Military Review

Self-propelled artillery installation 2C19 "Msta-K"

At the very beginning of the eighties of the last century, a new proposal appeared in the Soviet Union concerning the use of self-propelled artillery. According to him, self-propelled guns on a wheeled chassis were to appear in artillery units. Such combat vehicles, it was claimed, could act from positions near the roads and quickly move away from retaliation, using their driving characteristics and good roads. The proposal interested the military and soon began the development of a new ACS with the 2C21 index and the name Msta-K. The self-propelled gun was created by several scientific and design organizations, the lead developer is the Petrel Research Institute.

As is clear from the name of the project, the 152-mm rifled howitzer 2А67, which was a slightly modified 2А64 / 65 gun, created for use in a towed and self-propelled version (on a tracked chassis) was chosen as a weapon for the new ACS. The new 2А67 differed from previous guns in the layout of recoil devices, as well as in the structures of the cradle, rammer and counterbalancing mechanism. All these parts of the artillery system were converted for use on the new ACS with the original turret. The fact is that the promising self-propelled 2C21 had a combat compartment fully located above the epaulette. This necessitated a corresponding change in the design of the instrument and auxiliary systems.

The result was an armored module of a relatively large size, in which it was possible to place all the gun units, sighting equipment and crew jobs. The design of the tower and sub-tower systems allowed to rotate it around its axis. However, it was likely that the proposed wheeled chassis should have imposed significant restrictions on the turret when firing, since a powerful recoil could knock down the combat vehicle. According to the available data, the elevation angles of the gun were maintained at the level of the towed howitzer variant: from -3 ° to + 70 °.

Self-propelled artillery installation 2C19 "Msta-K"
As part of the fire tests for 2C21 "Msta-K", a wheel chassis of the type KAMAZ-5320 with openly installed 2-64 art gear and with a limited angle of elevation was used. Shooting was carried out to determine the load on the chassis, loading was done manually. In the future, it was planned to work out the mechanized flow of projectiles / charges from the machine on the same base.

Since the barrel and a number of other units remained the same, the characteristics of range and rate of fire remained the same. According to calculations, the unloading mechanisms made it possible to produce up to seven shots per minute and send high-explosive fragmentation shells to a distance of about 25 kilometers. When using ammunition with a gas generator, this parameter had to grow accordingly. As a result, the firepower of the 2C21 wheeled ACS was approximately equal to the potential of the Msta-S tracked self-propelled gun. In this case, two self-propelled guns, as expected, could complement each other and effectively perform the tasks in appropriate conditions.

However, the creation of a tower with a gun turned out to be one of the simplest stages of the project. Much more difficult and lengthy was the search for a suitable wheeled chassis, capable not only of carrying a large and heavy gun turret, but also withstanding the powerful impact of 152-mm guns. In the 1982 year, according to the results of the research work "Chassis", the employees of the Central Research Institute "Burevestnik" came to the conclusion that it was possible to use the eight-wheeled vehicle Ural-5323 as a base for the ACS. In the second half of 1983, Burevestnik, in conjunction with the Ural Automobile Plant, built two experimental self-propelled guns based on the selected chassis. The tests of the self-propelled guns on the wheel track proved the possibility of implementing the idea, but it was not without difficulties. One of the main technical problems was the strength of the selected chassis. The wheels and suspension of the Ural-5323 coped with the loads when shooting, but they literally worked on the limits of possibilities. With further improvement of the artillery part of the characteristics of the chassis could be insufficient.

2С21 "Msta-K" in a non-powered version on the 8x8 wheeled chassis of the KAMAZ-5320 type (open-mounted howitzer closed with an awning)

The Kremenchug KrAZ-6130 chassis, which was a development of the KrAZ-CR-3130, was considered as an alternative to the Ural plant car. The modified and enhanced wheel suspension, as in the case of the Ural-5323, provided good road performance on the highway, but the strength of the aggregates continued to raise doubts. Finally, they tried to install a gun turret on the KAMAZ-5320 chassis. This option looked much more successful and promising, but in this case additional research was required. Based on the chassis assembled in Naberezhnye Chelny, an experimental self-propelled gun with a lightweight and simplified turret was built. The gun 2А67 mounted on an open platform. The tool installation system had noticeably smaller elevation angles in comparison with the originally planned ones.

