And the faithful media literally overflowed with colorful reports. That Medvedev opens the newest cement plant (with a large Swiss participation). But Putin is in the special economic zone “Titanium Valley” (Upper Salda, Ural).
But he also launches the Interkos-4 large-scale stamping plant (for Bosch-Siemens), the St. Petersburg region, or opens up the new facilities of the Scania and Hyundai transnational corporations, also near St. Petersburg, where the assembly of Scania trucks and buses and passenger cars began Solaris.
What can you say? Of course, it is good that new jobs are being created. It is great that international investors invest in Russia on a long-term basis. It is gratifying that investments began to go not only in the primary industries.
But, firstly, at first pouring a “powerful” stream of several plots, did the topic somehow stop, or is this where the achievements end? Is it not enough in the twenty years of undivided rule of the Russian and transnational bourgeoisie?
I would like to see a list of all enterprises built under the current government (at the same time, preferably a separate line, those that really arose in a new place, and especially those that are not connected with foreign capital).
Secondly, can this “creation” be considered the subject of pride and the fruit of Medvedev’s and Putin’s personal efforts? Hardly.
Rather, the essence of what is happening can be expressed as follows: large international TNCs together with their Russian ... um, partners develop Russian territory, using the competitive advantages that these same um partners have created: low labor costs, weak trade unions and, accordingly, the possibility for the investor to extract more profit in more comfortable conditions.
Thirdly, all this “splendor” of the achievements of modern global capitalism from several dozen subsidiaries of large international TNCs, very quickly, as we see, merging “in practice” with the top of the Russian bureaucracy, takes place against the background of the continuing degradation of genuine Russian industry, about which figures such as Gref or Kudrin always scornfully, through clenched teeth, expressed themselves in quite a market spirit: they could not stand the competition (they say, there is a road to them). And sometimes they intentionally contributed to the collapse of Russian enterprises in order to place TNK units on their premises.
In this regard, we decided to start publishing the list of enterprises destroyed by the current government, which once constituted the glory and pride of the domestic industry. We do not believe in the overall reasonableness of the market, and we believe that with reasonable, prudent and responsible policies, all these enterprises could develop further.
LIST OF DESTROYED ENTERPRISES
AZLK (1930 – 2010)
"Moskvich" (AZLK) - the now defunct Moscow Automobile Building Plant. Produced cars brands "KIM" and "Moskvich".
Founded in 1945 year, actually stopped the production of cars in 2001 year, formally eliminated in 2010 year.
It was geographically located on the territory of the modern South-Eastern Moscow region, near the Tekstilshchiki metro station.
Historical plant names: Moscow Automobile Assembly Plant named after KIM (from 1930 to 1939); KIM Moscow Automobile Plant (from 1939 to World War II); Moscow factory of small cars - ZMA or MZMA (from 1945 to 1968); Automobile Plant named after Leninsky Komsomol - AZLK (from 1968 to 1992); Moskvich OJSC (after 1992).
In the most successful years, AZLK employed up to 25 thousands of people.
In 2001, the plant, having released the last complete cars, finally got up.
In subsequent years, all technological equipment, technological documentation and even the infrastructure equipment of the enterprise, despite the introduction of external management, were completely lost.
In 2006, OAO Moskvich was officially declared bankrupt.
A significant part of the territory of OJSC Moskvich (the former unfinished engine factory) in 1998 was included into the joint-stock company Avtoframos CJSC (about 94 percent of shares belong to Renault, 6 percent to the Bank of Moscow), currently engaged in full-scale (welding, painting, stamping (from foreign metal) body) assembly of cars Renault Logan and Renault Sandero.
In 2009, the final transition to Avtoframos of the territory of the former OJSC Moskvich occurred in order to expand the production of Logan and Sandero cars to 160 thousand per year.
In September 2010, the bankruptcy procedure was completed. According to the bankruptcy manager of the plant, Alexander Ivanov, the plant fully paid off wage arrears, and also paid compensation for damage to health and compensation for moral damage.
A significant part of the vast territory AZLK now used by tenants for a variety of purposes.
RED PROLETARY PLANT (1857 - 2010)
Moscow Machine-Tool Plant "Red Proletarian" them. A.I. Efremova - one of the oldest and leading enterprises of the machine tool industry of the USSR. He played a significant role in the development of machine tools in the USSR. Produced universal screw-cutting and special machines.
26 was founded in March 1857 of the year by English businessmen who accepted Russian citizenship, the Bromley brothers.
In 1922, at the request of the workers, it received the name "Red Proletarian", began to specialize in the production of machine tools and internal combustion engines. In 1944, for the first time in the world machine tool industry, a conveyor assembly of machine tools was introduced at the plant.
The plant had 3 type of production: large-scale (universal turning and precision machines, as well as machines with numerical program control); serial (vertical multi-spindle semi-automatic); small-scale and individual (special machines of various models, mainly for the automotive and tractor industry). The plant was awarded the Order of Lenin (1939), the Order of the Red Banner of Labor (1957) and the Order of the October Revolution (1971).
Now the plant exists as OJSC KP and transferred to a new territory, at Art. m. "Kaluga" ("Construction Site"). Production of machines on it is actually suspended.
For 11 hectares of the old plant are disputed by Vedis Group and Rosneft. This explains why so far the territory of the plant is practically not developed.
PS In general, the production of machine tools in Russia is approximately 2-3 percent of the level of 1990 of the year (about 3,5 thousand units against 75 thousand units in 1990 year).
IZHEVSK MOTORCYCLIC FACTORY (1928 - 2009)
The production of motorcycles in Izhevsk appeared thanks to Peter Vladimirovich Mozharov. A talented engineer and avid motorcyclist, Mozharov actually became the organizer of mass production of motorcycles in the USSR.
In the spring of 1928, Mozharov submitted a formal proposal to organize the production of motorcycles at Izhstalzavod. Soon, a design bureau for motorcycle manufacturing was established at Izhstalzavod, which was headed by P.V. Mozharov. Under his leadership, the first Izhevsk motorcycles were designed, manufactured and tested.
In 1932, a special commission on motorcycle construction was created under the People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry. According to its decision, Izhevsk Motorcycle Plant is now organized on the basis of Izhstalzavod's experimental workshops, where the first samples of IL-1 and IL-2 were collected. And already in 1933, the IZH-7 motorcycle, the modified and improved version of the German L-300 improved by Mozharov, began to be produced here, some of which survived to the present day.
Mass production of motorcycles began at Izhevsk Machine-Building Plant in 1946 year.
At the beginning of 80-s completed the construction of a new complex for the production of motorcycles. Highly automated, equipped with overhead assembly lines, it was designed to produce 450 thousands of motorcycles per year.
In January, 2008, almost the entire workforce of the Izhevsk Motorcycle Plant (OOO IzhMoto), and this is about a 480 man, received notifications about the impending dismissal. One of the most famous brands of the republican industry - motorcycles "Izh", produced with 1929 year, ceased to exist.
Order No. 694 "On the reduction of staff and number" was signed by the director of the Izhevsk motorcycle factory, Viktor Kopyttsev, another December 21. Formally, the order is not about the liquidation of the entire plant, but about the dismissal of employees due to staff reductions. However, according to available information, the administration intends to send proposals to terminate the employment contract for the majority of workers employed in production, leaving only a small staff needed to maintain the building maintenance systems for buildings. The corps themselves, apparently, will soon be put up for sale.
The official motives for the actions of the administration are set out in the same order No. 694: "... due to a significant increase in losses of the Izhevsk Motorcycle Plant LLC related to the production of motorcycle products, an increase in accounts payable, and also taking into account the recommendations of the Board of Directors of Izhevsk Machine-Building Plant OJSC urgent taking effective measures to reduce the costs of the Company. "
IRBIT MOTORCYCLE FACTORY (1941)
Before World War 1941 – 1945 the scale of motorcycle production in the USSR was modest (in 1940, 6800 units were produced). The release of motorcycle technology was carried out by non-specialized enterprises. The first plant, initially focused on the production of motorcycles only, was Irbit.
During the years of Soviet power, every fourth Irbiter worked on a motorcycle factory.
With 1958, IMZ became a profitable plant. Its director P.N. Ignatiev wrote about this: “Until this year, we were a planning-unprofitable plant, received a grant of several million rubles from the state every year. Now we have embarked on such a path of economic development that not only do we not take a ruble from the state’s pocket to cover losses, but, on the contrary, we add our profit to the total income of our country ... ".
The beginning of the XI Five-Year Plan (1981 – 1985) was marked by the release of the 1.5 millionth motorcycle that came off the 10 March March 1981, 21 on October 1991, the factory solemnly celebrated its 50 anniversary. Many guests from all over the country arrived at the celebration: IMZ trained more than one thousand specialists working now at VAZ, KAMAZ, MAZ and UAZ.
After Ukraine gained its independence, the Irbit Motor Plant became the only company in the country producing heavy-duty motorcycles. In 1992, he was awarded the International Gold Star for quality and business initiative in Madrid. 26 October 1993. A three millionth motorcycle rolled off the IMZ conveyor.
In 1992, the plant was incorporated by changing the name of IMZ to Uralmoto. The need to adapt to the conditions of the market economy forced us to expand the range of our products: new models of motorcycles began to be assembled - driven on a wheelchair, tricycle, "Voyage". However, the economic crisis the country was experiencing was hard on the motorcycle plant, production began to decline: if 1992 motorcycles were assembled in 130986, then 1993 in 121347, 1994 in 68753, 1995 in 11779, in 1996, 6416, in 1997, 4731.
As of the end of 2010, the Irbit motorcycle plant went through a bankruptcy procedure more than once, a limited liability company was established on the basis of the enterprise, most of the assets of IMZ were sold and leased.
Motorcycles brand "Ural" are well known in the world market. There are several Ural owners clubs in Europe and the USA. Several "Urals" owned by the King of Jordan. In 2010, around 800 Uralov was released (in the best years, up to 30 – 50 thousands of cars a year). Now the factory employs 155 people.
PS Currently, motorcycle production in Russia has almost ceased, due to the enthusiasm of individual production units, about 2-3 thousands of motorcycles per year were produced (up to 800 thousand pieces per year were produced in the RSFSR).
OJSC "COCHETMASH" (1948 – 2009)
In 2009, one of the largest enterprises of the Central Administrative District, the Kursk-based Accounts Plant, went bankrupt.
The main reasons for the bankruptcy of an enterprise in the Industry and Energy Committee of the Kursk Region are called the confluence of tragic circumstances for “Accutmash” and its employees. From the end of last year, AvtoVAZ began to "sink", for which the Kursk plant produced car electronics. The number of orders decreased several times. In addition, the auto giant began, under various pretexts, to demand a deferment of payments for the supplied components for weeks or even months. The situation became critical when, in an effort to make life easier for small businesses, cash registers were canceled as an optional attribute of the “tray” trade. The demand for these products has fallen sharply, thus “devouring” half of the Accounts' revenue.
Part of the production capacity of "Accountsmash" bought St. Petersburg "Electrosila", but as an independent production unit, the company ceased to exist. Instead of one large production, the new owners created several small ones, most of the workers of the ex-giant Soviet electronics were forced to resign.
VORONEZH EXCAVATOR PLANT
In October, 2010 was fully repaid the wage arrears to employees of the open joint-stock company VEKS (Voronezh Excavator Plant).
In September 2006, the excavator plant was declared bankrupt by a decision of the Arbitration Court of the Voronezh Region. In his respect openly bankruptcy proceedings. However, the bankruptcy procedure of the enterprise was delayed due to the lack of a common position on the bankruptcy of the debtor’s bankruptcy.
Later, the company was obliged to repay wage arrears to employees of the company before October 12 2010, selling part of the property.
VEKS put up for auction in the form of a public auction movable property in the amount of about 70 million rubles. These are cars, machine tools, compressors and other objects.
“Sales” helped the company to finally fully pay off the salary debt to the 1091 employee in the amount of 42 million rubles.
The situation around VEKS is absolutely incomprehensible: whether it exists as an independent enterprise or not (possibly, it became a subdivision of the Kirov Plant).
PS The production of excavators in Russia now amounts to several percent of the year’s 1990 level (2 thousand units versus 25 thousand in 1990 year).
So, here are three sub-sectors in which production has fallen, including as a result of the efforts of the three presidents of Russia, to virtually zero, it is metal-cutting machines, motorcycles and excavators.
However, the industry still needs machines, construction needs excavators, and people would like to ride motorcycles. How to be?
What will be the strategy of Putin and Medvedev? Yes, here and guessing is not particularly necessary. Subsidiary units of some AgieCharmilles GF, Honda and Caterpillar with Komatsu (which are cheaply buying up the remnants of Soviet industries in parts) will be invited to the place which is carefully freed from domestic industry and will be called a rebirth of Russian industry.
PAVLOVSK TOOL WORKS (1820 – 2011)
The tool factory in the city of Pavlovo (Nizhny Novgorod Region) was founded in 1820 by the industrialist Terebin. Thanks to its location in the center of a large metalworking area and favorable sales conditions, the plant rapidly expanded. The knives that the factory produced at that time were sent to Poland, Turkey, Persia, Bukhara.
By the beginning of the 1914 war, the plant produced 67 types of knives, forks, 52 types of axes, files. He had a gold medal at the 1912 All-Slavic Exhibition of the Year.
By the end of the Soviet era, Pavlovsky Instrument Works was one of the largest manufacturers of fitting and assembly tools in the USSR, which are used to equip the automobiles of most of the country's automobile plants. In addition, the plant produced a tool for plumbing when servicing various types of equipment, when working under voltage, a tool for working in everyday life, necessary for each family.
In February 2011 of the year, PIZ was ruthlessly bankrupt (strictly speaking, the story of the bankruptcy of the plant lasted from 2004 of the year).
Here is how the newspaper “MK in Nizhny” writes about this: “... we have already talked about the collapse of PIZ, which last year could have celebrated its 190 anniversary. Now there are ruins or rented areas left from the plant. This happened after, with the introduction of the external management procedure, the former general director and bankruptcy manager removed almost all the property of the plant into affiliated commercial structures. And they recognized “PIZ” bankrupt after the claim of the company, which belonged to this bankruptcy trustee. The operatives of the Main Directorate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs for the Volga Federal District set out in detail fraudulent schemes in criminal cases. However, the perpetrators of the deliberate bankruptcy of “PIZ” were not found. ”
PS In general, the production of the machine tool industry in Russia is about 2-3 percent of the level of 1990 of the year.
MTZ "RUBIN" (1932 – 2003)
The Rubin plant was founded in 1932 year as the 2 State Automotive Repair Plant.
In December 1951 of the year on the basis of 2-th MARZ a plant No. 597 of the Ministry of Radio Engineering Industry was established, later renamed the Moscow Television Factory (MTW) of the USSR Ministry of Radio Industry.
In 1952, the serial production of industrial radio equipment began, and in October, 1953 launched the production of the first TV “North”.
