Military Review

Sniper fire in local wars

9
Modern wars, as a rule, are local in nature. In the context of these conflicts, sniper fire and sniper fire began to play a special role. weapon. That is why the arsenal of such rifle systems at the disposal of the Russian law enforcement agencies has expanded significantly.


Sniper fire in local wars


In the era of local wars

After World War II, 1939 —1945 the fighting ceased to have the character of large-scale army operations. Modern military conflicts are significantly different from the operations of the past war and are local in nature. Their main omen can be considered the wide use of tactics of actions of small combat groups. Naturally, the role of certain types of weapons and military equipment also changed in the new conditions: the importance of small arms and light assault weapon models increased dramatically. During the clashes, sniper fire, ambushes, mine-blast barriers, “streamers”, etc., were widely used.

The lack of a clear front line separating the belligerents; the actions of the units in isolation from the main forces created the conditions for the effective use of sniper weapons. The press cited data convincingly confirming the role of snipers during the fighting in the 60-s. in Vietnam. On the defeat of one soldier in the US Army spent an average of 25 thousand rounds of ammunition. The American sniper division, which had undergone special training, was spending on the defeat of one Vietnamese soldier 1,5 cartridge. The similar effectiveness and efficiency of sniper fire was confirmed later during the fighting in the 80-s. in Afghanistan, then at the end of 90's. in Chechnya. The actions of snipers had a very strong psychological effect on the enemy, causing the enemy to have feelings of helplessness and fear.

Unitary ammunition - the foundation of high-precision shooting systems

Recall the events that led to the possibility of creating weapons of sniper weapons. The basis for its creation should be considered the use in the XIX century. A new method of charging is through the breech with a unitary cartridge with a metal sleeve. Prior to this, for almost four centuries, charging was carried out separately with gunpowder and a bullet through the muzzle with a ramrod. Paper shells for gunpowder were made by the troops, the powder in them was measured by a special measure. Such a “rough” method of charging inevitably led to a variety of initial speeds and an increased dispersion of bullets. Fire from muzzle-loading weapons was ineffective even at short ranges. For accurate shooting at a separate target such a weapon was not suitable. A new method of charging a weapon with a unitary cartridge has led to the emergence of industrial production of cartridges, the precision of manufacturing all the elements of a cartridge, the stability of powder charge parameters, cartridges, and bullets have increased. There was a special science - internal ballistics - about the laws of the movement of bullets under the action of powder gases. Internal ballistics allowed to calculate what power and size to create a cartridge for designing a certain type of weapon. And the possibility of creating an accurate sniper battle began to be based, first of all, on the characteristics of the cartridges created for it. Later, with the appearance of smokeless powder in 1885, the cartridges equipped with it significantly increased the fire capabilities of the weapon, mainly in terms of the range and accuracy of the fire. This was the next step to the creation of sniper samples. To improve the accuracy of aiming at sniper rifles began to install optical sights. Sniper guns, sniper ammunition and optical sights stood out in a special set of sniper weapons. The selection and training of snipers have become a separate direction of the combat training of troops, containing, in addition to the rifle training, the development of the sum of the necessary specific skills for successful actions of snipers in a variety of combat conditions. The basis of their training was the task of achieving a super-mark of firing with the ability to act independently on the choice of the target and the production of a shot.

In World War I, 1914 - 1916's. snipers appeared who were prepared for independent action and who could patiently wait for many hours for an accurate shot. This corresponded to the nature of a positional war during the long-term confrontation of the warring parties in most sectors of the front. No special-purpose sniper weapons were produced, it was selected from the mass parties by thoroughly checking the accuracy of the battle with a telescopic sight; cartridges were selected in one batch and year of release. Snipers were part of the structure of the army infantry units; They had no decisive significance in the positional war.

World War II made significant changes in the nature and scale of hostilities. Mechanized and tank connections increased role aviationartillery. Military operations began to cover the actions of armies and even entire fronts. At this scale, small arms, including the snipers armed with them, have ceased to play a significant role in achieving success. However, sniper fire retained its main purpose - the defeat with an accurate shot of important single targets. In defensive battles near Moscow, the battle of Stalingrad, in the offensive operations of the Soviet army, snipers inflicted tangible damage to the fascist troops. Armed with 7,62 mm sniper rifles,
they showed the highest skill in accurate shooting, courage and heroism. The armament of snipers did not change much during the period of the war and the first decades after its completion. Although at the end of the war in the USSR, an automatic AVT sniper rifle of the Tokarev system was put into service, it turned out to be unsuitable for accuracy and reliability and was soon removed from service.

However, in the 60-s. In a number of regions of Africa and Asia, for various reasons, armed conflicts began to arise, turning into local wars. In terms of the scale and tactics of warfare, they were fundamentally different from the large-scale operations of the past, and demanded new forms and methods of warfare, changed the role and place of use of various types of weapons - this was mentioned above. The significance and role of small arms in the general weapons system has changed, the importance of sniper fire has increased. There are new systems for sniper shooting - rifles, ammunition, optical and electron-optical night vision sights. Local wars demanded new sniper weapons.

Sniper fire in modern war

The general trend in the development of sniper weapons in recent decades can be defined in several directions. They were clearly revealed in connection with the change in the nature of hostilities in local wars, and the change in the tasks of individual types of weapons. As already noted, the role of heavy military equipment has decreased in order to increase the maneuverability of the units; the importance of small combat groups operating in isolation from the main forces has increased. They began to necessarily include snipers with a complex of sniper weapons — large-caliber rifles to defeat military equipment, sniper rifles for silent firing; sights for shooting at night; instruments for determining and amending for deviations from normal shooting conditions.