A self-propelled gun mount based on the KamAZ-5320 vehicle was used to measure the loads arising from firing and check the proposed technical solutions. Exact information on the progress of these tests are not available. According to the scattered data, employees of the Petrel Research Institute and related organizations managed to determine the main methods of solving the problem with high returns. The stability of the position of the gun when firing was supposed to provide with the help of the coulter and the corresponding recoil devices. After the tests, the purpose of which was to solve the problems of structural strength, it was planned to deal with projectile feeding mechanisms. In particular, the possibility of transferring ammunition to a combat vehicle from a transport vehicle on a similar chassis was considered.

2С21 "Msta-K" on the 8х8 wheeled chassis of the KAMAZ-5320 type with the turret installed

Unfortunately, this work has not begun. There is information about the start of development of the auxiliary machine, but this part of the project has not reached the construction of the prototype. The “Msta-K” project turned out to be quite complicated and long, due to which, by the end of the eighties, it remained at the research and design stage. At the end of the decade, funding for the program was reduced, and at 1991 they completely stopped. Because of this, it was not possible to complete even the planned research.

As of the end of the project, several questions remained open. First of all, it was not possible to fully understand the problem of the impact of recoil on the wheeled chassis. The applied technologies did not allow to get rid of the risks of damage to the suspension or even the design of the car. The second disadvantage of the promising wheel-mounted ACS was the relatively low permeability of the selected chassis type. Even taking into account the requirements for work near the roads, the four-axle vehicles that existed at that time did not quite suit the customer. Also, the chosen architecture of the wheeled self-propelled gun did not allow for an adequate level of vehicle cabin protection. Thus, the entire crew of SAU except the driver was protected from a wide range of enemy weaponsand the driver himself constantly risked getting hurt. Finally, when firing from a powerful 152 caliber millimeter gun, there were cases of damage and destruction of the cockpit glazing. This problem could be solved with the help of durable, possibly bullet-proof glasses, but this negatively affected the weight indicators of the whole machine.

2С21 "Msta-K" on the KRAZ-6130 wheeled chassis (re-equipped and reinforced ChR-3130 chassis)

The prototype of one of the variants of the wheel chassis 2С21 "MSTA-K" - an experienced truck flatbed truck CR-3130 (8х8) of the Kremenchug Automobile Plant

It should be noted that the initial search for a suitable chassis was seriously complicated by the estimated mass indices of various systems. So, a tower with a gun and mechanized installation, at least on 30 shots, weighed about 17 tons. Another three tons accounted for the device chase tower and coulter unit. Thus, a chassis with a lifting capacity of at least 20 tons was required. At the end of the project was supposed to return to the car KrAZ-6316. The plans were its refinement with the equipment of the new cabin. Especially for use on the ACS 2С21, the Petrel Research Institute has developed a new low-profile armored cabin. The dimensions of this unit in the future would allow firing over the roof of the cabin, with certain restrictions on the angle of elevation.

Due to the gradual cuts in funding, the Msta-K project in the late eighties began to slow down. In the 1991 year, as mentioned above, funding stopped altogether and in Petrel was forced to stop all work. Because of this, our armed forces did not receive a new self-propelled artillery installation. As for the Msta family of howitzers, only two systems remained in its structure: the MSTA-B 2A65 towed gun and the MSTA S self-propelled 2C19. Work on the subject of wheeled self-propelled guns in our country was resumed only almost two decades after the closure of the 2C21 Msta-K project. According to available information, the new self-propelled artillery installation "Coalition-SV-KSh" will be built on the KAMAZ-6560 wheeled chassis.

It seems that in the photo there are remnants of a mass-dimensional mock-up of the CJSC Msta-K on the KrAZ chassis to confirm the possibility of creating such a machine and carrying out sea trials, since motorists strongly resisted any deviations from the base KrAZ-6316. All the mockups and prototypes were built by Burevestnik at the technical design stage, and at the design documentation development stage the topic was closed and the matter did not reach the metal.,5899.msg75575.html

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  1. Airman
    Airman 15 July 2013 09: 16 New
    And in Soviet times they knew how to get money for the "air". To create such a powerful artillery system without hydraulic jacks, leveling did not make sense. The accuracy would be very low.
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 15 July 2013 09: 26 New
      It is enough to level the sights.
  2. Akim
    Akim 15 July 2013 10: 25 New
    Wheel artillery system is good with a developed infrastructure of highways. This is not said out loud, but the Swedish Archer sometimes sits on the belly, and the Chinese SH-1 can only be used in the southern regions, on hard, dry soils.
    In general, an interesting article. He didn’t know much.
    1. bask
      bask 15 July 2013 17: 58 New
      Quote: Akim
      This is not said out loud, but the Swedish Archer