In 1956, the production of Rubin TVs began, which until the end of the 80s of the last century was considered the best in the USSR.
In 1992, the Rubin MPO was divided into independent state-owned enterprises, including the Rubin Moscow Television Factory. In the same year, the state enterprise MTZ Rubin was transformed into an open joint-stock company Moscow Rubin Television Plant (OJSC MTZ Rubin). From this point on, the dying of the production of genuinely Russian TV sets begins.
In 1997, the general meeting of shareholders changed the management of the company. Decided to restructure the business. The creation of the Gorbushkin Dvor shopping center was started on the basis of the plant's production areas (the reconstruction was completed in 2003). New management was interested mainly in real estate and vast areas of the plant.
In the 1999 year, television production in the Rubin plant in Moscow, as well as the rest, was discontinued, the plant territory was finally put up for trading purposes, and the remnants of the television production were transferred to Voronezh, where TV sets were previously made "KVN" and "Record". "Record" was also produced at the Aleksandrovsky Plant (Vladimir region).
In 2001 – 2002 the Rubin brand seems to have managed to return to the domestic market.
According to the chairman of the board of directors of OAO Moscow Television Plant Rubin, Alexander Milyavsky, who later became one of the richest United Russia deputies of the Moscow City Duma, OJSC Moscow Television Plant Rubin in 2003 included TV-producing enterprises in Voronezh Videofon and the shopping center Gorbushkin Dvor in Moscow. More than 50% of the company's shares belonged to the Chairman of the Board of Directors Alexander Milyavsky through the firms controlled by him. In 2003, more than 500 thousand TV sets were released under the Rubin brand.
However, after the Voronezh plant Videofon was bought up by the Korean-Russian company Rolsen (OJSC MTZ Rubin lost its stake in 17,7% in the share capital of Videofon in 2003 year), the Rubin brand itself was also purchased by Rolsen. Thus, the production of television sets at OJSC MTZ Rubin was completely discontinued.
Rolsen Electronics exists in Russia in two ways. On the one hand, the company owns brands on the TV market: this is actually Rolsen and “Rubin”, as well as its Latin-language clone “Rubin”. On the other hand, it provides owners of other brands with contract assembly services at their facilities in Kaliningrad. Rolsen, in turn, is a subsidiary of the world-famous South Korean electronic giant LG.
Kaliningrad production "Rolsen" for the design capacity was the largest in Russia - the plant allowed to produce up to 3 million TVs per year. In February, 2007 of the year “Rolsen” completed the transfer to the territory of this favorable in terms of tax enclave production lines of the Voronezh “Videophon”, where Rubin TVs were produced.
The company, in addition to its own brands, produces equipment for LG and Sokol (under the brands Sokol and Akai), Hyundai.
As for the former territories of the Rubin plant in Moscow, at present, OJSC MTZ Rubin (Moscow) is engaged only in construction projects and real estate trading:
- on the basis of CJSC “Extract-fili”, the construction of a cultural and entertainment complex with a total area of 104,7 thousand sq. m. m and parking 42,7 thousand square meters. m;
- construction of a class B + hotel and business complex with an area of 136,6 thousand square meters. m and height to 25 floors at: st. V. Kozhina, d.1;
- the construction of a multi-storey residential complex of business class "Emerald" area 20 thousand square meters. m at the intersection of Kastanayevskaya and 2 th Filevskaya (completed in 2007 year).
The other day the Moscow television factory (MTZ) "Rubin" put up for sale the multifunctional complex "Victory Park" under construction. About this newspaper Vedomosti.
It is curious that MTZ Rubin is one of the five largest sponsors of the United Russia party, in 2009, it donated a million rubles for the needs of the ruling 47,8 party.
PS Until recently, televisions under the Rubin brand were produced (not in very large quantities) at the enterprises of the South Korean firm Rolsen (in Kaliningrad and Voronezh).
Currently, there are no actual references to Rubies on the official website of Rolsen.
All the above gives us the right to declare that Rubin, as an enterprise producing television sets (despite the continued existence of a company with the same name), has been completely destroyed.
RECORD (1957 – 1996)
Before the war, the Alexander Plant (Vladimir region) produced the first Soviet television, which was superior in quality to American RCA. It was called ATP-1. But KVN-49 is considered to be the first Soviet TV to be truly, even Stalin watched it. The name of the TV comes from the first letters of the names of its developers: Kenigson V.K., Varshavsky N.M., Nikolayevsky I.A., and “49” - the year of development. The Alexander Radio Plant (“Record”) began producing television sets from 1957 onwards.
In Soviet times, the "Record" was also produced at the Voronezh plant "Electrosignal".
In the best years, up to 500 thousand "Records" were produced per year. In the 90-ies, after a series of lawsuits, the right to the Record trademark remained with the Alexander Plant.
In 1996, the Vladimir Arbitration Court decided to recognize AOZT Record (Aleksandrov), which was part of the Aleksandrovsky Radio Engineering Plant holding, bankrupt. The company produced in the 1995 year only 16,7 thousand units (which is 14% of the year 1994 level).
R.S. In Voronezh, at the Electrosignal plant, until recently, completely domestic VELS TVs were produced, constructively going back to Records, the most popular and inexpensive televisions of the Soviet era.
Production of the “Records” in Russia was not restored. But on the site of the former Soviet enterprise in Alexandrov, the Turkish company Vestel (headquartered in Istanbul), one of the largest European manufacturers of home appliances and electronics, has extensively expanded its activities.
At a press conference preceding this event, it was announced that the company's investment in the project over the next three years will be about 15 million dollars.
The initial capacity of the plant in Aleksandrov was 600 thousand washing machines and 550 thousand refrigerators. In 2009, the production of television sets was launched at Vestel enterprises. The company plans to bring it to 1 million devices annually.
According to Enis Erdogan, President of Vestel Foreign Trade, in the future, the plant will produce the most advanced TV models, including those using Vestel's own developments in the field of 3D technologies.
PSS Thus, the end-to-end production of television sets in Russia, that is, the production of a full cycle, from design development and production of components to assembly and packaging, is virtually completely destroyed. The overwhelming majority of the TVs now produced in Russia are a screwdriver assembly at the subsidiaries of multinational corporations.
Therefore, talking about some kind of modernization in this area is simply ridiculous. An objective and honest politician must recognize that in this segment of social production as a result of the activities of the last three presidents of Russia and the current ruling party, United Russia, the country has lost its technological independence and is unable to build a chain of the full technological production cycle. In place of a full-fledged domestic industry, assembly appendages of transnational corporations appeared.
It is amusing that, apparently for political reasons, the ruling party is trying in every way to hush up or mystify the fact that in Russia there is no longer any true domestic brand of televisions being produced (the exception is, perhaps, a company of the full technological cycle “Polar ", Whose share in the domestic TV market, however, today is unlikely to exceed 4 percent).
At present, in Russia (more precisely, in the Russian segment of a globalized TNK economy) about 5 million TVs are “produced” (assembled) per year (mainly in Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Voronezh, and Aleksandrov). The main producers are the Russian divisions of LG, Samsung, Phillips, Rolsen and Sony.
In Soviet times, the full cycle of TV production in Russia: from scientific development to assembly - resulted in the production of approximately 4,8 million TV sets per year (1989). The main brands, as mentioned above, were “Ruby”, “Record”, “Temp”, “Youth”, “Electronics”, “Electron” (Lviv, Ukraine), “Photon” (Simferopol, Ukraine).
In the USSR, televisions were also produced in Belarus under the brands Horizont (Minsk) and Vityaz (Vitebsk). It is noteworthy that in Belarus it was possible to preserve the end-to-end production of the full cycle (including the scientific and design stage) and thus ensure technological independence in this segment of social production. Vityaz and Horizon together own about 5 percent of the Russian market, in which they compete quite successfully with world giants.
LIPETSK TRACTOR PLANT (1943 – 2009)
"Lipetsk Tractor" (formerly Lipetsk Tractor Plant) - one of the main enterprises of the city of Lipetsk.
The Lipetsk Tractor Plant (LTZ) was established in 1943 at the production facilities of the Stankostroy plant. In parallel, around the residential village was created Tractor. 1 June 1944 was assembled the first sample of Lipetsk crawler tractor "Kirovets-35" with a gasoline engine. Since that time, more than 1,5 million tractors have left the main conveyor.
The plant produced crawler tilled tractors KD-35, KDP-35, T-38М and wheel tractors T-40.
In the fall of 2004, the plant was declared bankrupt. It was replaced by another enterprise, the Lipetsk Tractor, which is part of the Russian machine-building concern Tractor Plants.
In 2009, the production of chassis for military equipment was separated from the structure of OJSC Lipetsk Tractor into a separate enterprise, Lipetsk Tracked Tractor Plant, which is also part of the Tractor Plants concern.
Already at the end of 2009, the plant ceased production of agricultural tractors LTZ-60, LTZ-155, as well as street-cleaning machines, loaders, welding units based on tractors, and excavators.
During 2009 – 2010 machine building and machine assembly shops did not function; only auxiliary metalworking enterprises were partially working. Some non-performing workshops were demolished, more unfinished workshops along 3 September Street were demolished.
After the acquisition of assets, the Tractor Plants concern, as its main activity, chose to lease the production premises of the plant. Thus, today there are several small private enterprises in the territory of LTZ. For example, blacksmith.
ALTAI TRACTOR PLANT (Rubtsovsk) (1942 – 2010)
Altai Tractor Plant before 1991, was one of the largest machine-building enterprises in the east of the country. He was born in the harsh military 1942 year on the basis of the evacuated equipment of the Kharkov and Stalingrad tractor plants. The pre-war Rubtsovsk was a small steppe town.
24 August 1942 - the date of birth of the plant, when the first Altai kerosene tractor brand ААХТЗ-НАТИ was assembled. So in a short time, in the most difficult conditions of wartime, the Altai Tractor Plant was built. He was the only plant in the country that produced tractors for the needs of the front and rear.
In 1956, the decision was made to organize the production of skidding tractors for the timber industry at the Altai Tractor Plant. In September, 1957 was assembled the first tractor TDT-60 for logging operations without interrupting the production of an agricultural tractor. At the World's Fair in Brussels in 1958, the car was awarded the highest award - the 1 degree and the Golden Grand Prix.
Under the Soviet regime, the ATZ produced up to 30 thousands of tractors per year.
In 2006 – 2009, the plant went bankrupt. The owner of the Altai Tractor Plant "Altrak" - Novosibirsk "RATM-Holding" has pledged to fully repay salary arrears to employees of the enterprise.
From 2009 to the present, the production of tractors at the Altai plant was not restored.
"Altrak" is the main enterprise of Rubtsovsk. The plant still counts several thousand residents, the former Alttraka Thermal Power Plant provides two thirds of its citizens with heat and hot water.
There is information that the owner decided to resume production by re-profiling the tractor plant to produce welding machines and agricultural equipment of new models.
PS The production of tractors in Russia, if not completely destroyed, then fell tenfold. In 2009 – 2010 on average, around 3 – 4 thousands of tractors per year were produced. In Soviet times, the production of all types of tractors in Russia was close to 230 thousands of units per year.
SHIPBUILDING PLANT AVANGARD (Petrozavodsk) (1939 – 2010)
“Today it is already possible to state the fact that the famous plant, known not only in Karelia, but also abroad, which is included in the list of strategic enterprises of Russia, practically does not exist. Only the name and 17 employees remain, five of whom are workers who fulfill the last defense-related obligations to the customer - the Ministry of Defense of the country. In the best of times, more than two thousand professionals worked at Avangard, which produced mine-sweepers, and the plant was known for its reliable labor dynasties.
There is an unusual silence on the huge factory territory. Already the former production areas of the enterprise do not belong, everything gradually disperses in the hands of others. Avangard Pier also lost, he did not have a single warehouse. Most of the employees moved to the Onega Shipyard. But there, too, as it turns out, everything is not smooth. They hit the fanfare, solemnly launched the dry cargo ship Karelia, coinciding with the 90 anniversary of the republic, and now employees are offered to go to work in other cities, laying a new ship in Petrozavodsk is not planned.
“We have appealed to all instances,” says Elena Eremeeva, chairman of the Avangard trade union committee. - They asked the sectoral ministry: do we need our factory? They sent us the answer: Avangard is a strategic enterprise, and it must be preserved. But who will do this, if the bankruptcy proceedings still can not enter? Total accounts payable is more than three hundred million rubles. Even if they sell the property, it will not be possible to repay all debts. ”
Avangard Shipyard includes two enterprises: Avangard Shipbuilding Plant OJSC (military and civil shipbuilding, ship repair, heat generation, repair and modernization of railway equipment and cars) and Avangard Company LLC (machine-tool construction, metalworking, metal production designs). In 2004, by the decision of the government of the Russian Federation, Avangard was appointed the only contractor in the country for the construction and repair of the base minesweepers of the 12650 project.
In 2010, the plant was declared bankrupt, the buildings sold out for debt.
HC DALZAVOD OJSC (VLADIVOSTOK) (1895 – 2009)
OJSC Holding Company Dalzavod, the largest ship repair enterprise in the Far East, has three dry docks with an area of more than 7 thousand square meters. meters each. 20% of Dalzavod shares are contributed to the authorized capital of Far East Shipbuilding and Ship Repair Center OJSC, which is a subsidiary of United Shipbuilding Corporation OJSC.
Dalzavod - the largest repair base in the Pacific fleet Russia, one of two Russian shipyards standing at ice-free harbors.
“At the very end of 2009, the largest ship-repair enterprise of Primorye - Dalzavod OJSC HC Dalzavod completely ceased operations. December 31 was the last working day at the once leading enterprise of the domestic ship repair.
In connection with the liquidation of the enterprise, nearly a thousand people from 1165 employees working on it in recent months were laid off and joined the ranks of the unemployed in Vladivostok. Only 150 people were detained - accountants, accountants, personnel department personnel and security guards, who would be involved in the process of complete liquidation of production for some time.
According to Nikolai Bomko, chairman of the primary trade union committee of Dalzavod, approximately 400 is planned to be a man from the dismissed dalzavodchan: hullmen, pipeline workers, diesel operators, welders, a number of engineering and technical personnel will receive Dalzavod OJSC. This society is also engaged in ship repair, including the military. In particular, it was planned to put on repair two warships of the Pacific Fleet - the BOD Admiral Panteleyev and the Varyag guards missile cruiser. “Small” Dalzavod, as the employees themselves call it, owns part of the technological facilities that were previously owned by OJSC HC Dalzavod, in particular the floating dock and dry dock number 2, which is located in the Dalzavod area in the Lugovoy area. A dry dock number 3 is also used on lease, which is located near the Dalzavod stop.