One of the ways to improve the sniper weapons in the 70-ies. It was the design and development of new sniper ammunition to increase the damaging effects of bullets as by increasing the caliber, and through the use of new designs and materials for the production of ammunition.

The second important direction of the development of sniper weapons was to increase the accuracy of the battle both by creating new ammunition and by improving the production technology of cartridges and weapons, mainly gun barrels. Requirements for accuracy of shooting for sniper complexes, especially for large-caliber, have increased. 7,62-mm sniper rifles of the “family” of the SVD at a range of 100 m have accuracy of combat with a dispersion envelope within 8 cm. For large-bore rifles, the accuracy requirement was determined almost three times higher - at a range of 100 m the dispersion of bullets is allowed within a circle in 3 cm This requirement of accuracy corresponds to the range 100 m location of holes in the size of the circle, the diameter of which does not exceed one angular minute. This angle is abbreviated as “MOA” (from English— "Minute of Angle"). At a distance of 100 m, the MOA angle is linear with 2,91 cm (rounded 3 cm). Thus, the requirements for modern sniper rifles were significantly higher than for army sniper rifles. Such accuracy of combat without increasing the caliber and mass of sniper rifles of the army units is not yet possible. Armed in Russia uses 7,62 mm caliber sniper rifles, including the 1891 / 30 model with self-charged sniper cartridges The SVD-based Dragunov sniper rifle, Model 1963, and its upgraded SVD-U versions (for the Airborne Forces and BMP units) are used as part of motorized rifle units.

For hitting sniper fire, not only manpower, but also the enemy’s military equipment - anti-aircraft systems, radar, mobile command and control stations, helicopters on take-off areas and other similar targets, required sniper weapon systems with aimed fire of up to 2000 m, with increased ammunition of increased damage and accuracy of fire. Large-caliber sniper rifles and cartridges with armor-piercing bullets of caliber 9 mm and 12,7 mm were adopted by Russia. The mass of these complexes with optical night sights reaches 12 - 16 kg. Therefore, they are not part of the staff of the army units, but are attached to them to perform special tasks.

Together with the improvement of weapons of snipers, there was also the creation of special equipment for use in a variety of climatic conditions - camouflage suits; insulated waterproof fireproof clothing, items and medical supplies necessary for life support. So, in general, the new conditions of warfare affected the development of sniping at the present time.

Domestic sniper armament 7,62x54 mm

The sections proposed below set out general information about sniper weapons and ammunition used for firing from domestic sniper weapons. They do not replace official manuals and technical descriptions for individual types of weapons, supplementing them with previously unpublished information.

Speaking of sniper weapons - rifles, cartridges, equipment, equipment, it should be emphasized that all this requires not only careful maintenance and compliance with the rules of storage and saving, preparation for shooting rifles, cartridges, optical and electronic-optical sights, but also a love relationship . Sniper rifles confide in persons who love shooting; personally assign them to the sniper, never this weapon is temporarily transferred to other persons; personally sniper lead to normal combat. The rifle is an individual sniper tool.

Table 1

Cartridge index

LPS

7H26 (7H13)

7Н1

7Н14

T-46

7BT1

B-32

LPS

Bullet type

Common.

Common.

Sniper

Sniper armor.

Tracer

Broneb tracing

Broneb. light up

"Silver. spout »LPS

Initial speed of a bullet, m / s

825

825

830

830

815

840

805

From XDUMX SVD

Chuck weight, g

21,8

21,7

22

22

22

21,7

22,6

26,8

Bullet weight, g

9,6

9,5

9.8

9,8

9,4

9,2

10,4

9,6

Chuck length, mm

77,1

77,1

77,1

77,1

77,1

77,1

77,1

77,1

Kinetic energy., kgm Muzzle On 10OO m

333 43

329 48

344 51

344 51

318 50

331 40

343 61

340 50

Break-through range (80%) steel armor plates

0

10 mm to 230 m

0

5 mm to 500 m

0

5 mm to 300 m

10 mm to 250 m

5 mm to 500 m



The Dragunov SVD sniper rifle was put into service in 1963 and over the years of operation has earned recognition in many countries as one of the best army sniper self-loading rifles. The designer succeeded for the first time in the world to create a self-loading rifle for a powerful rifle-and-machine-gun sniper cartridge 7,62x54 mm with accuracy that was previously unattainable in a sniper self-loading weapon. The basis of success was the idea put forward by Dragunov — not to try to eliminate one of the main reasons for the dispersion of bullets — a variety of departure angles, but to achieve stabilization of its size. This was achieved by Dragunov’s original design of the rifle forearm knot. The forearm of the SVD consists of two symmetrical halves, pressed against the back by a powerful plate spring; The front ends of the forearm enter into a fixed support on the trunk. Both halves can move in the longitudinal direction in a small range, constantly pressed by the leaf spring. When the barrel is heated and lengthened, the handguard moves after it, the conditions for fixing the barrel will not change, and the STF will not shift. Thus, the stability of the departure angles and the increased accuracy of firing were achieved in the SVD. Such an attachment point for the forearm was later borrowed by the designers of a number of rifles of exact combat of foreign manufacture. Dragunov was also the first to apply the bolt locking scheme to three lugs, which increased the accuracy of shooting - with the three lug stops, the uniform position of the bolt was achieved after it was locked. Innovative was the gas discharge device with a short stroke of the gas piston, constantly pressed through the pusher by a spring to the end of the gas tube. At the same time, the gas pipe remains fixedly connected to the gas chamber, which also increased the accuracy of the SVD combat. The SVD has been in service with the Russian army for more than 40 years. High combat qualities, a successful arrangement of mechanisms, the original butt of the “skeleton type” and the exceptional reliability of the work of the SVD were the basis for the development on its basis of several modifications.