      Swedish ,, Archer ,, was created on the basis of a Volvo A25F, A30F articulated dump truck. Therefore, this platform is highly passable.
      Payload - 39 tons.
      Dimensions :
      Shipping length: 11.2 m.
      Shipping Width: 3.4 m.
      Transport height: 3.6 m.
      Price: 249.850, - EURO.
      In the USSR: a semi-trailer transport and installation unit 8U210 with a MoAZ-546 tractor for R-12 missiles. 1964 year.

      Installer 8U237 of the R-12U rocket with the MoAZ-529V tractor, 1965.

      The length of the entire installation in the transport position was 15 m, width - 6 mm, height - 3,1 mm. In 3760, as part of Operation Anadyr, these installers, along with R-1962 missiles, delivered by sea to Cuba.
      1. bask
        bask 15 July 2013 18: 34 New
        The transport base is the three-axle tractor K-703MTU,
        Permissible load, t:
        rated 60
        maximum 80
        Automatic automatic gearbox and a ready-made platform, for any weapon. Highly walkable with heavy lifting capacity.
      2. Akim
        Akim 15 July 2013 18: 50 New
        Quote: bask
        Swedish ,, Archer ,, created on the basis of a Volvo A25F, A30F articulated dump truck

        Of course, I’m happy for the dump truck, but you will not see the Archer photo on the damp field anywhere. Dry ground only. Meanwhile, AMOS’s photos are full of where it cuts through deep snow, too. It was about cross. In wheeled vehicles, it is much smaller., Even in ball joints.
        1. bask
          bask 15 July 2013 19: 47 New
          Quote: Akim
          . It was about cross. In wheeled vehicles, she

          No one argues with this statement.
          But the articulated wheel technology, an order of passable ,,, usual on bridges and with independent suspension ,,.
  3. mga04
    mga04 15 July 2013 12: 40 New
    Judging by the article, the main problem was the load on the chassis when firing. But is it not solved by hanging the machine on outriggers with simultaneous leveling? Shoot from wheels with such a caliber?
    1. Argon
      Argon 15 July 2013 13: 44 New
      The weight of such systems will be significant, and "hung" on the same chassis, reducing its carrying capacity, the circle is closed. I think the mistake is in the very attempt to replace the chassis with a wheeled one with the same "tracked" tasks and not wanting to lighten (quite justified) the gun itself. the chassis allows you to significantly increase the operational-strategic maneuverability of the gun, no more, no less, and it should be compared with towed or "limited self-propelled". It is clear that wheeled will be more expensive, but you need to consider the tasks assigned to them, then the efficiency values ​​will appear. Having estimated the cost \ Efficiency is determined; the needed ones are not needed, and the "trick" of the chassis itself.
  4. rudolff
    rudolff 15 July 2013 16: 02 New
    The Kamaz chassis with an artillery mount even visually has a too high center of gravity, and hanging such an assembly on flimsy ground is very difficult. Even the Shell has problems with a similar KAMAZ platform. The use of MAZ or BAZ chassis would be optimal.
  5. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 15 July 2013 16: 35 New
    Nevertheless, the Serbs produce 152 mm self-propelled howitzers based on Kamaz, arm themselves and even deliver them to Myanmar and Kenya. Please pay attention to the base.
  6. Akim
    Akim 15 July 2013 16: 52 New
    And it seems to me that the most successful placement of the Msta-K artillery unit is based on the hood layout. True, here it is shortened to 42 call., But it really could go into a series in the 90th. Yes, and now it can compete with the Polish “Krill” (though I have not heard about the trunk so long in Ukraine).
  7. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 15 July 2013 17: 19 New
    So far, only the Chinese with their SH-1 \ 2, the Yugoslavs with the D-30 based on the ZSU M-53/59 Praha chassis and the Cubans have reached the self-propelled artillery mount on the bonnet machine
    1. Akim
      Akim 15 July 2013 17: 29 New
      Quote: smiths xnumx
      So far only self-propelled artillery mounts on the bonnet machine have reached