Today, in one of the former Dalzavod workshops, the auto production company Sollers is deployed. This largely political project is directly related to the “car confrontation” between the federal center and the Far Eastern suburbs. Dalzavod veterans call it a seemingly good undertaking "total lawlessness": "Currently, the process equipment and equipment are being dismantled in the main building workshop (CDC) by Sollers for car assembly. The workshop, built according to new projects, 40 meters in height, with lifting equipment at 50 t, unique equipment for the manufacture of hulls of any vessels, all this is scrapped ... And most importantly, the dismissal of workers of the factory of pre-retirement and retirement age, having experience in the shipbuilding industry, will only cause damage to the military ship repair - they have not prepared young specialists in this field. ”
At the very end of 2010, what was left of the plant seemed to be purchased by USC, the United Shipbuilding Corporation, which was established in 2007 to buy the remaining shipbuilding and includes the majority of the surviving shipbuilding enterprises in Russia. On this, the history of the once famous factory finally plunges into the darkness of the unknown. In any case, there are no actual references to OJSC HC Dalzavod on the USC website.
PS Is it not surprising? In Medvedev-Putin Russia, it turns out, those enterprises that are recognized as strategic (both the shipbuilding enterprises described above were on the list of strategic ones) are famously bankrupt.
And all this is happening not in the dashing 90-s, but at the turn of the “fat” zero shift, when the country was choking with oil and gas money, for the upcoming 10-e for bravura and pompous speeches and no less abundant toasts and toasts in honor of modernization .
The cynicism of tandemocrats is simply frightening. After all, for example, to save Dalzavod a total of ridiculous by the standards of the Russian oil industry was needed - about 0,5 billion rubles (for comparison: in 2010, the currency revenue of the Russian oil industry was at least 200 billion dollars, that is, about 6 trillion rubles) .
In general, the shipbuilding industry in Russia, especially its civilian part, is in an extremely depressed state. The total production of ships is unlikely to reach 10 – 15 percent of the year’s 1990 level.
VEGA Software (BERDSK, NOVOSIBIRSK REGION) (1946 – 1999)
Under the most difficult conditions of the post-war period, October 14 1946, the Berdsky radio plant was established. In September, the 1947 plant launched the first batch of Record-46 radios. Due to the talent of managers and specialists, creative and selfless work of the entire RHL team, in a short time, developed and mastered a wide range (more than 20 titles) of the latest radio engineering, overtaking the advanced radio plants of the USSR. The most effective period of development of BRZ was the time when Alexander Nikolaevich Shkulov worked as a director (from 1965 to 1986 a year). In 1985, the BRZ was transformed into Vega, and in the same year, the plant became the leading enterprise of the Soviet radio industry for the development of new technology and was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor. Products BRZ won at many exhibitions abroad, was sold in Europe, Africa, Turkey, England, Iran, Vietnam. Production was cooperated with hundreds of enterprises of the USSR and the CMEA countries.
In 1986, the management of the VEGA software was adopted by Ivan Nikitich Palagin, who successfully passed all steps of the career ladder at the plant and saw in privatization the way to collapse. After three years, the company goes to full cost accounting and self-sufficiency. October 10 1991 of the Year The 12-thousand-strong team of the Vega software team celebrates its 45 anniversary with significant success, with caution perceiving the restructuring. Outlines big plans for the development of production, including the manufacture of laser digital players, the release of computers and other complex products in cooperation with enterprises in Japan and Korea. The mood of the team was very optimistic.
From 1979 to 1985, the RZA produced “Vega-115” stereos and a combined “Vega-117” device. They used electric power plants (EPU) of Polish production, a tape drive mechanism (LPM) - Hungarian, an amplifier, a VHF unit, acoustic systems of its own production.
Products of the late period: “Vega-MP120”, “Vega-U120”, “Vega-335”, “Vega-338”, “Vega-250”, “Vega-252” ',' Vega-M410C ',' 'Vega-420C' mini-tape recorders, '' 'Vega-P410' 'player, various stereo phones,' 'Vega-Mp122' 'tape recorder and laser player' 'Vega -PKD122С '', as well as many other models are widely known not only in the USSR, but also abroad, as the plant’s products were exported to 26 countries of the world.
The number of products was estimated in millions. For example, only products of the “Record” brand by September 1979 of the year 15 was released millions of copies.
The Soviet tape recorders, of course, were somewhat inferior to the Japanese in the reliability of the tape drive mechanism, but in the period from 1985 to 1990, the year in the USSR was a real breakthrough in consumer electronics. Appeared images of the brands "Olympus", "Mayak", "Electronics", "Ilet", "Spring", "Saturn", "Jupiter", "Union", "Orbit" ("Jupiter", "Mayaki" and "Olympus" produced in Kiev, "Spring" - in Zaporozhye, "Saturn" - in Omsk, "Electronics" - in Zelenograd at dual-use enterprises, now those of these enterprises who managed to survive do not produce recording and listening or viewing devices. - Ed .) could and to date on the quality of the reproduced sound give odds to existing laser reading systems.
Amplifiers "Radio Engineering", "Vega", "Odyssey" sounded just great. Some of the samples listed functioned in the reproducible frequency range from 10 to 24000 Hz. The high-end tape recorders each had four non-wearing heads and a reverse mechanism.
Such was the contribution of the military-industrial complex to the production of consumer goods.
But 1993 year was the last relatively successful year of the plant. In October, the PO is incorporated. And then there is a law that increases social security contributions, up to 45% tax on profits from sales. This led to the fact that the products of Russian enterprises became unprofitable. 1994 is the year of scandals in the Vega team over privatization. In 1995, output declined 10 times. The team was sent on a two-month leave without maintenance, and then began a massive reduction. 28 January 1998 of the year “Vegu” declared bankrupt. And in 1999, the company ceased to exist - it was excluded from the registry. On the place of the BRZ remained the territory and buildings, but nothing from high-tech, high-tech production. Workers have lost material stability, life guidelines, and Berdsk - world fame, a symbol of pride, economic potential and technological progress.
PS As you can easily see, a high-tech enterprise that is progressive in all respects, rushing into the future, an enterprise that is ready to master new types of products was literally crushed by erroneous, more precisely, criminal macroeconomic decisions. Naturally, neither Yeltsin nor his prime ministers were responsible for this. The blame was placed on the enterprise itself, which, as usual, was declared a loser, unable to withstand market competition.
As a result, for the Russian radio-electronic industry, which by the middle of 80-s of the last century had reached a technological level comparable to Western competitors and which, with minimal support, could easily start producing its own dvd, mp3 and mobile phones almost at the same time (perhaps, 1 – 2 a year later ) with foreign competitors, the fifteenth anniversary of the reforms (1992 – 2007) with the macroeconomic decisions made at that time was fatal.
During these fifteen years, instead of saving high-tech sectors with a huge scientific and engineering background, Russia built pompous pipelines and tried on the clothes of the hydrocarbon superpower. Time was hopelessly lost.
Successive, illiterate in the economic field presidents and equally illiterate prime ministers and vice-premiers in the heat of the market did not even try to support domestic radio electronics (the exception, perhaps, is only S. B. Ivanov, who is still trying to do something in this area ). As a result, this industry in Russia in the segment of recording and listening or viewing devices (this is the most significant segment of the industry in terms of mass character of consumption) almost died.
Currently in Russia there are not any completely domestic brand of tape recorders, laser players, d vd or mp 3-players and other recording and listening (viewing) devices produced in any significant quantities, mobile and landline phones are not produced, and the radio-electronic industry mass consumption is again represented by the assembly units of transnational corporations.
Almost the entire Russian market of recording and listening devices belongs to 7 – 9 to the world giants: iRiver, Samsung, JVC, Pioneer, Phillips, Panasonic, Apple, Sony and NEXX, and in the field of mobile telephony (due to the technological convergence of mobile phones with recording and listening devices) competition is expected to intensify in this market segment) Sony, Nokia, Motorolla and Samsung reign supreme.
The only exception, the company, which with reservations and to some extent can be considered a Russian manufacturer of high-tech radio electronics for mass consumption, is St. Petersburg "Alkotel" (teXet), whose share in the Russian market in the segments of DECT-phones (about 25 percent) and wired (stationary a) phones and players (about 14 percent), the most successful segments for the company, can be rated as weighty.
“At the same time, however, almost all the“ iron ”itself is produced in factories in China, where it is purchased. Mostly in factories owned by two Hong Kong companies: Vtech Communication and Suncorp, Ltd., which produce all the phones under the brand teXet. The same plants serve Panasonic, Philips, AEG, Audioline, T-Com, British Telecom, AT & T and other large companies. The only production process at Alkotel is the assembly of several models of players in the former building of the Scientific-Research Institute of Electronic Instruments, which was once purchased for a production site ”(http://muswave.ru/taxsas539sx/raz/).
In other words, domestic in this case are primarily a trademark and proper management. The company has R & D units, but it is quite difficult to objectively assess their independence and level.
SARATOVSKY AVIATION FACTORY (SAZ) (1931–2010)
Saratov Aviation Plant (SAZ) is an aircraft manufacturing company located in Saratov, right up until the actual liquidation of the plant in 2010. The OKB Yakovlev planes were made here - the legendary fighters of the Great Patriotic War Yak-1 and Yak-3, passenger Yak-40, Yak-42, deck aircraft with vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Yak-38, aircraft and helicopters of other design bureaus.
In 1929, a decision was made to establish an agricultural machinery manufacturing plant in Saratov. On the basis of this production and was subsequently established aircraft factory. Officially, the year of birth of the Saratov combine plant, and then the Saratov Aviation Plant is considered to be 1931 year.
Due to the threat of a military attack on the USSR in 1937, the Saratov combine factory was reoriented to the production of aircraft.
October 28 1938 from the airfield of the plant took off the first aircraft - high-speed reconnaissance P-10, which had a solid for those times for aircraft of its class speed in 370 km / h.
In June, 1940 was entrusted with the plant in three months to master the serial production created by the young aircraft designer A.S. Yakovlev fighter Yak-1. In October, the 1940 first three Yak aircraft flew.
Since the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, the Saratov aircraft manufacturers worked hard, supplying fighters to the front. In 1943, German bombers destroyed 70% of production area during a night raid. The team of the plant continued to work in the open. At the same time, the hulls were restored, reconstruction was in progress, flow-conveyor lines were created, and after 80 days of hard work, the aircraft production reached the previous level. In total, during the war, the plant produced over 13 thousands of Yak-1 and Yak-3 fighters.
After the war, the cooperation of the Saratov Aviation Plant and the Yakovlev Design Bureau continued. 19 On April 1946, the first Yak-11 training aircraft was tested.
The 28 of May, the 1952 of the Mi-4 helicopter designed by Mikhail Mil's design bureau passed control tests of the plant, and since December of the same year the plant began mass production of this helicopter. Mi-4 was widely used in the national economy of the USSR as a passenger, sanitary, for extinguishing forest fires, for work in the Arctic and Antarctic. The Mi-4 has set 7 world records. At the World Exhibition in Brussels, this helicopter was awarded a gold medal.
From 1967, the company began producing the Yak-40 passenger aircraft, and from 1978, the Yak-42 (in conjunction with the Smolensk aircraft plant). Over the period 1967 – 1981, the 1011 of the Yak-40 aircraft was launched, 115 of them were delivered to 19 countries of the world. At the end of the 1970-x plant produced annually around the 100 Yak-40 aircraft, at the beginning of the 1980-x - more than 15 Yak-42. In total, the 2003 of the Yak-172 and the Yak-42D were produced at the 42 plant.
Between 1974 and 1989 the plant produced more than 200 ground-based attack aircraft Yak-38 (the first in the USSR serial VTOL - vertical take-off and landing aircraft).
Since 1990-x plant is in a state of crisis, the number of employees has decreased several times. The last Yak-42 aircraft was delivered to the customer in 2003 year. Then the aircraft production was actually stopped, the plant was mainly engaged in the repair and maintenance of previously produced aircraft, the production of spare parts, and the repair of units.
In 2009 – 2010, more than half of the plant’s territory was sold with enclosures and equipment. In this area, as of 2011, there is a pit for the construction of an IKEA store. The buildings, the central entrance of the plant, warehouses were demolished, the unique equipment was sold out or scrapped. The remaining half of the plant is empty and cut off from communications. The equipment is sold or scrapped. The fuselage of the unfinished aircraft cut and put into scrap metal. In the assembly shop there is one canned Yak-38 aircraft, one Yak-42D (they will never take off), an EKIP unit.
In 2010, the plant practically ceased to exist, the bankruptcy procedure was resumed. From the once-30-thousandth team left about 200 people. The airfield "Saratov-Yuzhny" is closed, its territory is for sale. Practically all the hangars and the runway were dismantled, the guards were almost completely removed, as a result of which almost all factory property was looted. Unique documents, photos and video archive disappear in dilapidated buildings.
In 2011, the Saratov Aviation Plant would have turned 80 years.
Commentary: The situation is not much better on other Russian largest aircraft manufacturers: the Voronezh Aviation Aircraft Building Society (which produced ILA in Soviet times) and the Kazan Aviation Plant named after A.Ya. S.P. Gorbunov and Samara "Aviakore" (specializing in the production of aircraft under the brand name "Tu"), collected last year two or three civil aircraft. For example, Aviakor (formerly Kuibyshev license factory number 18), which gathered 20 of the last Soviet years over 1000 Tu-154, which formed the basis of Soviet civil aviation, produced 1999 aircraft in 2006 – 5 years.
Despite (and perhaps due to a poorly thought-out attempt to consolidate, in a single whole, very diverse enterprises and completely different design schools), the creation of V.V. Putin in 2006, the United Aircraft Building Company (which included the overwhelming majority of Russian aircraft manufacturers) in 2010, failed to establish a large-scale production of aviation equipment.
“United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) in 2010, delivered seven civil aircraft to customers, six of which bought Russian government agencies. Four An-148 were received by the state-owned Rossiya airline, one each by the Tu-204 - VTB-Leasing and the North Korean AIR Koryo. Another Tu-214 was put to the Presidential Administration of the Russian Federation.
In 2009, UAC supplied civil aircraft to 14 airlines, and in 2008, 9 machines.
In total, in the 2010 year, UAC delivered 75 aircraft to customers, of which only seven civilians (the total number also includes small and sports aircraft). ”
It is curious that while top officials continue, shamelessly, how to put it mildly, inspired to lie.
So at the very end of 2010, when potential potential production volumes for the near future were already clear, Russian Deputy Prime Minister V. Khristenko stated in his report to the State Duma: “In the period from 2010 to 2012, the United Aircraft Building Corporation (UAC) plans launch 165 civil aircraft of various types. KLA's main aircraft will launch 54 stuff. Among them are 38 liners Tu-204, ten Tu-214 and six IL-96. Also in the period designated by the Minister in Russia 72 regional aircraft Superjet 100 and 39 An-148 will be assembled. ”
At the end of the 80 of the last century, more than 100 civil aircraft were produced in the RSFSR annually.