SVD-S sniper rifle (with folding butt). To create it led to the need to reduce the overall length of the weapon. The length of the SVD - 1225 mm - makes it inconvenient for actions in conditions of limited space, especially during landing.

At the beginning of the 90's was developed version of the rifle with a folding butt - SVD-S. It has a permanent wooden butt replaced by a plastic handle and a metal butt folding to the right with a shoulder rest and a fixed cheek. With the butt folded down, the rifle is held with one hand by the pistol grip, and with the other hand by the lower butt tube, the SVD-S with a folded butt has a length of 875 mm, which is 350 mm less than the length of the SVD. The trunk of the SVD-S has thicker walls, which increased its strength and stability of the rifle's battlefield. The gas regulator was excluded from the gas discharge unit, which simplified the design. In the SVD-S, the attachment device for the folding butt ensures a stable rifle battle, it has made the SVD-S convenient for carrying, when traveling in vehicles and infantry fighting vehicles, and dropping off. These goals were pursued during its development.

IED sniper rifle (shortened). This rifle, as well as the SVD-S, was created on the basis of the Dragunov SVD standard sniper rifle, but with more significant changes. The goal of this modernization is to create a more maneuverable model for arming the special forces of the internal affairs agencies, units of the internal troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation and, in part, the army units of the Russian army.

The VCA - a self-loading sniper shortened - has a “bullpup” layout - the trigger mechanism is located in the butt behind the magazine and the pistol grip. This made it possible to obtain a smaller overall length of the rifle, while maintaining a sufficient barrel length to provide the necessary initial velocity of the bullet. The VCA has a barrel that is only 20 mm shorter than the barrel of a SVD, but the total length with a constant butt of 900 mm is instead of 1225 mm for a SVD. This significantly increased the maneuverability of the shortened rifle. The direct butt reduced the impact of recoil, eliminating the rotation of the barrel due to the discrepancy between the directions of action of the recoil force and the reaction of the shooter’s shoulder, which inevitably occurs in a weapon with a bent butt.



Basic data of the SVD-S rifle

Used cartridges - 7,62x54 sniper, rifle cartridges are allowed. Eating ammunition - from the 10 magazine. Automation - with the removal of powder gases. The trigger mechanism - the trigger, provides for the maintenance of only a single fire. Locking barrel - turning the bolt with three lugs.
Rifle weight with a telescope PSO-1 - kg 4,68
Rifle length - with folded butt - 875 mm, with folded down - 1135 mm. The initial speed of the bullet - 810 m / s. Combat rate - up to 30 rds / min




Basic data of sniper rifles SVU and SVU-A

Used cartridges - 7,62x54 sniper, rifle cartridges are allowed. The arrangement of mechanisms - according to the “bullpup” scheme. Food - from the magazine on 10 cartridges (for VCA-A on 10 or 20 cartridges). Automation - with the removal of powder gases. Trigger mechanism - trigger for maintaining a single fire from the IED; SVU-A - for conducting single or automatic fire. Locking barrel - turning the bolt with three lugs.
Mass rifle with automatic sight
PSO-1 — 4,4 kg.
Rifle length - 900 mm.
Sighting range —1300 m; with night sight - 400 m.
The initial speed of the bullet - 830 m / s. Combat rate - up to 30 rds / min - single fire, up to 90 rds / min - bursts


The three-chamber muzzle device of the VCA performs three functions: it absorbs up to 40% recoil energy, partially reduces flame formation and reduces the sound level of the shot. The SVU rifle has a diopter sight. For the convenience of aiming with a straight butt without optics, the front sight and the sight are set perpendicular to the barrel axis to a height suitable for aiming.

Sniper rifle automatic SVU-A. The variant of the SVU-A rifle makes it possible to use fire at bursts of fire at short-range fires up to 90 rds / min for hitting targets.

Changes are made to the shock-trigger mechanism - a translator of fire from single to automatic is introduced with the rate of 10 shots per second. Automation using energy and powder gases - preserved.

The rifle has a spring-loaded butt pad, shoulder rest and a three-chamber muzzle device, reducing the sound level when shooting. A folding bipod allows you to quickly retarge the rifle over a wide range. The accuracy of shooting with single fire meets the requirements for this type of sniper weapon - at the 50 range, m, the bullet dispersion size does not exceed 8, see

Rifles VCA and VCA-A require, due to the presence of a direct butt, a high position of the head of the shooter when aiming and shooting; you cannot fire from the left shoulder of them, since the shells are thrown to the right at the level of the shooter’s face.

Sniper rifle CB-98 created on the basis of a sports rifle "Record" using the technology of manufacturing the barrel method of cold forging without chrome plating, which increased the accuracy of shooting. In the rifle, also to increase the accuracy of the battle, the barrel bore was locked on three lugs of the longitudinally sliding rotary bolt, as it did in the design of the SVD Dragunov. Powered by cartridges is carried out without the use of automatic reloading manually from the magazine on 10 cartridges.

The descent force is adjustable within 1,0 - 1,5 kgf, which also contributes to producing an accurate shot. The box, like that of the SVD, is made of pressed plywood board; the butt, adjustable in length within 20 mm, allows you to adjust it depending on the length of the sniper's hands. Shooting can be carried out with the use of height-adjustable bipod, folding in the stowed position. A low-noise broad-type firing device can be mounted on the barrel; To protect the field of view from the thermal “mirage”, a wide nylon belt is installed above the barrel, and a special visor is installed above the silencer.

In the CB-98 complex, the main sight is the 1P69 optical sight of the 3-10x42 type; 7 multiple PKS-07 can be used.

