that is, did not serve in the army. A woman will not marry him, she will say why you pay instead of 13 percent, like everyone else, 20? It is clear that these proposals lie in the Committee on Legislation and will not receive any movement.
We recently held hearings on the MiG-31 in the Duma. It would seem a serious question. We talked about open borders and so on. All the experts said: there is no price for this car, in the near future it will surpass all Western analogues. But then Bondarev rises and says that her instrument panel is no longer the same, and in general no country in the world can alone and alone defend herself from anyone. If he had said this in the US Congress, he would no longer wear shoulder straps.
Now, after listening to all the speeches at this round table, I think: we really will not win anyone.
We have plans to hold hearings on aerospace defense. Before that, we will make a trip with the Defense Committee to the command post of aerospace defense in order to understand the problems.
We recently held a hearing on the disposal of ammunition. The most serious question. After all, 48 explosions happened, people died. I ask Bulgakov a question: is there at least some working group or commission composed of various ministries? They are referring to each other, to Russian Technologies, to Rogozin: they say they don’t want, they don’t, the way, it turns out, to these storages has already been broken - either imported or removed. Immerse ammunition and send to the factory? But the plant in the city center. Ammunition composition will be derailed, and that’s all ...
It turned out that there is no working group with a plan approved by the president or signed by the prime minister. I was told that this is too small a question for the president.
Member of the State Duma Defense Committee