FSUE "OMSK TRANSPORT MACHINE BUILDING PLANT" (1896 – 2009)
The state unitary enterprise "Omsk Transport Engineering Plant" was a specialized tank an enterprise having a closed technological cycle of tank production.
It was formed in 1896 as a railway workshop. In 2000, transformed into the State Unitary Enterprise "Omsktransmash".
The enterprise is located on the territory of Western Siberia, which has its advantages, since it is located at the intersection of main highways and railway lines (the Far East, the Ural region, the Central region, etc.).
The main activity: production and repair of T-80 type tanks.
In addition, the company carried out the production of civilian products and consumer goods: wheeled tractors with power 60 and 80 hp. with rear-wheel drive and all-wheel drive and more 30 types of engineering equipment based on wheeled tractors (excavators with a bucket 0,28 cubic meters, loaders-excavators PEF-1B, loaders front PF-1, snow machines, trenchers, drilling equipment, etc.). Created capacity can provide annual output up to 3000 units. the specified technology; small washing machines Om-1,5 and Om-2,0 with possible annual output up to 200 000 units. in year;
Omsktransmash was one of the main tank manufacturers in the USSR and Russia and one of the largest machine-building enterprises in Siberia. In the best years it worked up to 25 000 people.
In 2007, the first part of the Omsktransmash property (mainly for defense purposes) in 2007 – 2008 was bought by the FSUE KB transport engineering (now KBTM OJSC). In 2009, the remaining property of the plant was purchased by ChTZ-Uraltrak, although the legality of that transaction was repeatedly challenged in court.
KBTM redeemed for 707 million rubles at the 83 competition of the building, 397 facilities, 620 transfer devices and 15 202 equipment and inventory, which accounted for about 80% of the assets of the bankrupt Omsktransmash. Plans for the coming years were announced: to launch production of small series railway cars at the Omsk site in order to reach production volumes of 2010 billion rubles by 4 in the year.
ChTZ bought 69 buildings and 42 facilities, 2232 units of equipment, inventory and vehicles. Then Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant (CTZ) created Omsktransmash LLC and rented space at the Omsk plant to start the production of wheeled tractors (engineering machines) and bring it to the volumes of 80-100 machines per month by the end of 2008 of the year.
Theoretically, the de jure FSUE "Omsktransmash" exists to this day. However, it is now part of two other enterprises, which allows us to speak about the destruction of the defense industry giant as a whole. De facto, the production at Omsktransmash has decreased by several times and the present time is barely warm, supported by the efforts of factory enthusiasts.
CHELYABINSKI WATCH “LIGHTNING” PLANT (1947 – 2009)
The Chelyabinsk Watch Factory produced watches of the “Lightning” brand widely known in the USSR, as well as some special products for the army (watches for airplanes and helicopters).
At the beginning of 2000, the plant was in a situation of bankruptcy for a long time. In 2010, the production of almost all types of watches in Chelyabinsk was discontinued. The legal entity “CHCZ” remaining from the plant is going to start production of denim and clothing.
UGLICH WATCH “CHAYKA” FACTORY (1938 – 2009)
Preparations for the construction of a precision technical stones plant began in 1937. Construction began in 1938. Installation of the plant is completed in 1942 year. Initially, the plant produced watch stones from corundum and ruby. In 1950, a conveyor was assembled to assemble the Zvezda watch from parts of the Penza watch factory. Since 1954, the plant is called Uglich watch. He specialized in the production of watches, stones for the watch industry and corundum needles for players. Before 1959, the Zvezda watch was produced, and with the 1959, the Volga women's watch.
Later, men's and women's watches were produced under the “Chaika” brand. Since spring 2006, the plant has suspended the mass production of watches. At this time, specializes in the production of gold and silver women's and men's watches. In 2009, the owners of the company, burdened with multimillion-dollar debts, expressed their readiness to sell it for a symbolic price of one penny.
PENZA WATCH FACTORY (ZARYA LLC) (1935 – 1999)
The Penza Watch Factory (Zarya LLC) was established in 1935 by order of the USSR Government on the production of women's watches in Penza based on the Frunze Plant. The plant was built in record time, and candidates for new watchmakers gained production experience from Moscow masters. The managers were trained in the French factory LIP. In 1980-s, the hundred millionth watch of the Penza watch factory was released, among which export amounted to half. In 1999, the plant was declared bankrupt and could not “rise”.
SECOND MOSCOW WATCH FACTORY "GLORY" (1924 – 2006)
The production of the Slava watch began in 1924, the Moscow Second Watch Factory. Watches “Glory” is a brand of classic design watches, initially focused on accessibility to the majority. In the second half of the 1950-x appeared a line of women's watches. Later, under this name, mechanical and quartz watches, alarm clocks, pocket watches and wall clocks are produced.
In 2005, the plant and the Slava trademark were acquired by a private company.
In 2006, most of the premises of the Slava plant (Moscow, Leningradskoye shosse, the owner were given for the construction of an office center.
CHISTOPOL WATCH VOSTOK FACTORY (1941 – 2010)
The Chistopol watch factory "Vostok" is located in the city of Chistopol, the Republic of Tatarstan. Its history dates back to autumn 1941. In November, the first barges with equipment and 500 workers of the 2 Moscow Watch Factory, evacuated to Chistopol, arrived there. In the spring of 1942, ČChZ began the serial production of military watchmaking devices, and by July 1 it began working at full capacity. The enterprise was created as a number factory, working for the needs of the front. But since February 1943, following the order of the People's Commissariat of mortar weapons, the plant began to produce peaceful products. It was the first in the country men's wrist watches "Kirov".
Since 1965, CZhZ has become the official supplier of watches for the USSR Ministry of Defense. At this time, the famous “Commander” watches, characterized by increased durability and waterproof case, were created. The experience of developing these watches allowed to manufacture Amphibian watches with increased water resistance - 1967 meters in 200.
From 1969, all wrist watches of the plant are produced under the single brand "Vostok", and the company became known as the Chistopol Watch Factory "Vostok".
In 1990-ies CHCZ continued to manufacture watches, significantly expanding the range of products. Large batches of watches were exported to Italy, USA, Switzerland. In the USA, the “Desert Storm” watch was the most popular. The factory also produced watches for cars.
He was one of two Russian watch factories (the second plant - “Flight”), which has a full production cycle.
In September, 2010 was declared bankrupt, but the production of watches is still ongoing.
“NOT EVERYONE can afford its own watch industry. For example, from the G8 countries, the United States, Canada, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom do not have it. 15 years ago, our country was one of the three leaders in the global watch market, controlling a tenth of it. 50 million hours per year were produced in the USSR, one third of the production was exported.
Soviet chronometers had the best price-quality ratio in the world. In 1965, the East 2809 wristwatches won a large gold medal at the prestigious Leipzig international exhibition. Foreigners were amazed to the depths of their lives by the fact that, by Western standards, an "elite" device was produced in the USSR in mass circulation and cost a few dollars.
Low cost devices combined with reliability. In preparation for Operation Desert Storm, the Pentagon, which selected dozens of suppliers, bought X-NUMX hours of “Commander” hours for American soldiers
Barnaul plant "Vostok". Tests have shown that, in contrast to the "gentle" Swiss and Japanese mechanisms, they perfectly tolerate the extreme conditions of the desert.
It is not surprising that even the Swiss watchmakers did not consider it shameful to use our movements in their products. They "dressed" them in corps with a modern design and sold ten times more expensive than Vostok, Raket and Buranov of Soviet production.
Watch exports bring China 6 billion dollars a year ... Switzerland, which sells 25 million hours, earns them 10 billion euros. ”
Source: http://forum.watch.ru/archive/index.php/t-3896.html (26.07.2006)
“When the dead man is in the house, the clock is stopped. When the economy dies in the country, watch factories stop. So it happened in the stormy 90 of the last century.
One after another, the famous Soviet watch brands ordered to live long: "Glory" (Second Moscow Watch Factory), "Zarya" (Penza Watch Factory), "Chaika" (Uglich Watch Factory), "Lightning" (Chelyabinsk Watch Factory). Bankrupt, under the guise, they were taken apart on cogs "Raketa" (Petrodvorets Watch Factory) - the new owners needed not an enterprise, but the land on which it was located ... What then formed on the site of these watch giants sometimes still exists to this day. These are small watch companies with up to one hundred employees and mostly expensive luxury luxury watches produced in purchased cases in gold cases, collected by watchmakers themselves, “on the knee,” that is, practically by hand. ”
Source: http://info.tatcenter.ru/article/79661/ (02.11.2009)
“Once in the USSR 50 million hours per year were produced, a third was exported.
In 2000, the factory in Petrodvorets, which produced the Rocket watch, was declared bankrupt. In 2006, the Uglich “Seagull” went bankrupt, the Rostov Watch Factory was liquidated. Orlovsky "Yantar" retained only the production of souvenir "moves" from imported components. A shopping and entertainment center was built on the site of the Chelyabinsk Lightning. The Moscow Second Slava Watch Factory ceased to exist.
Source: http://www.chaspik.spb.ru/russian/chasovoy-zavod-vostok-mogut-priznat-bankrotom/#ixzz1V0bIUv5m "(23.04.2010)
“Unnoticed in the country, the watch industry died. Chelyabinsk Watch Factory ("Lightning") is closed. The factory in Uglich, where the Chaika watch was manufactured, was closed. The Chistopol Watch Factory (Vostok) has been declared bankrupt, but it still sells mechanisms. The workshops of the Second Watch Factory in Moscow (“Glory”) at the very beginning of the Leningradsky Prospect for several years now stand idle and without glory, the building is about to be demolished. On the facade is still hanging a couple of clocks. They show different times.
Of the former greatness of the country, the First Watch Factory remained in the area of the Peasant Zastava; however, it remained - this is loudly said. In the past, the factory’s production workshops occupied a block between Marxist and Vorontsovskaya streets. In the best years, about 8 thousand people worked in watchmaking. Today the lion's share of the premises is sold or rented as offices. The production of watches left 400 with a small square meters, and works all 60 staff engaged in the assembly of expensive executive class watches.
Source: “Leaving Nature: First Moscow Watch Factory”, V. Bykov
http://www.afisha.ru/article/first-clock-factory/ (25 июля 2011 г.)
“EFG” comment: It would not be an exaggeration to say that under presidents Yeltsin, Putin and Medvedev, the watch industry in Russia (by the way, always considered to be one of the most high-tech industries) was completely destroyed. At the same time, neither pathetic Medvedev, nor penetrating and brutal Putin in 1999 – 2011 did not consider it necessary to take at least minimal steps in order to support thousands of enterprises of the most important industry afloat. But they talked a lot and continue to talk with taste, really, with aspiration to talk about modernization and various agencies of strategic initiatives.
In the 1990 year in Russia, according to the State Statistics Committee of the RSFSR, about 60 million hours were produced. Currently, the production of watches in Russia has decreased by 100 times; Some types of special and representative (very expensive watches mainly made of precious metals and stones) are produced in small series up to 3 – 5 thousand pieces, in some already de facto non-existing enterprises, the enthusiast also supports the piece and small-scale production of once famous brands, an impressive watch market in Russia, 98 percent is occupied by imports from China and Switzerland.
Moscow Machine-Tool Plant them. Sergo Ordzhonikidze (1932 – 2007)
Moscow Machine-Tool Plant them. Sergo Ordzhonikidze - a large enterprise machine tool industry of the USSR. Produced automatic lines on which parts were processed with an accuracy of a few microns. One of the firstborn machine tools USSR. Entered into operation in 1932 year. For the first 10 years, I mastered the production of 48 machine sizes.
In October, 1941 was evacuated to the Urals, the rest of the workers manufactured products for the front. In 1942, upon returning from evacuation, was restored; continuing to work for the needs of defense, was preparing to release machines. With 1946, the plant began to produce modular machines, and then to create automatic lines on their base. In 1947, the first multi-spindle automatic lathes of the original design of the model 1А225-6 for bars with a diameter up to 25 mm were released.
For 1966 – 1973 mastered the production of large systems of automatic lines for the processing of cylinder blocks and heads of automobile and tractor engines. Production of the plant is highly appreciated at international exhibitions and fairs. Thus, in 1958, the automatic shaft processing section MP107 received the Grand Prix medal at the World Exhibition in Brussels.
In 1967, at the Leipzig Fair, the automatic line 1Л191 for processing the brackets of the tractor of the Volgograd Tractor Plant was awarded a medal. Machines with the brand of the plant were exported to the socialist and capitalist countries. The plant was one of the leading manufacturers of advanced equipment in the country - a range of numerically controlled machine tools, an automatic control system, and adaptive control.
“... OJSC“ Moscow Machine-Tool Plant named after Sergo Ordzhonikidze ”(ZIO) for several years does not correspond to its name. The company does not produce machine tools and any other engineering products, and the main income comes from the lease of the territory and production premises. Currently, there are several car-service stations on the territory of the enterprise, one of the production buildings is rented by the Sportmaster sports store chain (a stock store), the other is the head office of the Interbank Association (IBO) Orgbank, and the third shows De la Guarda. Despite such active leasing activity, last year ZIO's revenues amounted to only 111,8 million rubles, and its net profit - 98 thousand rubles. The controlling stake in the company (62%) belongs to Invest-Service (LLC) and its affiliates. ”
(August 2005 g.)
Machine Tool Plant "Sverdlov" (1868 – 2005)
The Sverdlov Machine-Tool Plant (the Ya.M. Sverdlov Machine-Tool Production Association, the Phoenix Machine-Building Plant) was previously one of the largest enterprises in St. Petersburg with a long history.
The plant was founded in 1868 by the Englishman J. Mürged (before 1878 was located on Vasilyevsky Island), in 1886 he passed on to his sons, who formed the Fenix engineering plant. In 1860 – 1880's the plant repaired industrial equipment, manufactured machine parts for textile, paper and sugar factories, later assembled imported machines and machines, then started its own production of steam engines, cranes, cutting presses, metalworking machines, in 1914 – 1917. released ammunition.
In 1919, the plant was nationalized; in 1922, it was named after Ya.M. Sverdlov, during the Civil War was mothballed. After 1925, the production of machines of previously developed types was resumed and the development of new ones started. Many of the machines created at the plant were transferred for mass production to other enterprises. In the fall and winter of 1941, the plant fired shells, then production was discontinued until 1944. In the postwar years, the production of metal-cutting machines of its own designs (horizontal boring, coordinate boring, copy milling, type "machining center", etc.). In 1962, on the basis of the plant, a Machine Tool Building Association was established.
In 2003, a bankruptcy procedure was initiated against the company.
In 2005, the Phoenix business center was opened in the administrative building of the bankrupt plant.
STANKOMASH, Chelyabinsk (1935 – 2009)
Chelyabinsk "Stankomash" - in the past, the largest machine tool company in the Urals.