The sniper cartridge 7H1 is used for shooting, as well as the sporty “extra”, a series of their 10 shots at a distance of 300 m has a pattern of holes in the 5-7 envelope, see

Weight CB-98 - 5,5 kg without muffler and cartridges; barrel length - 650 mm; rifle length without a silencer - 1200 m; combat rate of fire to 10 rds / min; sighting range - to 1200 m.

The CB-98 complex is intended for special forces, MIA, law enforcement agencies and departments.

Cartridges sniper rifles caliber 7,62x54 mm. The sniper weapon complexes mentioned above use 7,62 mm caliber cartridges with 54 mm sleeve length. This ammunition has a sleeve with a protruding rim (welt), and it is sometimes denoted 7,62x54R (welted). For its long history he underwent a number of upgrades, which resulted in improved accuracy of fire, penetration and armor-piercing action of bullets, improved technology for the production of cartridge elements. The sniper cartridge 7,62 CH (index 7Н1) and the sniper cartridge armor-piercing (index 7Н14) were specially developed for sniper rifles.

For shooting from sniper rifles caliber 7,62 mm can be used several types of cartridges 7,62x54. In the absence of sniper ammunition from gross batches, cartridges of the same batch and year of release are carefully selected by external inspection - snipers did this during the Second World War. Later sniper cartridges with the Sniper index were created, as well as cartridges with armor-piercing bullets and LPS bullets.

We give the basic data 9-mm special cartridges

Characteristics

SP-5

SP-6

Mm length:

- cartridge

56,2

56

- sleeves

39

39

- bullets

36

41

Mass, g:

- cartridge

23,2

23,0

- bullets

16,2

16,0



The sniper cartridge bullet of recent years (index 7Н1) is an envelope, with a heat-strengthened core in the front and a lead core in the rear.

LPS bullet before 1978 had a tip painted silver (“silver spout”). It has a steel core inside the sheath in a lead shirt. Cartridges with such a bullet are used for lightly armored targets and targets in the means of individual armor protection.

In addition to the above ammunition, the following ammunition can be used in sniper rifles: armor-piercing but incendiary B-XNHMX, tracer T-32, armor-piercing-tracer 46BT7, and also 1-mm cartridges with LPS bullet, ordinary 7,62NXNXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX By accuracy and striking action, they are inferior to the cartridges "sniper" and with a "silver spout."

Some data on 7,62x54 cartridges that can be used when firing from the SVD “family” sniper rifles are given in Table. 1.

9 mm and 12,7 mm sniper weapons

In addition to the above-mentioned sniper armament samples, in the Russian Armed Forces, for solving special tasks, sniper complexes with cartridges of caliber 9x39 mm are used — for low-noise and flameless shooting; caliber 9x64 mm - for destruction of targets using the NIB; caliber 12,7x108 mm - for the defeat of military equipment and other important targets at ranges up to 1500 m.

Rifle special sniper WBU. For the arming of special-purpose units, the VSS sniper complex was adopted, ensuring the destruction of targets with silent and flameless fire at ranges up to 400 and 9xXNNXX mm cartridges. The need for it has arisen for actions in settlements among urban buildings during the destruction of criminal and gangster groups, as well as the destruction of terrorists. In this case, fire from small arms is conducted, as a rule, for short distances - no more than 39 m.

Weapons with high initial speeds of bullets at the same time give a large number of bounce from the walls of buildings, asphalt pavements, solid obstacles. Thus there is a real threat of defeat by ricochet bullets of unauthorized persons. So there was a need for weapons with low initial speeds of bullets and with a small range of aimed fire. To this were added the requirements of reducing the sound level of shots when shooting, in order to make it difficult for the enemy to determine the positions of the shooters. In this case, a new weapon must have sufficient accuracy, allowing to hit targets with the first shot. All these requirements could be met by a weapon with a new cartridge, using bullets with a subsonic initial speed, of greater mass and with a high-strength core.

The basis for the development of a special BCC sniper rifle was the 9-mm cartridge with a 16 g bullet that retains a sufficient destructive effect at distances up to 400 m. In the middle of 80-x special cartridges SP-5 and SP-6 were created to give the bullet a mass of about 16 g initial speed 270 - 280 m / s.

The bullet of the cartridge SP-5 with a bimetallic shell has a steel core, the cavity behind the core is flooded with lead. The shape of the bullet provides it with good ballistic properties when flying at subsonic speeds. The bullet of the cartridge SP-6 has a steel hardened core. The shell of the bullet does not completely cover the head of the core, its nose is painted black - it serves as an armor-piercing. The ballistics of both cartridges is almost the same, so they can be used in weapons with the same sights. The accuracy of the SP-5 cartridge bullets is higher than that of the SP-6 cartridge bullets, this ammunition serves as a sniper.

The mass of 9-mm bullets is more than twice the mass of a 5,45-mm bullet. Despite the subsonic speed, bullets of such a mass have significant energy - when departing around 60 kgm, and at a distance of 400 m - 45 kgm. This is enough to reliably hit targets using the NIB.

Under 9-mm special cartridges developed and adopted in 1987, the special sniper BCC. It is designed to hit targets with sniper fire in conditions that require silent and flameless shooting at ranges up to 400 m with a telescopic sight and 300 m at night with a night sight.

The Air Force rifle has a number of previously unseen design features, as well as unusual firing rules due to the large steepness of the trajectories of bullets. Therefore, its device is given in more detail. This is also done because the BCC is used not only in special, but also in army units of the Armed Forces of Russia.