      What about Archer? What about Caesar ?. Incidentally, the hood layout helps normal weight distribution and eliminates the need for a long frame and 4 bridges.
  8. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 15 July 2013 17: 31 New
    Nevertheless, they already hoisted the 130-mm M-46 cannon with a barrel length of 7150 mm onto the converted KrAZ chassis, but without a hood, the barrel is too long. Here is a photo of this self-propelled guns in the parade, by the way you can see a self-propelled gun on the basis of the "normal" KrAZ with a 122-mm howitzer D-30.
    1. Akim
      Akim 15 July 2013 17: 45 New
      Quote: smiths xnumx
      Nevertheless, they already hoisted the 130-mm M-46 cannon with a barrel length of 7150 mm onto the converted KrAZ chassis

      I like it. I haven’t seen this, although I’m watching Cuban parades. I missed it. But this is Cuba, there is a lot of things that, as planned by the engineers, will not work. This is from despair and lack of money. The Chinese have long been offering them their weapons, however, not at "socialist" prices.
      Here are those D-30s closer.
  9. Coward
    Coward 15 July 2013 18: 59 New
    Duc seems to already have a "Beach".
  10. waisson
    waisson 15 July 2013 19: 58 New
  11. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 15 July 2013 20: 06 New
    However, it is also worth noting the Iranians with their prototype wheeled 155-mm self-propelled howitzer "Khutarz" on a cabless chassis of a MAN truck
    1. Akim
      Akim 15 July 2013 20: 11 New
      Quote: smiths xnumx
      Iranians with their prototype wheeled 155-mm self-propelled howitzer "Khutarz

      He has a small barrel length. Not more than 32 call.
      1. Akim
        Akim 15 July 2013 20: 36 New
        I was wrong. This is a howitzer (artillery piece) HM 41 based on M114 - 39 call., Developed with the help of Ukraine (English-speaking sources say). Self-propelled gun too. Pancake! They did something for our army!
  12. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 15 July 2013 20: 38 New
    One can recall the unsuccessful Kazakh-Israeli Samser with the D-30 on the basis of KAMAZ, whose frame could not withstand the return of the gun, and which took 3 minutes to bring it into combat condition, while according to the standard 30 seconds
    I intentionally do not stop at the South African G-6 and Iraqi El Fao and Al Majun, as these self-propelled guns were created on specially designed chassis
  13. stechkinmakarov
    stechkinmakarov 15 July 2013 23: 46 New
    Everything is new, well-forgotten old, why use a bicycle when it is already there. It only needs to be improved !!! This is an art installation "BEACH" based on MAZ-543M with 8x8 wheel formula
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  16. stechkinmakarov
    stechkinmakarov 15 July 2013 23: 55 New
    You can add a trailer with shells and an already self-propelled unit
  17. Somad
    Somad 15 July 2013 23: 57 New
    And also the Indian 155-mm howitzer T5-52 ...
  18. stechkinmakarov
    stechkinmakarov 16 July 2013 00: 03 New

    Video to continue the topic.
  19. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 16 July 2013 00: 45 New
    The main problem of the A-222 “Shore” is the large weight of 43,7 tons (the same “Dana” is 29,25 tons), that is, the limited possibilities of its use due to passability, and the caliber of its guns is 130 mm, this is the caliber guns of the Navy. The only 130-mm caliber gun in service with the M-46 SV-gun, which has already been withdrawn from service, but remains in storage.
    1. krot00f
      krot00f 21 August 2013 14: 32 New
      This is not a problem, but a fee for unification and rate of fire, I heard that it is a very accurate system. As far as I know, the “coast” is made for firing at surface fast moving targets. It belongs to the Navy.
  20. Russ69
    Russ69 16 July 2013 01: 28 New
    Like "Coalition", based on KAMAZ, promised to show in the fall in Tagil at an exhibition.
  21. krot00f
    krot00f 21 August 2013 14: 18 New
    It’s good that they didn’t think of putting Mstu on a wheeled chassis in the series. On the face of the shortcomings, if you put the hydraulic supports, then fast preparation for shooting disappears, if you do not put it, the rate of fire will decrease, And there are no roads in Russia anyway. God’s gift was compared with the BEREG scrambled eggs built on the basis of the ship’s AK-130, the rate of fire was reduced, it took a long time to prepare for firing — to shoot and leave, no matter how it didn’t work, And this complex also rides 3 cars. And most importantly, it has completely different goals and objectives compared to Msta.