The decision to build the plant was made in the distant 1930 year. One of the shock constructions of that time was the special mechanical plant No. 78 in Chelyabinsk, created in the structure of the sludge trust of the Supreme Soviet of the National Economy (VSNH) of the USSR. The development of industry also required a significant increase in the machine park. The main purpose of the future Chelyabinsk enterprise was to provide the Red Army with modern weaponsand also in equipping the country's military factories with new machine tools.
The Great Patriotic War made major changes in the activities of the plant. Production of civilian products (machine tool) was temporarily suspended. On the territory of Plant No. 78, another armored plant No. 200 was created from the evacuated plants. During the war years it was the only factory in the USSR that manufactured armored corps for heavy tanks and self-propelled artillery shells. Next to the plant number 200, the Chelyabinsk Tractor Works worked in full force, ready-made tanks emerged from the gates of which. ChTZ, plant number 200 and ZEM became the legendary Tankograd and armor protection of the Fatherland.
After the end of World War II, military production did not stop. The production of civilian products and consumer goods was restored and developed further.
By the beginning of the 20th century, products for the country's fuel and energy complex became the mainstream in the civilian sector: oil and gas and mining equipment.
By order of the Government of the Russian Federation in 1999, the enterprise was awarded the status of a federal research and production center. Federal Research and Production Center “Stankomash” is the leading developer and the only producer in the country of means for overcoming minefields.
Overcoming minefields and mined areas of land, mine clearance is one of the pressing problems of our time. In the armies of the leading countries of the world, mining systems continue to improve, and qualitatively new engineering munitions are being developed and put into service, including for the destruction of armored vehicles. The arsenal of anti-tank mines of the classical principles of action remains. Large areas explosive mined during armed conflicts remain explosive.
The armored vehicles of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and the armies of the CIS countries were equipped with means for overcoming minefields created by JSC “Federal Research and Production Center“ Stankomash ”. They are exported for armies over 10 countries of the world. They were successfully used in hostilities in Afghanistan, the Chechen Republic, during peacekeeping operations in Transnistria, Abkhazia, Bosnia and other areas of local military conflicts.
Special attention should be paid to the long-term cooperation with the Tula Federal State Unitary Enterprise “SNPP“ Splav ”in the manufacture and supply of buildings of complexes of Smerch multiple-launch rocket systems. In the years of the Great Patriotic War, the BM “Katyusha” was the firstborn of a volley fire system. At plant No. 78, shell shells and guide starting rails were manufactured. MLRS "Smerch" and BM- "Katyusha" multiple rocket systems. This is a roll call of time, generations, designers and manufacturers.
Source: one of the sites of the plant
(beginning of 2000's)
“Governor Mikhail Yuryevich visited the shops of Federal Research and Production Center Stankomash. Now this Chelyabinsk enterprise, belonging to the military-industrial complex, is experiencing hard times, going through bankruptcy proceedings. Only a tenth of the former staff of workers (20 thousand people) remained at Stankomash, many production sites were sold or leased. After examining the territory of the joint-stock company, the head of the region concluded: at the plant with 75-year history, which produced shells and mine sweeps, it is possible to organize a modern technology park. It is possible that a research and production cluster for mechanical engineering will be created on the free areas of Stankomash, within which various enterprises will operate. ”
Over the past few months since the introduction of external control at Stanokmash, the situation has not improved, production is barely warm.
Ryazan Machine-Tool Plant (1949 – 2008)
Ryazan Machine Tool Plant was founded in 1949 year, covers an area of 52 hectare.
In 70 – 80-ies, the plant's product range consisted mainly of general-purpose machines - universal screw-cutting machines with manual control and CNC lathes with machining diameters from 630 to 1000 mm. An insignificant share was made up of special machines of the original design - roll-turning machines for the metallurgical industry, machines for deep drilling and honing, automatic lines for machining graphite parts for electrometallurgy, as well as special machines for various purposes, developed on the basis of serial machines.
Since the founding of the RSZ, more than 150 thousand machine tools weighing up to 130 tons have been manufactured, which are used in 80 countries of the world.
“By the decision of the Arbitration Court of the Ryazan Region of 07.11.08, case No. А54-1392 / 2008 of Ryazan Machine Tool Plant OJSC (390042, Ryazan, Stankozavodskaya St., 7) was declared bankrupt, bankruptcy proceedings were opened. The definition of the Arbitration Court of the Ryazan Region from 18.12.2008 in case No. А54-1392 / 2008 was approved by the bankruptcy trustee Anatoly Petrovich Khromov, a member of the NP SRO “SEMTEK”. Requirements are accepted within two months at the SRO representative office: 410049, Saratov, ul. Barnaul, 34, CEMTEK-Saratov.
Source: Kommersant (17.01.2008)
In 2008, the factory started a bankruptcy procedure, which has been going on for almost three years now. The property of the plant, including land and buildings, is largely sold out, although the plant still continues to exist and produce products.
“EFG” comment: As we have already written, as a result of the economic policy pursued by the current Russian authorities, the machine-tool industry in Russia, if not completely destroyed, suffered losses that were incompatible with the future existence. Production of machines in Russia now does not exceed 7 – 10 percent of the level of 1990 of the year.
And probably, it is not necessary to explain that the true sovereignty of the country without its own machine tool industry is a profanation. A country that is not able to produce the means of production, especially modern machines, very soon becomes completely dependent on world centers of high technology. And how much after that neither shout about the "greatness of Russia", this greatness will not increase a penny.
Kronstadt Marine Plant (1858 – 2005)
The Kronstadt Marine Plant is the largest ship repair enterprise of the Russian Navy. Founded in Kronstadt in 1858 year as the Steamship Plant, in 1922 year it was renamed to Kronstadt Marine Plant, from 1997 year - Federal State Unitary Enterprise (FSUE) "Kronstadt Marine Plant" of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation.
He was subordinate to the Office of the Navy shipyards. He had a license for the repair of weapons and military equipment, performs comprehensive repairs of ships and ships of the Navy and civilians. In the best years, the company employed up to 8 thousands of people.
“At Kronstadt Marine Plant on Wednesday, August 20, the last working day. The 150-year-old venture turned out to be bankrupt.
A lockout was announced at the oldest ship repair enterprise in Russia, the Kronstadt Marine Plant. Today, 20 August, all employees, almost 700 people, will be laid off due to downsizing.
About the reasons that the enterprise with 150-year-old history turned out to be bankrupt, the plant director Marat Ayupov told Ehu Petersburg:
“An efficient enterprise has been destroyed. It should be understood that 100% of the shares of this enterprise belongs to the state represented by the FSUE “Kronstadt Marine Plant”. The only thing we asked for was not to block the work of the team and the plant, to give the opportunity to work fully, and the question of the ownership of the plant can be solved in a civilized manner at the level of ownership of the stake. Nobody heard us, they preferred to bring the situation to what it was brought to. Property complex returned to FSUE, FSUE is bankrupt. I think we were "killed" intentionally. "
The letter noted that "the plant is a unique enterprise with five dry docks, allowing for the comprehensive repair and modernization of vessels up to 220 meters in length and up to 35 meters in width." "In December 2007 of the year, a decision was made at the highest level to establish a service center for repairing ships of the Baltic Fleet on the basis of the Kronstadt Marine Plant."
(August 2005 g.)
Deputy Prime Minister Igor Sechin won the first victory as chairman of the board of directors of the United Shipbuilding Corporation (USC). The St. Petersburg group "Museum", which the USC accused of attempting to raider seizure of the FSUE "Kronstadt Marine Plant" (must enter the USK), sold the corporation the right to claim the factory for 950 million rubles. total for 385 thousand rubles. Having received 90% of plant payables, USC can take it out of the bankruptcy process and easily incorporate it into its structure, the Kommersant newspaper says. As it became known, USC received about 90% of the accounts payable of the Kronstadt Marine Plant and will be able to determine its future fate. A factory specializing in the repair of warships is in the process of bankruptcy; in March 2005, external management was introduced on it. 21 March 2007 issued a presidential decree No. 394 on the establishment of USC, according to which the Kronstadt Marine Plant should be incorporated into and enter USC.
By 2008, the number of employees dropped to 600 – 700 people.
In 2008 – 2010 The FSUE “Kronstadt Marine Plant” de jure continued to exist as part of the United Shipbuilding Company. However, the latent conflict between the Ministry of Defense, which previously owned the plant, and USC, which tried to buy it out during 2007 – 2011, continued (from 2005 to 2008, the plant operated two legal entities: the FSUE “Kronstadt Marine Plant” subordinate to the Ministry of Defense a bankruptcy proceeding, and a private enterprise OJSC Kronstadt Marine Order of Lenin Plant (OJSC CMOLZ, which received staff and all assets) created according to the external management plan. As a result, in 2008 – 2011 no significant activity was carried out on any of its areas.
At the beginning of 2011, USC filed another claim on the plant for almost 1 billion rubles.
“EFG” comment: As can be seen from the example of the Kronstadt Marine Plant, even the formal inclusion of an enterprise in “Putin's remake” - the UAC or USC does not guarantee survival. Even on the contrary, if an enterprise resists excessive integration, it can, apparently, be bankrupt and deliberately, as is evident from the claim of the USC to the enterprise, in the USC, it is also incoming.
CJSC Kuzbasasselement (1942 – 2008)
CJSC Kuzbaslelement was the largest producer of chemical current sources in Russia and was the only enterprise in the Urals that manufactured these products.
The enterprise was established in 1942 on the basis of the Moscow plant "Molelement" evacuated to Leninsk-Kuznetsky.
Currently, ZAO Kuzbasslement is one of the well-known manufacturers of alkaline batteries, rechargeable batteries and galvanic current sources in Russia for:
- emergency and backup power supply of railway and passenger cars, mainline electric locomotives, subway carriages, mine electric locomotives;
- floor trackless electrified transport;
- Mine head lamps;
- emergency search means of sea and river navigation;
- communications and lighting.
The company was the only one in the Urals to process spent alkaline batteries.
“In fact, since November 2008, the plant has been in bankruptcy, since 6 May 2009, the arbitration court has introduced bankruptcy proceedings at the Kuzbasasselement ... The new bankruptcy trustee of the plant raised the issue of intentional bankruptcy. With a request to clarify the situation, the head of Kuzbass Tuleyev addressed the head of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Rashid Nurgaliyev, "the source said ...
Efficient machines for the production of batteries with the root pulled out from their platforms and were taken out of the factory. Thus, the fixed assets of the eighth and ninth workshops, which were key at the enterprise and ensured the employment of 350 employees of the plant (in fact, its main staff), were actually eliminated. According to rumors, all exported machines through dummy firms put into scrap metal.
In the 2010 year and in the first half of 2011, the plant did not work, despite all attempts by the federal and regional authorities. On its territory are currently located offices and retail space.
In the first nine months of this year, the production of batteries in Russia fell by 44,5 percent.
Experts are inclined to believe that the industry, which has successfully worked, suddenly began to "leave." The reason for this is that the main customers have reoriented themselves in purchases of imported batteries, which are cheaper but not suitable for Russia due to the nature of operation and temperature conditions.
At the same time, Vladimir Soldatenko, President of the International Association of Manufacturers of Chemical Power Sources and Equipment for Their Production, Interbat, notes that “the life of Russian batteries is several times longer, for example, than the Bulgarian ones”. “Alkaline batteries of some Russian manufacturers in quality — hi-tech products — are in no way inferior to batteries from leading multinational corporations, and their current replacement with slightly cheaper imported lead analogues is purely administrative decisions based not on the opinion of competent specialists and industry research institutes, but on advertising promises of foreign manufacturers seeking to seize the promising Russian market and are ready for this for a lot, including games with prices for their products, ”says C oldatenko.
“Unfortunately, one of the most promising and knowledge-intensive industries, which is the domestic electrochemical power industry, is now experiencing far from the best of times,” said Vyacheslav Volynsky, technical director of Zavod AIT, doctor of technical sciences. - And the main blow to the industry was dealt with non-crisis phenomena occurring in the global economy. Unfair competition from transnational corporations, whose marketing strategy is aimed more at a mutually beneficial alliance with officials than at technological superiority, had the most destructive effect. ”
Russian batteries look to the future without optimism. “If nothing changes, at least we are waiting for the industry to stop developing, which in the current situation will sooner or later lead domestic enterprises to a series of bankruptcies,” Vyacheslav Volynsky describes the prospects.
Irkutsk plant of radio receivers (1945 – 2007)
It is known that the plant was founded in 1945 year as car assembly. In 1952, the plant was redeveloped into the Irkutsk plant of radio receivers, pb A-3321. The plant mainly produced radio control equipment by army units and also the so-called REPs, electronic countermeasures, designed to jam etheric frequencies.
Radio equipment for the population produced several workshops of the radio factory, the entire shops were 20. These were mainly radio receivers and radio "Record" and "Ilga", radio "Skif" and "Friend." In order not to confuse the name of the radio equipment with the products of the Berdsk Radio Plant, which also produced the Records, the letter I was often added to the name.
Since 1972, the plant has been called the Irkutsk Plant of Radio Receivers named after the 50 anniversary of the USSR, and by the beginning of the 90-ies it had become the largest enterprise of the radio-electronic industry in Eastern Siberia and the Far East. In the best years, the number of employees reached 11 – 12 thousand people. With the advent of the new rulers of Russia in 1991, the enterprise began to decline and, despite all the attempts of the leadership to keep afloat, eventually became bankrupt.
The plant, or rather, what was left of it, tried to repair armored vehicles, tanks, produce household goods for the population, but due to the huge flow of cheap imported goods poured into the country everything turned out to be unprofitable.
In 2007, the radio market was established on the territory of the plant, and in 2008, a shopping and entertainment complex appeared on its territory.
De jure, the plant is not excluded from the state register of legal entities. However, the number of employees does not exceed several dozen people.
PS Note, however, that in most cases considered in the rubric, this is not about “dashing 90-x”, but about quite fat obese “zero”, when President V.V. Putin, who has repeatedly declared in words about the support of domestic production, and his protégé, who spoke so many pretentious words about the need to support innovative enterprises.
TSENTROLIT Precision Casting Plant (1963 – 2009)
Centrolit is one of the largest metallurgical plants in Lipetsk.
The construction of a specialized iron foundry "Centrolit" began on the southwestern outskirts of Lipetsk in March 1963. At the end of 1968, the new plant gave its first products after the first complex of the first stage of the enterprise was put into operation - the small-casting shop. In 1970, the second stage of this workshop was constructed, and then a number of auxiliary and main workshops - large and medium casting. The plant supplied the machine-building enterprises of the central regions of the country with iron and non-ferrous castings weighing from a few grams to tens of tons.
In 1975, the plant developed a new metal casting method - a continuous casting method; a hospital was opened near the plant. In the year 1978 received the status of profitable. Delivered products to many enterprises of the USSR, as well as to Germany, Japan, USA, Italy, Great Britain, Switzerland.
30 September 2009, the plant stopped the production of iron products and dismissed workers. Production workshops are now used as warehouses for household appliances.