Automatic rifles based on the use of a portion of the powder gases discharged through the hole in the barrel into the gas chamber. It is located on top of the barrel under the plastic forearm. The trigger mechanism - firing pin with a separate combat spring, provides the possibility of a single or automatic fire. The fire mode translator is located inside the trigger guard at its rear. The single fire is the main one for the BCC rifle, it is characterized by high accuracy: on the 100 m with a series of shots in the 4-5 shots, the scattering diameter does not exceed 7,5, see. For comparison, under the same conditions with a sniper cartridge, the scattering diameter does not exceed 8 Automatic fire can be used in case of a sudden meeting with an enemy at short distances. The capacity of the store is on 10 cartridges, so it is advisable to fire automatic fire in bursts at the 2 - 4 shot. The barrel is locked by turning the bolt under the action of the bolt carrier, which is moving forward from the return spring. A light drummer when descending from a battle platoon of a shepherd gives a slight push to the rifle, which contributes to good accuracy of the battle.

The rifle has a special silencer device. He is wearing a barrel and is fastened on it with two rusks and a latch, which makes it easy to remove and install it on a rifle, while maintaining the coaxiality of the barrel and the muffler. In the outer cylinder of the muffler is placed a separator of two strips with round covers on the ends and three round inclined partitions inside. The covers and partitions of the separator have on the axis of the silencer openings for the passage of the bullet. When fired, the bullet flies through the separator, without touching the covers and partitions, and the powder gases, hitting them, change direction and lose speed, which reduces the sound level of the shot. The separator is held in the muffler cylinder with a latch on its front cut and easily removed for cleaning.

The action of the muffler is associated with an unusual device barrel rifle. Its front part, closed by a silencer, has six rows of through holes. When fired, as the bullet moves along the barrel bore, the powder gases are pulled through these openings into the muffler cylinder, then move through the separator, reflecting from its inclined partitions. As a result, the rate of discharge of gases into the air is significantly reduced. Recall that in a conventional weapon without a silencer, this figure at the time of departure is approximately 1300 m / s, which is the main reason for the sharp sound of the shot.

Basic data of the BCC rifle

Used cartridges - 9-mm SP-5 special cartridges (SP-6 cartridges are allowed).
Automation - with the removal of powder gases. Locking - by turning the shutter. The trigger mechanism - shock, provides maintenance of a single or automatic fire. Shop - on 10 ammo
Sights - telescopic PSO-1-1; open (mechanical) sight; night sight NSPU-3.
Sighting range - 400 m with a telescopic sight; 420 m - with an open sight; 300 m - with a night sight.
Butt - wooden, detachable when placed in a suitcase type "diplomat". The mass of the rifle (with an optical sight PSO-1-1) —3,41 kg.
Rifle length - 894 mm; stem - 200 mm. Initial bullet speed - 280 - 290 m / s. Combat rate - single fire - up to 30 rds / min; bursts - up to 60 rpm


The presence of the above-described device on the muffler barrel reduces the sound level to 120 - 115 db, which corresponds to the sound level of a shot from a small-caliber sports rifle. This type of silencer is called a silencer integrated with the barrel. The silencer reduces the overall length of the weapon, since it is not mounted at the end of the barrel, but covers a significant part of it. Without a silencer, the weapon of such a device cannot be fired.

The BCC sights include a PSO-1-1 daytime scope, a night sight and an open mechanical sight. The PSO-1-1 sight is similar to a SVD rifle sight, but with distance scales for the ballistics of the SP-5 cartridge. The upper handwheel for setting the sight has a scale with divisions from 0,5 to 40, the price of one division is 50 m. This corresponds to the aiming angles at a distance from 50 to 400 m. The PSO-1-1 sight has an 1x magnification and 4 ° field of view; sight weight - 6 kg. In addition, the BCC can be equipped with other optical day and night sights with distance scales for the ballistics of the cartridge SP-0,58.

For shooting at night, the NSPU-3 night sight is used. In a combat position, its mass is 2 kg, the range of vision 300 m. An open (mechanical) sight is used when it is impossible to use an optical one. It is located on the body of the muffler. The aiming bar of this sight has a scale with divisions from 10 to 40 - on the right side and from 15 to 42 - on the left side of the bar. This allows you to set when intact with an accuracy of 20 — 30 m, respectively, the distance to the target. The trajectory of the bullet when firing from the BCC has a significant steepness and, therefore, forms a very small area of ​​hit on vertical targets. Therefore, for reliable destruction of a target from a BCC rifle, accuracy in determining the range to targets plays a crucial role. Placing a sight and a front sight on a silencer requires strictly using weapons

Basic data VSK-94

Used cartridges - SP-5, SP-6 (mm 9x39). Weight with silencer - 3,5 kg. Length with silencer - 900 mm. Magazine capacity —10 or 20 cartridges. Initial bullet speed - 270 - 290 m / s. Rate of fire - 30 m / min - single; up to 90 rds / min - automatic fire




to ensure proper connection of the muffler, it is necessary to protect it from impacts and other mechanical damage. The slightest misalignment of the muffler and the barrel leads to a change in the accuracy of the battle.

The BCC rifle has a “skeletal type” butt, which is separated for laying in the stowed position in the briefcase-diplomat. This provides the possibility of hidden wearing.

At a distance of up to 400, the rifle provides penetration of 2-mm steel plates while maintaining a sufficient lethal effect after penetration; at distances up to 100 m, live strength is affected in body armor of IV-V protection classes.

As can be seen from the above data, the trajectory of the bullets when firing from the BCC due to the sonic initial velocity of the bullets and their large mass has a significantly greater curvature (approximately 4 times) than when fired from an AK74 machine gun. This dramatically reduces the depth of the affected area, and therefore requires increased accuracy of installation of the sight. For this purpose, the sighting devices have scales that allow the installation of the sight to be done with an accuracy of 20 - 30 m. Therefore, the requirements for the sniper to determine the distance to the target have also increased - it must be determined with an accuracy of ten meters. In a city, to determine the distance to a target, one should take into account the known dimensions of streets, squares, gaps between transmission towers, use a ranging scale in the field of view of an optical sight, use more accurate methods of measuring distances. This will allow to successfully solve the main task of sniper shooting - defeat the target with the first shot.