Khor BIOHIM (Khabarovsk Territory) (1982 – 1997)
Hor Biochem was one of the ten largest and most modern factories in the world with a similar profile. They built the whole Union. In the era of its dawn, 7500 people worked here. Nearby is a whole town of five-story panel built for workers (local people called this place "steppe"). They built a club with two pools and a gym.
The plant was engaged in deep processing of wood, produced fodder yeast, furfural, microbiological products, as well as some special types of products.
In theory, it was enterprises of this type that were fully prepared for the production of biofuels.
After stopping and full plundering of the plant’s equipment, plans to create joint Russian-Chinese joint ventures for the production of pulp and paper products repeatedly appeared on its premises.
“So what do you want to arrange here?” - Anatolich, a man of 50-years in a khaki suit, greets us with these words. We go from the general director of this junk, part-time head of the HOA. Anatolich - head of security, he is a watchman. Run by him 106 ha plant. “Careful here. Iron hatches by *** whether all. And if you please there, then down to 6 – 8 meters. And it is not clear what will land. Let's go first to the Yeast. Do not step into it, - shows the substance on the floor. - Feel the smell? Fish fat. Used in production. Yeast is not the one added to the dough, but for feed to poultry. ”
Go up to the floor. “There were tanks. Everyone carried it out, ”he spits. There are round holes in the floor and even here and there handrails remain. We pass to the floor above. “There was a computer here,” Anatolich looked around the room. Yes, before computers occupied whole rooms. Around the wires and debris. Just above the seating area. Fountain and flower beds. From the roof is a good view of the neighborhood.
Let's go to the transfer. A small workshop with rusted stairs and remnants of equipment. Next - in the dryer with its three tanks, covered with grass. “Here the Chinese go with a woodworker to call. Calancea is high. Homeland them across the river. " A Chinese cigarette pack is lying around, as if to confirm the words of the guard.
Further to the left we see the shop. “This one is in conservation, bought it back in the times of perestroika. The veneer was made about two years ago. Now it's quiet. But on the right slop.
Inside is damp and dirty. On one of the floors we find the former laboratory. I inadvertently touch the vessel, and it falls on the tin on the floor. Some liquid flows out and starts to bubble on the metal. The smell of hydrogen sulfide in the air. We carry away feet from there. On the way we have a hydrolysis shop.
“They also bought them out, now they are actively taking them away. Here before doing furfural. You probably do not know what it is? Fuel for missiles. You see a hole in the ceiling? Another searcher twisted the engine several years ago and carried it to the stairs. I did not see the hole and fell down, not releasing a piece of iron. So he died below. I just groaned a bit, and that's it. ”
Tomsk Instrument Plant (1961 – 2007)
Tomsk Instrument Plant (TPZ) is a defense enterprise in Tomsk. The plant was established at the beginning of the 1960s by a joint decision of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers, adopted in March 1959.
The plant was secret, the director was the general. The plant produced control systems for rockets and spacecraft (in modern terms, on-board computers).
In many ways, it was here that the unique control system Buran was created, which allowed this last Soviet-era masterpiece to make a unique flight into space and return to Earth in a fully automatic mode.
The social sphere was well developed (the recreation center in Kireyevsk, the Yubileiny children's camp in Zavarzino (currently not operational, but guarded), the Kedr sports complex, household farming, medical unit No. 2), housing was being built at a high rate (for 30 years, more than 250 thousand square meters of housing, 6 kindergartens, 3 secondary schools).
At the end of 1997, the plant was privatized, while 51% of the shares remained under state control, 20% was transferred to the authorized capital of the all-Russian state corporation Kompomash, 25% - to the workforce. The company was liquidated in the first half of 2007 of the year.
The history of the instrument factory began 45 years ago. In the 50-ies, it was decided by the Central Committee of the CPSU to build an instrument factory, which will work in the interests of the defense industry. In the end, his sphere of activity turned out to be connected with rocket and space technology. The creation was followed by very significant funding and attention from the state and the rapid development of the enterprise. The plant has created the remaining and still advanced and little-known technology in the field of weapons development.
It was conceived, built, and was one of the largest enterprises in Tomsk, comparable in number to another Tomsk giant, the petrochemical plant.
There worked highly qualified personnel, a huge number of design engineers. The history of the Instrument Factory - in fact, the history of a large number of people who, whole families, from generation to generation, were associated with the plant. For many of them, the factory is both a school, and success, and children, and the whole life. A huge number of workers passed through the school of the Instrument-Making Plant - these were professional toolmakers, turners, and metalworkers. A whole microdistrict arose around and still exists, where the workers of the factory dynasties lived. Many of these people live there and still do.
But for a huge number of Tomsk citizens, Priborny is a whole layer of life. At one time, to distribute to this enterprise after the institute - how to win the lottery. The man had the opportunity to receive, firstly, a very high salary compared to civilian industries. For example, if an ordinary engineer received 120 rubles, then at Priborny one could earn several times more. At the same time guaranteed the annual entry of a certain number of residential areas. That is, having worked a maximum of 3 – 4 of the year at the enterprise, the young specialist could get an apartment, and before that he lived in a factory dormitory.
A very high degree of social security was created for the employees of the plant: the best recreation center in Kireevsk, the best summer camp in the village of Zavarzino. The largest sports complex "Kedr" also belonged to the Instrument. Up to the point that they had their own motosections. The entire social infrastructure developed along with the material and technical base.
The plant was one of the flagships on which a significant part of the city was kept, both in terms of housing and communal services, and in terms of housing, which worked on large defense orders. The main specificity of this enterprise was that the defense industry needed very high technology. By the way, they are still not surpassed in some respects, say, by the same States. Therefore, the Instrument Works was a very powerful enterprise with a developed infrastructure and a rich human potential.
The plant had the most up-to-date machine-building base for those days, so some standards of excellence and precision of production were made there. For example, in the Chamber of Measures and Scales the “measure of the circle” is stored - a ball that was made exactly at the Tomsk instrument factory. It is still the benchmark - metal processing technologies were so perfect.
Equivalent TPZ on the subject in the country is almost impossible to find. It was the only unique plant of its kind, aimed at performing certain tasks, the largest of the Tomsk defense enterprises.
And the specifics of Priborny, among other things, also lay in the fact that the level, high qualification and ambitions of people who carried out serious state orders at this enterprise did not allow the company’s management to look for any simple ones ( these people’s humiliating forms of survival. In the hope that the Instrument should not be left to the mercy of fate, because he played a significant role in the system of state defense orders in the country. But these hopes, unfortunately, were not justified.
De jure, there still exists ZAO Tomsk Instrument Plant, which owns about 25 percent of the former TPZ territory, the rest of the territory is occupied by trading enterprises and offices. Profile production is not carried out.
Sivinit (Krasnoyarsk) (197? –2004)
The plant produced viscose textile and high-strength yarns necessary for the production of textiles, tires and rubber products.
In 1999, the electricity supply was stopped for debts, the supply of raw materials for production was stopped. The plant was declared bankrupt and passed under external control. In 2002, the administration of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, fearing a social explosion and the complete destruction of production, appealed to the Moscow trade and export company Unicorn with a request to organize production and bring the company out of the crisis. At that time, Sivinit was renamed to Krasnoyarsk Fibers LLC and became a subsidiary of Unicorn, which leased equipment, industrial buildings and facilities of Sivinit with subsequent redemption.
Unfortunately, the fate of Krasnoyarsk Fibers was no less sad. Apparently, they never fully paid off their debts to the workers. Demanding salary payments, the workers organized many meetings at the plant itself, blocking Krasnoyarsk Worker's Avenue and the Communal Bridge.
Until 2003, chemicals were stored at the non-operating plant, and because of the threat of a terrorist act, they were taken out (7 million rubles were spent on this case), and the FSB officially lost interest in it.
In 2004, the plant's property was sold as scrap metal and a part of the area was bought up for warehouses and shopping complexes.
“The plant landed in the millstones of the struggle of the then governor of the region, Alexander Lebed, with Anatoly Bykov (the company was controlled by the people of Bykov). Shortly before the collapse, the leadership of Sivinit visited Japan, was preparing a contract worth $ 40 million for the production of anid thread with the company Marubeni. And by that time, the traditional production of viscose threads began to revive, volumes increased, and workers sent on leave returned. The contract did not happen, the company was bankrupted with the help of power engineers, whom Sivinit owed, and subsequent attempts to reanimate it were not successful. ”
Krasnoyarsk Plant of Televisions (1952 – 2003)
The beginning of the plant’s biography is 1 September 1952. This date coincides with the release of the first batch of the Avangard lamp TV. For the plant and the residents of Krasnoyarsk, this was a major event, the birthday of Siberian TV. All the years the plant has been intensively growing and developing, several generations of television sets have changed.
Back in 2000 – 2001, the “Dawn” model was produced, enjoying steady consumer demand. The main advantages are availability, quality, reliability. The plant had its own highly developed design base. According to the projects of its own design bureau at the beginning of 2000, the plant was going to start producing electronic radio and television equipment of a new generation.
CZT also produced satellite television stations, well known to residents of many localities in the country. Receiving stations '' Screen '', '' Moscow '' and transmitter '' FTR ''.
Naturally, the plant was engaged in military topics, producing some types of special products.
The company had its own stadium, swimming pool, clinic, dispensary, where it was possible to relax and undergo a course of treatment.
“In 1999, Grigory Slavkin was appointed the arbitration manager of the Krasnoyarsk television factory. The former defense company was already paralyzed by the arrival of his team, production almost stopped, there were no government orders, and attempts to do something else, such as assembling television sets from imported components, ended in nothing. The remaining equipment was looted. Nevertheless, the Slavkin team was able to pay off debts and bring the plant out of external control. A big rarity for those times. At the same time, after analyzing the market and assessing the possibility of a revival, we came to the conclusion: resuscitation is impossible. And entrepreneurs acted as befits entrepreneurs: they began to buy shares, consolidating a controlling stake. Not bought in secret - through open auctions. And after, having sold or rented out the former production areas, the factory site was turned into what is today known as the Trade Quarter in Svobodny. A similar logic, by the way, was guided in due time by the team of the general director of the Sosnovoborsky caravan factory Viktor Zaitsev - although it didn’t get to bankruptcy. They simply stopped production due to the lack of prospects. ”
Dynamo Plant (Moscow) (1897 – 2009)
Plant them. CM. Kirov Dynamo, located in the south-east of the capital, near the Avtozavodskaya metro station, was one of the largest electrical engineering enterprises in the USSR, and, perhaps, the entire world.
Produced electric motors and equipment for electric urban transport, crane-lifting devices, excavators, rolling mills, ships, etc. A very large part of the production was exported.
The plant was founded in 1897, owned by Western European firms. Produced a semi-handicraft electrical equipment according to foreign technical documentation. In 1903, a Bolshevik party organization (one of the oldest in Russia) arose at the plant. Workers actively participated in the 1905 – 1907 Revolution. and the October Revolution 1917 of the year.
In 1932, the plant produced the first Soviet mainline electric locomotive "Vladimir Lenin". During the Great Patriotic War (1941 – 1945) produced weapons and repaired tanks. The main technological processes are mechanized and automated: there were more than 100 conveyor and production lines with a total length of over 3,5 km. In 1973, output compared with 1960 has increased 2,5 times.
Awarded the Order of Lenin (1943), the Order of the Red Banner of Labor (1947) and the Order of the October Revolution (1971). In 70 – 80 (the best) years, up to 30 thousands of people worked at the plant.
Back in 2003, the Moscow press wrote about Dynamo like this:
“In the 2003 year, Dynamo remained the leading developer and manufacturer of traction and material handling equipment in Russia with a nomenclature of more than 5 thousands of product names.
The Dynamo plant has always been and remains the flagship of the domestic engine building industry. He has a powerful scientific and technical base for the development and implementation of new sets of electrical equipment for urban transport, in which considerable funds are invested.
Priorities for Dynamo are developments for urban passenger electric transport. Much has been done for the Moscow Metro.
Along the Lublin line, new Yauza trains are already running, fully equipped with AEK Dynamo electrical equipment. Their developers, including the general designer and director of the All-Russian Scientific Research Design and Technological Institute of Crane and Traction Electrical Equipment (VNIPTI) Valery Skibinsky, received the state award of the Russian Federation. In addition, Dynamo supplies the Moscow Metro with equipment for the repair of rolling stock. ”
Source: "Evening Moscow", April 21 2003
This is the case in 2011:
“... But some still hope for a miracle of resuscitation and recall the old merits of enterprises - the products of Tushinsky machine-building, Dinamo, Hammer and Sickle factories ... Today, they practically do not produce anything, they survive mainly through rent. The move will kill these honored veterans completely. "
Source: "Rusty Belt of the Capital"
“Arguments of the Week”, http://www.argumenti.ru/print/gorodm/n284/102085
In 2008 – 2009, 100 percent of the share ownership of Dynamo was bought by EMF-holding, which includes several large electrical engineering companies in Russia.
“LLC NPO Kuzbasselektromotor (KEMZ) plans to complete the placement on its territory of the production equipment of the Moscow plant Dynamo Plus (both are part of the corporation EDS-Holding) by the end of October). EDS-Holding, which acquired 100% in February 2008 of the Dynamo Plus company, moved to the Kemerovo plant in Moscow last summer to manufacture engines for railroad cars and subway compressors. Their production was successfully mastered and adjusted, and a contract was signed with Russian Railways and the Almaty Metro. ”
http://www.delkuz.ru/content/view/9998/ (март 2009 г.)
Up to the middle of 2010, the installation of the equipment moved from the Dynamo plant was not completed at the Kuzbasselektromotor.
Other parts of the Dynamo plant equipment were supposed to be moved to Yaroslavl and Sverdlovsk, where the EMF holding parts also function.
At the present time, the Moscow factory "Dynamo" trite dismantled for scrap. Production at the Moscow site of the plant is actually not carried out. A de jure legal entity exists in the form of Dynamo Plus, which is still included in EDS-Holding. Most of the production of the Moscow plant moved to holding sites in other cities. In this regard, the unique cadres of workers and engineering specialties, more than a century of school skills and traditions are lost, the spirit and atmosphere of a great enterprise are lost almost irretrievably. The legendary plant with a great history is living under the current power of the last days.
Oryol plant control computers to them. K.N. Rudneva (1968 – 2006)
When creating a plant UVM them. Rudnev was supposed that together with Leningrad and Kiev Electronmash, Zelenograd Angstrom, Minsk Integral, Iskra Production Association in Smolensk and the workers who had now died in Bose Kursk’s Accounts and Kazan Computer Plant would become the basis for the Soviet computer industry or as it was then called, the production of a computer or UVM.
Indeed, the plant UVM them. Rudneva managed fairly quickly to establish the production of electronic computing equipment and by the end of 80-s began the serial production of domestic computers "Spectrum" and "Raduga", developed in Kiev and Chernivtsi. Production volumes began to be calculated in tens of thousands of pieces. They were inferior to Western counterparts and lagged behind them by 5 – 7 years, however, with proper attention to the industry and minimal support for it, this distance could be reduced rather quickly. In any case, the country would have had its own advanced computer production.
It should be noted that in the USSR there was a full production cycle: from the design and technical developments to the assembly of computers.
Last their computers factory them. Rudneva assembled in the middle of 90's. This was followed by a long agony. The plant finally ceased to exist in the 2006 year.
Comment "EFG": This section is of increased interest to our readers. And a lot of questions. Therefore, we emphasize: both in this issue and in previous ones, we tried to select, for the description, first of all those enterprises that constituted the beauty and pride of domestic high technologies, the very ones that were supposed to provide a breakthrough for the country into the future and about which there are so many pompous words with aspirations and heartfelt rolling of the eyes, the top officials of Russia uttered and continue to pronounce ... At the same time, mainly those enterprises that ended their existence (more correctly, were destroyed as a result of non-timber economic policy) in recent years.
We consider these two clarifications fundamentally important for an objective and comprehensive analysis of the sincerity of words and the effectiveness of the actions of the current government, which virtually, from TV screens, stands on the protection of domestic high technologies. The cases, alas, are such. And this fact can not be challenged ...
Many of the enterprises listed in the heading could be saved even in 2005 – 2009. Undoubtedly, if gas-oil super-profits, instead of sterilizing them in the Stabilization Fund, invested in perishing high-tech enterprises, as EFG repeatedly suggested in 1997 – 2011, maybe enterprises would have survived, and the 2008 – 2009 crisis. would not hit the Russian economy so painfully.
Orenburg Hardware Factory (1943 – 2009)
Orenburg Apparatus Plant was one of the largest enterprises of Orenburg. He produced special radio electronics for the needs of defense, as well as consumer electronics, such as the Kolos radio receiver (launch date - 1977), which had advanced technical characteristics for its time.
The plant tried to keep up with the times and by the beginning of the 90-ies mastered the production of completely domestic computers "Sura", the development and production of which was originally mastered in Penza, at the then computer plant. In Orenburg produced "personalka" got the name "Hobby". It is noteworthy that it was created on a fully domestic element base. Just as, however, and computers "Iskra", produced at the same plant in Smolensk. However, capitalism struck, and all these high-tech impulses ended. The Russian authorities did not care about former Soviet high-tech enterprises - they were in a hurry to introduce foreign experience.
The Penza and Smolensk factories survived, although they had to “change orientation”: Penza now produces cookers and heaters, Smolensk - cash registers, including mobile ones.
But Orenburg less fortunate. In 1998, the premises and part of the plant were transferred to a local university, and in 2009, the plant was finally liquidated. On its squares is now located business incubator.
The business incubator houses 40 – 50 office premises equipped with furniture and office equipment, as well as production facilities. Significant benefits on space rental, centralized consulting services by highly qualified specialists are planned. It was assumed that the "fledged" and "embarked on the wing" of the company will leave the incubator and move to other parts of the city.
However, as the Orenburg residents themselves point out, there are no particular benefits from this business incubator, and the enterprises, hence “hatching”, do not play any noticeable role either in the consumer market of the city or in the creation of jobs. And, of course, these companies do not produce anything high-tech.
In general, in Russia, modern production of full-cycle personal computers has been almost completely destroyed by various “reformers” and “modernizers”. Although back in 1993, about 200 thousands of genuinely domestic computers of various brands were produced. As we have already written, they were somewhat inferior to their foreign counterparts, but, after all, no one forbade investing money and efforts to reduce this lag. However, due to the economic policy being pursued and being pursued by the country's leadership, the strategic industry was put into unbearable conditions.
Theoretically, the chances for the rescue and development of a truly Russian computer industry existed even at the beginning of this century. However, the leadership of the Russian Federation did not strike a finger on the finger to save this most important and decisive direction in the development of modern civilization in the domestic industry.
At present, the domestic production of personal computers is mainly referred to as the assembly, conducted from components (processors, motherboards, video cards, memory cards, power supplies, etc.) produced by large multinational corporations such as Intel, AMD, ATI or Sony in Taiwan, in China Malaysia or South Korea, less often - in the USA and Europe. In principle, such a build can be performed at home by any more or less advanced computer user.
Leading domestic assemblers are Depo Computers, K-Systems, Kraftway Computers and Formoza.
In the last five years, subsidiary (assembly) productions of such world-famous computer manufacturers as Hewlett-Packard, Acer, Lenovo began to appear in Russia.
In the first quarter of 2010, the first line of the world rating of the largest manufacturers was occupied by Hewlett-Packard, which sold 3 million computers for 15,97 of the month - by 22,2 percent more than in the first quarter of 2009. The second place is Acer with 10,87 million PCs sold, followed by Dell, which sold 10,67 million computers. In fourth position - Lenovo with 7,02 million computers sold. The fifth, sixth and seventh positions are taken by Toshiba, ASUS and Apple, which sold 3 million, 4,58 million and 4,39 million computers for 2,80 of the month, respectively. The remaining vendors jointly sold 25,24 million PCs. Thus, the total market share of the first seven players was 69%, the total market share of all the others - 31%.
The volume of the Russian market in the first quarter of the year 2010 amounted to approximately 2,2 million units, or about 8,5 million units per year. The leaders in sales in the Russian market are Acer, Asus, HP, Samsung and Lenovo.
As for the Russian collectors, the total volume of their supplies to the Russian market is approximately 10 – 15 percent of its volume - from 800 thousand to 1,3 million units and tends to decrease.
The largest Russian assembler, Depo computers, owns roughly 7 – 8 percent of the desktop market, but is significantly inferior to transnational competitors in the notebook and laptop segment, assembling which is a more complex technical task than desktop assembly.
In general, the same tendency, which we have already noted in the production of consumer electronics, is here: genuine domestic full-cycle production has been destroyed along with brands, in its place the “gray” is first introduced (assembly takes place semi-officially, components are purchased on the open market, accessories and the brand of the products being manufactured is not advertised), “white” (the assembly is carried out officially, the accessories are advertised, and they themselves are purchased from manufacturing corporations, the company acquires official cial status of the dealer or other official signs cooperation agreements with large TNCs) or "red" assembly (the company operates officially and has agreements with component manufacturers, but introduces its own brand of the assembly), and then come to subsidiaries of TNCs.
Khabarovsk plant "EVGO" (2000 – 2009)
One of the very few Russian factories built in the post-Soviet era. The company itself was formed in 1992 year. Specialized in the production (assembly) of washing machines and televisions from foreign and domestic components, but under its own logo.
“It’s incredible, but true: neither Khabarovsk’s people, nor anyone else will ever see household appliances with the proud EVGO brand in stores: the company’s management and the company's creditors’ council made a decision to finally bankrupt and sell the property of the TV maker in the Far East, air conditioners, washing machines and more.
“If it were a matter of some subjective factors, we would have found a way to preserve the enterprise,” Sergey Alekseevich admitted to us, “but everything is much deeper and worse. Perhaps we were wrong at all when we opened a similar production here in the Far East ...
Ten years ago, when the company was just beginning, its founder, Gennady Vazhnichin, was sure of exactly the opposite. From high tribunes, on the pages of newspapers, the entrepreneur claimed that a patriotic business simply had to create its own radio and electronic production in Khabarovsk. And for the image of the region, and for employment, and to replenish the budget of the territory. And his words did not differ from the case. Literally, in front of our eyes, a small workshop “EVGO Group” has become a real factory of household appliances, combining not only the assembly production, but also the production of cases, packaging and other components. The company entered not only the All-Russian, but also the international market. Supplies went to Kazakhstan and other CIS countries, Khabarovsk brand TVs received prizes at Moscow exhibitions, sales increased, the factory employed about 500 people with an average salary of 20 thousand rubles. The company paid hundreds of millions of rubles in taxes. Gennady Vazhnichin was declared the winner of the regional competition “Entrepreneur of the Year”.
“We sincerely wanted the EVGO brand to be entirely Russian-made,” says Vasilyev, “but to launch complex technical productions in Khabarovsk: kinescopes, engines, electronic circuit boards, and so on — even in the era of consumer boom it was unrealistic, too big money and too big, millions, volumes for profitability. Neither “EVGO”, nor other Russian enterprises needed such a gigantic number of components: it is impossible to build on the market, where such intense competition is, so many ready-made household appliances.
Then the group conducted a search in Russia. And even found Miassky (Chelyabinsk region) defense plant, which makes engines from time immemorial. But Chelyabinsk's engine was very expensive, several times more expensive than the Chinese one, because the price of copper we were several times higher than on the world market, because we made them a little. As a result, the “EVGO” has come to the same, as all, to the Chinese “stuffing”.
... But the creators of the company did not want to be just a "screwdriver" assembly. So the company’s plans came up with the idea of almost complete production of its own type of product, which at that time had no analogues on the market - a semi-automatic washing machine.
As a result, a unique production of large plastic parts, such as a washing machine case, was launched at the EVGO factory, the technology of powder coating of products, a line for molding metal cases, a section of thermoplastic automatons, a line for production of products from expanded polystyrene were launched. All of them, by the way, are kept in working order today. The factory produced up to 20 thousands of washing machines per month. 300 people worked on their production. By the 150 anniversary of Khabarovsk, which, we recall, was celebrated in May 2008, "EVGO" released a millionth machine!
Naturally, the company took loans. The business plan was designed so that a multidisciplinary factory with a large turnover can quickly recoup the investment. But then there were problems with radio electronics, and then with a different technique.
“Many things coincided,” recalls Vasilyev. - The dollar has fallen. Competitors - Chinese, Korean companies - got an advantage: imports became more affordable. The cost of domestic production grew every year ...
In general, investment conditions in Russia have always been too expensive. In fact, the investment lending market in the country since the time of restructuring did not exist. Calling an investment loan under 12 percent for three years can be very conditional. What can be done in three years?
Source: “EVGO”: the idea failed,
Thank you for trying, Raisa Eldashova
The EVGO plant ceased production in 2009.
Comment "EFG": As can be seen from this material, the economic policy pursued by the Russian authorities, including in terms of maintaining extremely high loan rates, is stifling even the few sprouts of truly free entrepreneurship that managed to germinate in our extremely difficult post-reform conditions.
Ulyanovsk Radio Lamp Plant (1959 – 2003)
Produced high-tech products for defense needs, including military, medical and civil lasers. Of civilian products - radio receivers "Reef" and "Rock".
The workshops of the defeated enterprise were turned into trade pavilions and relegated to merchants.
Plant them. Kozitsky, St. Petersburg (1853)
Plant them. Kozitsky - one of the oldest in Russia. Founded in 1853 year as the main telegraph workshops of the German company "Siemens and Galske", with 1881 - the plant of the joint-stock company "Siemens and Galske". The plant began from a small workshop on Vasilyevsky Island in St. Petersburg. The workshop specialized in assembling Yuz telegraph devices and spark radio stations.
... Shortly before the 1917 revolution, Nikolai Kozitsky, who was arrested in 1915 by the tsarist secret police, returned to the plant from exile (correctly Kazitsky). He created a Bolshevik organization in the shops, formed a Red Guard detachment, which in October 1917 took part in the uprising.
... After the revolution, the Soviet state began to address an important task - the radioification of Russia. The Petrogradsky Telegraph Plant was charged with organizing the production of broadcasting equipment, and soon the first radio receivers, Radiolina, appeared in the stores.
... In the war years, the plant was redirected to the production of military products (radio stations for the army, communications equipment for the fleet) and classified.
From 1960, the plant was declassified and again became the Leningrad Kozitsky Plant. In the spring of 1966 of the year, a new workshop was built to assemble the first domestic serial lamp-transistor TVs "Evening" and "Waltz", the pilot production of which was established from the year 1965. In 1966, the plant builds workshops for the production of the first domestic color TVs of the future famous brand “Rainbow”, the first brands - “Rainbow-4” and “Rainbow-5” went on sale in the fall of 1967.
The plant was modernized, it increased its capacity, production of several generations of color TVs "Raduga" began, which were produced by millions of parties, including for export. In 1974, the plant was converted to Kozitsky LPTO, then to Raduga Production Association, then to ZAO Kozitsky Plant and, finally, to Raduga PCG. But 90 came, the USSR collapsed, and, like most industrial enterprises, the plant experienced the same problems, chaos, impoverishment, bankruptcy, disintegration into smaller enterprises.
The All-Union TV producer Raduga was forced to abandon this business in 2004 due to the emergence of a cluster of assembly plants in Kaliningrad (TV sets are assembled under the brands of world famous TNCs) and a sharp drop in prices for television sets. In order to somehow load the released capacity, the plant began to sell individual services that were still in a single production chain - foam packaging, electroforming, milling and turning, surface mounting of microcircuits. But the main stream of money was still from military orders. ”
The plant’s specialization continued to be radio transmitters of various capacities used on ships, in coastal centers and in radio communication control systems, receivers for the merchant fleet, fixed and portable VHF radios for power structures and special services of the country. However, given the general condition of the army, military and civilian fleet in Russia, it is clear that the production of military products of the plant was reduced by a multiple. The release of the TV "Rainbow" and DVR-player "Horo" is carried out almost piece.
Comment "EFG": Plant them. Kozitsky so far, thank God, continues to exist, and the fate of the Moscow Rubin (see “EFG” No. 29 / 2011) has not yet comprehended it, although, as we see, it mainly produces foam packing, container for Coca-Cola and milling and turning work. (The plant had certain hopes for the project of introducing digital television in Russia and, together with other St. Petersburg radio electronics engineers, even in the 2007 year, even created a project of an almost complete cycle: from the production of equipment for generating a signal and studio equipment to antennas, transmitting and receiving devices. So far, only an unfinished project that has powerful competitors in the USA, Europe and China. And competitors have powerful lobbyists, from among those officials in Russia, who love the market more than the fathers Goes production. And our companions began to fall too often.)
A similar fate befell, for example, two more high-tech enterprises: the Ryazan plant of calculating and analytical machines, where the Iskra and Partner computers were made in the middle of the 90-s (now Border’s production of locks and accessories is deployed in the factory’s areas). "), And the Saransk TV factory, which produced the Spektr and Laime TVs (the enterprise is now working in the field of plastic packaging for trade, animal husbandry and poultry farming).
At the same time, the preservation of de facto legal entities of non-existent or reprofiled enterprises gives the current owners the opportunity to use their brands in advertising activities, and the officials and political leadership of the country create a fake hype about preserving domestic high technologies. Everyone is happy.
In a word, as we have repeatedly written in this section, Russian radio electronics in 2001 – 2011, with the current president and his predecessor, comprehended an unprecedented defeat. The participation of Russian producers in the production of equipment and attachments for the “digit”, certainly a pleasant one in itself, and which constitutes the main pride of the Minister of Communications Shchegolev, will not change much on the main market for the industry — the television receivers themselves.