In general, the BCC rifle successfully complements the sniper fire system of small arms, allowing a silent shot to hit targets at ranges up to 400 m.

Rifle sniper VSK-94 chambered for 9x39 (SP-5, SP-6) was developed in 1995 g. Its aiming range - 400 m. The rifle provides the possibility of firing in bursts with automatic reloading due to the energy of the powder gases discharged from the barrel into the gas chamber. However, the main type of fire from it is single fire with an attached silencer providing low noise shooting. Butt of manual type, detachable during disassembly for carrying a rifle in a special case.

Basic data

Used cartridges - 12,7x108 CH; 12,7x108
TWS; 12,7x108 SPB; 12,7x108 with a bullet B32.
Weight - no more than 12 kg (without sight OEPOO).
Length —1300 mm.
Height - 210 mm (with store).
Width —150 mm.
Aim range - with an optical sight - 1500 m; with mechanical - 1000 m. Time - transfer to the combat position no more than 10 s; replacing a magazine from a pouch not 15 with. Barrel life - 3000 shots. The penetrative action of bullets (barrier, thickness, percentage of penetration, range) - 10 armor plate mm, 100%, 800 m; body armor 6B12 - 80K%, 100 m. In Table. 3 provides basic information about 12,7x108 mm ammunition, which can be used for shooting AKVK rifle (in addition to 12,7 SPT and 12,7 SPB).

The adoption of a large-caliber rifle expanded the combat capabilities of sniper weapons, allowed us to successfully accomplish the firing tasks characteristic of the conditions of action in modern local wars, as well as to accomplish the tasks of eliminating terrorists and gangs. Complexes of large-caliber sniper rifles can be attached to military units for special tasks.




VSK-94 is designed to hit targets with sniper fire in conditions that require silent and flameless shooting; if necessary, it can be fired in bursts. The rifle is designed for use in special forces of various power structures and departments.

A large-caliber sniper rifle VSK combines the ability to conduct sniper fire with small signs of unmasking (a silencer and a shot) using 9-mm SP-5 cartridges, and, if necessary, maintaining high-density automatic fire for hitting targets at short distances. At the same time, the possibility of hidden carrying and carrying a rifle when separating its components in a special case is provided. To assemble VSK-94 takes about one minute.

The SVDK sniper rifle was created on the basis of the Dragunov system's SVD army sniper rifle, but under a more powerful cartridge 9x64 mm (cartridge index 7НЗЗ). The mass of this ammunition is 34 g instead of 22 g in 7,62-mm sniper cartridge, due to which it makes it possible to reliably hit the first shot targets that use the NIB. This is the main advantage of the 9-mm rifle over the standard SVD.

The 9-mm kit includes: cartridge 7H22; SVDK sniper rifle; telescope 1P70 "Hyperon"; electron-optical sight 1PN101 (night).

The increase in power and caliber of the cartridge has led to an increase in the mass of weapons. So, in a combat position with an optical sight "Hyperon" the mass of weapons is 7,3 kg; with an electron-optical night sight 7,9 kg; 5,7 rifle weight itself kg. This reduced the maneuverability of the weapon and required a bipod support when shooting. Therefore, the 9-mm sniper weapon complex does not replace an army sniper rifle, but complements it.

The general SVDK device repeats the device of the Dragunov SVD sniper rifle with an increase in the mass of the barrel and rifle. This has improved the accuracy of the rifle battle with a new cartridge. The probability of hitting a target like a “chest figure” at a distance of up to 600 m is practically 100%. 9-mm cartridge, as already mentioned, has a mass of 34 g, a mass of a bullet with an armor-piercing core 17,0 — 18,2 g; cartridge length 88,8 mm.

The length of the rifle SVDK 1250 mm; 10 magazine capacity; sighting range with an optical sight "Hyperon" 1300 m and 1000 m with a night sight; initial bullet speed 785 m / s.

Accuracy of shooting is characterized by a diameter of dispersion of bullets at a range of 100 m with a SN cartridge within the limits of 6 size cm, with a SNB - 8 cartridge. See. bullet cartridge SNB - 80 mm at a distance 600 m.

In tab. 2 shows the data used in the Russian Army sniper rifles chambered for caliber 7,62xK54 mm, 9x39 mm and 9x64 mm.

The variety of modern sniper armament models is dictated by the change of fire missions, which are associated with the emergence of new personal means of defense, as well as the need to increase the range of effective fire.

At the same time, the 7,62-mm rifle of the SVD and SVDS, recognized as the best army rifle of the last century, remains in the system of sniper weapons of the Russian army. New samples of sniper rifles with more powerful cartridges are used in special purpose units.

Army sniper rifle large-caliber ASVK was created in 1990 g. for chambered caliber 12,7x108 mm, used for heavy machine guns. This cartridge did not provide the required accuracy for sniper weapons. Therefore, it had to be improved specifically for sniper weapons. This is how the 12,7-mm SN cartridge (sniper), as well as 12,7 SPZ (sniper cartridge special) and 12,7 PSB (sniper cartridge armor-piercing) cartridge appeared.

The 12,7 CH cartridge of more precise manufacturing as compared with the machine gun has an 58,5 g shell shell with a steel core in the ogival part and a lead core in the cylindrical part of the bullet.

Table 2

Rifle type

SVD

SVD-S

SVD-U

CB-98

the weight

VSK-94

SVDK

Used cartridges

7,62x54

7,62x54

7,62x54

7,62x54

9x39

9x39

9x64

Mass with opt. sight, kg

4,3

4,68

4.4

Without opt. Ave 5,6; with wholesale Ave 7,5

2,6; from pr. PSO-1-1 3,413,

With wholesale Ave 4,68

Without. wholesale Ave 6,5

Length, mm

1220

From vis Ave 1135; with complex Xnumx

900

1190

894

900

1250

Initial bullet speed m / s

830

810

800

8254

280-290

270

785



The 12,7 SPC cartridge has a bullet machined entirely from armor; 12,7 SPB cartridge - armor-piercing bullet of high hardness steel, pressed into a bronze chiseled shell.

The turning of a bullet is an expensive process, but it provides significantly better accuracy and accuracy of shooting, while maintaining sufficient disruptive action. The mass of bullets of the cartridge 12,7 TWS - 42,9-43,5 g; bullets cartridge 12,7 SPB - 47,4-48,0 g. These are the new sniper cartridges.

Large-caliber army sniper rifle (ASVK) is designed to destroy lightly armored and unarmored military equipment at ranges up to 1000 m, as well as openly positioned manpower in the NIB, single and group targets (rocket launchers, machine guns, ATGM and other technical means) at ranges to 1500 m

The KAFP is made according to the “bullpup” scheme, which provides smaller dimensions in comparison with sniper rifles of conventional design. Its length is 1300 mm, which is just over 50 mm greater than the length of the SVD. This is the main feature of the AFK design that makes a large-caliber rifle more convenient when moving, choosing a firing position and masking it.

The KFW rifle has a reloading mechanism, which operates manually with the feeding of cartridges from the magazine; locking the barrel bore by turning the bolt and coupling its lugs to the lugs of the barrel. The lack of an automatic mechanism for reloading a rifle, a massive barrel made it possible to increase the accuracy of the battle: at a range of 100 meters, the size of four holes when firing with an optical sight does not exceed 7 cm.

The trigger mechanism is of the kurkov type to conduct only a single fire; 5 magazine capacity; bipod down two fold

Sights: The main sight is the OEPUO optical-electronic fire control unit, with a smooth change in magnification from 3x to 10x; mechanical sight with a scale from 300 m to 1000 m.

Butt has a rubber shoulder rest, softening the effect of recoil when shooting.

Conclusion

What is primary in the development and use of weapons - new types of weapons or new tactical methods of their use? The answer to such questions is unequivocal: the tactics of using weapons are developed in relation to weapons with new combat capabilities. So, following the breech-loading weapon with a unitary metal cartridge, instead of close combat formations, a loose order arose; the appearance of high-speed magazine rifles led to the need for shelter from aimed fire of small arms - trenches and trenches; A new type of automatic weapons - machine guns - demanded new tactical techniques to reduce the loss of infantry from the multiply increased density of fire.

Table 3

Ammo index

B-32

BZT-44

BS

mdz

SN

Caliber, sleeve length, mm

12,7x108

12,7x108

12,7x108

12,7x108

12,7x108

Bullet type

Armor-piercing incendiary

Armor-piercing-ignite. tracing

Armor-piercing incendiary

Incendiary

Sniper armor-piercing

Chuck weight, g

134

130

143

127

145

Chuck length, mm

147

147

147

147

147

Bullet weight, g

48,2

44

55,3

43

59

Initial speed of a bullet, m / s

820

820

820

840

875

Direct shot range at target height 2 m

860

846

870

854

848

Kinetic energy of a bullet, kgm Dulnaya At D = 500m At D = 1000m ND = 1500 m

1652 1050 645 342

1652 930 554 334

1652 1247 794 504

1652 93 536 315

1652 1269 847 556

Penetration armor brand 2P (80% penetration)

20 mm at D = 300 m

15 mm

on D-20Sm

20 mm at D = 800 m

0

10 mm at D = 800 m



Also in modern local military actions, the development of weapons determines the tactics of using each type of weapon. The increased role of sniper fire in the course of hostilities of local importance was determined by the appearance in service of large-caliber sniper complexes for the destruction of the enemy’s military equipment at considerable distances; new sniper sights and special cartridges, special equipment for action in isolation from the main forces. New tactical methods were developed for the use of snipers in the course of local hostilities, the destruction of terrorist groups and bandit formations.

New combat capabilities of modern sniper complexes have identified the full-time organization of units, including snipers with new sniper weapons, as well as the tactics of their actions in modern conditions. The combat capabilities of the weapons available to the army determine the tactics of the actions of the armed forces at this stage.

The skill of the sniper is determined not only by the ability to shoot supermetko. The sniper should own a large complex of tactical and special training techniques. They are based on the physical capabilities of the candidate for snipers - excellent vision and hearing, speed of reaction and composure, the ability to withstand extreme conditions and loads, possession of personal weapons of attack and defense, various means of communication and disguise. You can still call a lot of requirements that must meet the sniper. But, undoubtedly, the main thing for a sniper is the ability to make an accurate shot at the right moment.

However, only one ability to perfectly shoot to assess the skill of the sniper is not enough. Unfortunately, in the published Shooting Tables of small arms (TS No. 61 GRAU, 1976) snipers are divided into categories “medium” and “best” according to a single attribute - the dispersion of bullets when shooting (that is, accuracy). But a sniper cannot be a mid-level shooter, he must be the best among the middle ones, otherwise he cannot be considered a sniper. Separating snipers into categories based only on the results of firing is unacceptable - this leads to a decrease in the requirements for training snipers in the troops, since this does not take into account the level of special sniper training. Assessment of the skill of the sniper should be given in view of the full range of skills necessary for the combat actions of the sniper.

Sniper training should be conducted according to a separate program by specialist instructors who have experience in training top-level shooters and educating fully-trained shooters for independent action in isolation from the main army units. Candidates for snipers must pass a special selection - medical and psychological. The sniper is a participant in the hostilities, in which in some cases he must independently decide what gravity the defeat should inflict on the enemy - is it enough just to temporarily disable it or should it achieve more?

This is exactly what the international humanitarian agreements on the use of firearms by belligerents adopted by the main countries of the world in the package of the Hague Conventions require.

Extremists and terrorists in hostilities grossly violate these agreements in relation to not only the direct participants, but also against civilians, including women and children. The sniper should not act as a thoughtless mercenary, insensitively performing the task assigned to him. His actions are guided by the consciousness and understanding of the justice of punishing those who bring violence to people, blind obedience to religious and clan leaders. The sniper performs his actions consciously, defending the freedom of people regardless of their religion, race or nationality.

The increased role of sniper fire in modern hostilities requires military commanders of all levels to increase their attention to training snipers in the army, to help raise the status of a sniper, to provide the necessary conditions for maintaining and improving their skills.

Sniper fire in the course of local wars of modernity gained increased importance and demanded both new weapons, ammunition and equipment, and new tactics for the use of weapons, as well as special psychological training of snipers.

The proposed changes in the training programs of cadets in the Higher Combined-Arms Command School (VLKU) do not affect the structure of the general system of military training of cadets, but will allow for a number of years to prepare the required number of sniper platoon commanders who are proficient in shooting techniques.

During the years of Soviet power, a system of training snipers developed through voluntary sports societies: OSOAVIAHIM, Dynamo, DOSAAF, where shooting sports were allowed to be carried out with military weapons. Sports organizations had several sniper schools, which trained high-end shooters. After the Great Patriotic War, this system collapsed due to the prohibition of sports firing from military weapons.

It is possible to fill this gap by changing the training system in the VOK, for which it is possible to envisage at the graduation course the transfer of one of the platoons to classes in the program of sniper platoon commanders. Candidates for snipers should be selected in accordance with all requirements for professional snipers from both the skill of shooting and the general mastery of the art of special tactical training of snipers. Such a system for changing the training programs of the VOK does not require additional funding, but will provide training for sniper platoon commanders for army units.
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  1. Owl
    Owl 12 July 2013 09: 49 New
    +6
    In addition to describing various types of small arms and history (from the beginning of the 250th century), as well as mentioning the tactics of using snipers (sniper pairs, sniper units), it is necessary (to describe the current state of affairs in Russia) to pay attention to the legal, legal and moral side of the application sniper in the conditions of the "counter-terrorist operation" in Russia today: the current laws make the effectiveness of the use of a sniper directly and completely dependent on the commander (chief), if the commander will be hijacked by a sniper who shot an armed “resident of the North Caucasus region” from a distance of 400 meters, from whom his "jihadist comrades" seized and carried away weapons, ammunition and equipment, the sniper will be encouraged, and if it’s not the Commander, and shaking for his place and for his boss, the sniper will have problems.
  2. Kovrovsky
    Kovrovsky 12 July 2013 13: 29 New
    0
    "Weapons in Russia use 7,62 mm caliber sniper rifles, including model 1891/30 with sniper ammunition."
    Are there still sniper rifles based on the Mosin rifle?
    1. Owl
      Owl 12 July 2013 14: 25 New
      +2
      At the beginning of 2003, at the training camp of freelance snipers of the Central Internal Affairs Directorate of one of the Russian regions, snipers arrived from one or two police department with Mosin sniper rifles (one rifle was of the military year 1943 or 1944).
    2. Russ69
      Russ69 12 July 2013 17: 16 New
      0
      Quote: Kovrovsky
      Are there still sniper rifles based on the Mosin rifle?

      Not a bad rifle, do not use it. Moreover, snipers try weapons for themselves.
      1. Blackgrifon
        Blackgrifon 12 July 2013 22: 44 New
        0
        Quote: Russ69
        Not a bad rifle, do not use it. Moreover, snipers try weapons for themselves.


        During the Second World War - this rifle was considered not bad - how many of our snipers, two or three hundred fascists put for the war from it.
  3. alex-cn
    alex-cn 12 July 2013 14: 48 New
    0
    "" Cartridge 12,7 TWS has a bullet machined entirely from armor; - probably from bronze. but the article doesn’t care +.
  4. Yuri Y.
    Yuri Y. 12 July 2013 17: 40 New
    0
    Quote: Eagle Owl
    At the beginning of 2003, at the training camp of freelance snipers of the Central Internal Affairs Directorate of one of the Russian regions, snipers arrived from one or two police department with Mosin sniper rifles (one rifle was of the military year 1943 or 1944).

    Sniper is quite an individual job, even for the army. What if he
    hit more.
  5. wave
    wave 12 July 2013 19: 43 New
    0
    vsk-94, rifle sniper complex
    1. n-kama
      n-kama 2 September 2013 21: 54 New
      0
      military sniper complex
  6. Druid
    Druid 9 September 2013 17: 22 New
    +3
    Several years ago, I watched snipers from all over the Russian Federation, almost all had Accurasi English rifles, and only a couple of Finnish SAKOs. I think they are unlikely to exchange them for SV-94.
    I like the SVD cabinet in its original form, and it got better with a new barrel, a good rifle for its time, unpretentious, and even now it’s not so outdated as a weapon for a sniper as part of a motorized or infantry platoon, for which it was actually created . It is impossible to look at stubs like IEDs without tears and a mat.
    Large-caliber Russian rifles are not impressive. They can’t do it themselves, then there’s no reason to reinvent the wheel, it’s easier to buy a license, tailor it to your requirements and set up production of successful foreign models.