We will have to restore all this.
Sibelectrostal, Krasnoyarsk (1952 – 2008)
In the past - one of the most modern and high-tech steel mills of the country.
The design capacity of the enterprise was 60 thousand tons of steel and 70 thousand tons of metal products per year. In 2003, the plant's revenues amounted to 188,8 million rubles, net loss - 99, 2 million rubles. Production at Sibelektrostal was stopped since December 2003. Specialized in the production of specialized and very rare steel grades.
2004 – 2005 went through a lengthy and painful bankruptcy procedure. In the year 2008 was destroyed de facto, the company at this point remained 18 employees.
Usolye-Sibirsky Chemical and Pharmaceutical Plant (UChFZ), Irkutsk Region (1970 – 20 ??)
Once wore the informal, but proud name of "Main Pharmacy of Siberia." In 1970 – 1980 produced substances for factories all over the USSR - raw materials for pharmaceuticals, pharmaceuticals.
The first medicine that Usolsky Chemical and Pharmaceutical Plant produced in 1971 was analgin.
Also here was produced the world famous hemostatic drug "Ferakril" - the result of the work of scientists of the Irkutsk Institute of Chemistry, RAS. It began to be used in medicine back in the 70s, but after the closure of the enterprise, there was no one else to produce the drug.
The plant was not on the verge of bankruptcy more than once, changed owners, completely stopped the production of finished medicines. At the moment, from a huge production left only a few operating workshops. Most production lines and workshops are in disrepair.
PS Recently there have been a lot of questions on this topic. Including this: “Do you know that in“ Soviet Russia ”a very, very similar information project is being carried out?”
Of course we know that. And we really like the “People’s Account for Destroyers” rubric from our colleagues. It apparently goes back to similar undertakings of "Soviet Russia" 2006 – 2007. This is a good, informative, informative project, carried out with the support of the organizational, personnel and information capabilities of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation.
According to the genre, it represents reports (sometimes stylistically processed, and sometimes not) of regional party organizations on the state of the industry in their regions. In this sense, it seems to have a territorial link and represents the general picture of the 20 years after the reform.
We have no opportunity to rely on the organizational power of the party, and therefore our project, entitled “List of destroyed enterprises”, is executed in a different style. Rather, it has a sectoral focus of analysis and genetically goes back to a similar project “On the graves of industries”, which we carried out in 2003 – 2004.
At the same time, in 2011, we consider it expedient to concentrate on the fate of the most high-tech enterprises, the very ones that were supposed to provide a breakthrough for the country into the future and about which so many pathetic words with aspirations and soulful rolling of the eyes were uttered and continue to be spoken by top officials of Russia
At the same time, for the most part, those enterprises that ended their existence (more correctly, were destroyed as a result of erroneous economic policies) in recent years, that is, in 2001 – 2011.
We consider these two clarifications fundamentally important for an objective and comprehensive analysis of the sincerity of words and the effectiveness of the actions of the current government, which virtually protects domestic high technologies from TV screens. The cases, alas, are such.
Many of the enterprises listed in the heading could be saved even in 2005 – 2009. Undoubtedly, if instead of sterilizing gas-oil superprofits in the Stabilization Fund, they were invested in perishing high-tech enterprises, if loan rates were forcibly reduced to 5 – 6 percent, as the EFG repeatedly proposed in 1997 – 2011, and the enterprises would survive, and the crisis 2008 – 2009 would not hit the Russian economy so painfully.
In a word, we believe that the two projects described above (“EFG” and “Soviet Russia”) successfully complement each other.
And further. We consider it expedient to urge the left parties to consider the following proposals.
1. In the event of a victory of the left opposition in the elections, it undertakes to restore (of course, taking into account technological and consumer changes, as well as technological chains) at least 100 (the figure is, of course, not final) destroyed and recently destroyed enterprises, in particular large and high-tech. In cases where there is no point in re-establishing the enterprise in the same area, because the buildings are destroyed and the equipment is looted, the plants must be re-established in another suitable area.
This subproject should be included as an integral component in the overall project of re-industrialization of Russia, primarily in high-tech industries.
2. In the case of leftist power coming to power, all the companies that worked at the enterprises destroyed by the current authorities should be paid compensation for moral and material damage, the amount of which should not be symbolic, just as compensation is paid to victims of terrorist acts or man-made disasters. For people are not to blame for the fact that the rulers of the country pursued a mediocre economic policy.
3. The funds are relatively painless for the country's budget can be removed from the raw material rent. (For example, over the past 15 years, only official real estate purchases abroad, made by citizens of the Russian Federation, amounted to approximately 200 billion dollars. It is clear that these are mostly oil and nickel and gas dollars that are "grabbed" and poorly accounted by control bodies. For comparison: The cost of an Intel-level processor manufacturing plant is 1 – 1,5 billion dollars.)
ORENBURG COMBINE OF SILK FABRICS "ORENBURG TEXTILE" (1972 – 2004)
One of the mega-projects of the Soviet period in the light industry. Combine commissioned in 1972 year. Had spinning, twisting, weaving and two dyeing and finishing production. It specializes in the production of fabrics from complex acetate and viscose yarns, viscose and polyester staple fibers, synthetic polyester and nylon tow and natural cotton fiber. The art workshop of the plant developed and introduced into the production of furniture-decorative and curtain fabrics on eccentric looms and Verdel jacquard machines. The enterprise receives raw materials from Uzbekistan (cotton), the Volga region (viscose fiber), Belarus (polyester), the Krasnoyarsk Territory (silk), and Ukraine (yarn). The plant annually produced more than 70 million meters of fabric, which was supplied to the domestic market, to the CIS countries and 30% to non-CIS countries. In the best years, the enterprise team numbered 7400 workers, employees, engineers.
In 1998, production was halted. New owners - Holtex Invest Textile LLC (M) and Elton LLC (M) (for 38% stake) initiated changes in the assortment and sales policy: along with TPK Orenteks, subsidiaries were created in the course of business process differentiation. - Promsintex LLC (sales of nonwovens and faux fur), Avtotex LLC (sales of auto textiles and fabrics for working clothes) and Mebelteks LLC (sales of upholstery fabrics, including with thermal printed designs). In addition, in addition to the release of costume and raincoat fabrics on the orders of law enforcement agencies, the production of home textiles was expanded.
As a result, the issue volume from zero rose to 8,4 mln. (1999), and then to 14 million p / m (2000). These measures could not withstand global changes in the Russian textile market, to which the costs of maintaining a gigantic infrastructure were added: production stopped again in 2002, and Orenteks entered bankruptcy proceedings in 2004. Shareholders decided to diversify the business, the allocation of 120 thousand square meters. m of production space for the construction of a shopping center (investment volume - 20 million dollars).
“The authorities of Orenburg decided that the next shopping and entertainment complex is needed more than the Orenburg silk fabric manufacturing plant. But a similar situation is not only in Orenburg. And here thousands of highly skilled workers are forced to go to the lowest level of the attendants of such complexes.
Lena took the dance on her bones to celebrate the opening of the Armada shopping and entertainment center as she talked about the global financial crisis that had begun. For Lena, all life turned into a continuous crisis. She cried in the spans of the Eurobazar, which sparkled with the newest decoration: before that there were rows of the most modern machine tools, it was the largest Orenburg silk fabrication plant on the planet where Lena worked.
After grabbing, the self-proclaimed “effective owners” of the national wealth ruined the magnificent enterprise, and Lena and thousands of highly qualified specialists pushed out into the street. We met late at night in the Assorted convenience store, where she cleaned the floors. ”
Source: “Soviet Russia” from 27.12.2008
BARYSH FACTORY them. Gladyshev, Ulyanovsk region (1825 – 2005)
Barysh Factory - one of the oldest enterprises in the region - Gladyshev cloth factory (formerly Guryev cloth factory). Founded in 1825 by landlord DS Meek.
On the eve of the abolition of serfdom, the factory passed into the hands of the merchant K. Akchurin, who instead of manual spinning and weaving looms began to use mechanical machines, a steam engine and hired labor.
In 80-ies of the XX century Barysh cloth factory named after Gladyshev was an advanced enterprise. Modern equipment, advanced forms of work organization, good living conditions - all this allowed the team to produce fabrics for more than 100 million rubles a year.
“To say that in the years of market reforms the textile industry of the region suffered losses,” means not to say anything. Almost a dozen cloth factories ceased to exist. For example, from the largest Volga Textile Workshop OJSC in the Yazykovo workers' settlement of the Karsun District only human memory and a dilapidated pipe remained. Directly in Barysh, the Gladyshev weaving factory was famous throughout the region and far beyond its borders. She, by the way, recently turned 180 years. It was she who initiated the development of textile production in the area, but could not stand the "restructuring". Then market reforms began, and the huge enterprise, which “fed” all Barysh, ordered to live for a long time ”.
In 2006, the equipment of the largest worsted association “October”, which had already ceased to exist in Moscow, was placed on the squares of the Barysh factory.
Can the current October worsted association in Ulyanovsk be considered a continuation of the once largest Russian Worsted Association October in Moscow (the Kalinin worsted and spinning factory, which was equipped with the most modern equipment, produced the best worsted yarn in Russia high numbers for the production of lightweight wool and luxury suit fabrics) - this is a difficult question. While the production volumes are not comparable.
In the same way as the question whether the current KO Oktyabr can be considered a continuation of the Barysh textile factory, the largest in the Ulyanovsk region. The fact is that of the two powerful enterprises of light industry there is one de facto.
Although those in power may, if they wish, pretend that both of the once-existing enterprises have their continuation. These are the political and statistical manipulations.
LUNOCUSION them. I.D. Zvorykina, Kostroma (1939 – 2011)
One of the largest linen enterprises in Russia. In 1930, the Council of People’s Commissars adopted a resolution on the construction of a flax plant in the city of Kostroma. In 1939, the plant produced its first product - household fabrics.
During the war years, production was completely rebuilt for defense. In 1958, the reconstruction of the plant begins. At the end of 80-x - the beginning of 90-ies, the production of the Kostroma flax processing plant. Zworykina purchased sixteen countries.
“But not everything is so simple in our world, and Zvoryk residents, more than anyone else, know about it. And nevertheless, despite all the difficulties of our time, today the plant is confidently looking into tomorrow ...
Flax is beautiful in our region,
Famous for the whole country.
Who does not know zvorykintsev ?!
Glorify our Kostroma!
Kostroma, you are proud of your plant,
All zvorykintsam now bow to the ground!
We defended and persevered, and did not break,
Allegiance to flax preserved and saved! "
Alas, Kostromichi wrote in the 2009 year. And in 2011 ...
“In June, the 2011 of the year in Kostroma was officially declared bankrupt in the flax union named Zvorykin. The reason - the lack of orders and huge debts. And today, the first 200 workers have been laid off.
At the entrance to the flax union named Zvorykin workers stand from eight in the morning. All 200 people today are out of forced vacation. But they are not allowed into their native enterprise. It turned out that there they no longer work.
Nina Svezheva, spinner: “As we were explained, we will work with 6 June, July will also work. August will stand. And from the first of September we will have another enterprise, some name. With this condition, we went for a walk. We are now behind the gate. Go all on the exchange. "
All received today notice - spinners. Their production is closed first. Next in line are weavers.
Alexander Sazanov, bankruptcy trustee of flax union them. Zvorykina: “Due to the fact that there is no volume of work, and the law on bankruptcy requires that I dismiss people. I am obliged to submit to the arbitration court a report on my activities, in which I indicate that all the employees of the enterprise are dismissed. ”
A total of 605 people will be laid off from the company. In any case, it was precisely at this number that the notification came to the employment service.
The total debt of a bankrupt enterprise today is 200 million. Of these, 10 is a salary. In order to settle accounts with all creditors, the property of the Zvorykin combine will go under the hammer. With the proceeds in the first place and pay a salary, the managers promise. But the workers do not believe it. Those who were fired a year ago have not yet received all the money, they explain. The spinners turned to the prosecutor’s office to protect their rights. ”
KAMYSHIN COTTON FACTORY NAMED AFTER KOSYGIN, Volgograd Region (1955 – 201?)
Kamyshin cotton mill them. Aleksey Kosygin is the pride of the Soviet light industry, which became the largest textile enterprise in Europe in the middle of the 20th century.
The first meter of harsh fabric was released on 19 on September 1955 of the year. From this point on, the construction of a whole residential area with developed infrastructure was launched: the Tekstilshchik Culture Palace, the Tekstilshchik Football Club, which trained at the stadium of the same name. Not to mention the sanatorium-preventoriums, dormitories, kindergartens, schools, shops. For the children of employees of the cotton mill on the picturesque bank of the Ilovlya river, the “Solnechniy” pioneer camp was created. During the heyday of Kamyshinsky KhBC produced up to 1 million 200 thousand square meters. meters of various fabrics that were snapped up, not only in the USSR, but also abroad.
In this century, the plant has repeatedly undergone bankruptcy and sale of property, by the beginning of the century, production fell several times, then several owners appeared on its territory.
“Recall that in February 2009, the Russian Textile Alliance (the company appeared in 1999, grew out of a typical small cotton import company, bought the largest textile enterprises in Russia, such as Teikovsky and KHBK, and by the middle of the 0 of the current became the largest cotton fabric producer in Russia) announced its own liquidation, but the company's creditors (large Moscow banks) initiated bankruptcy proceedings.
The Teikovsky and Kamyshinsky KBC, which acted as guarantors for many loans to the parent company, asked for their own bankruptcy. Now, both companies have launched bankruptcy proceedings, and the bankruptcy of the Russian Textiles alliance is in the final stages of bankruptcy proceedings. In total, Russian Textile owes creditors, including bondholders, of the order of 6 billion rubles. ”
In 2010, what was left of the giant enterprise, the territory of which was divided between Roskontrakt and Kamyshinsky KBC LLC, seemed to start to get up and increase production, but ...
“Our readers already know that the former director of the Kamyshinsky KBC Igor Skripkin has resigned his powers as the company's first person and is now working as an advisor to the new general director. General - Alexey Nikolaevich Kotikhin - an appointee from Moscow, a representative of the company-owner, a professional textile worker, has management experience.
So far, Aleksey Kotikhin is involved in the problems of the leading textile enterprise Kamyshin. And there are more than enough problems. There are persistent rumors in the city that the owner has marked the bankruptcy of the Kamyshinsky KBC. However, Alexey Kotikhin categorically refuses any comments to the press.
The mood among textile workers is, of course, not joyful ... According to the Infocam editorial staff, good intentions are still just intentions, and wage arrears in the near future on Roskontrakt are still nothing to pay back. ”
A source:. http://infokam.su/n5463.html from 14 September 2011 of the year
In general, if the once largest textile enterprise in Europe will survive, now geographically and in production it has decreased by several times, even in the form divided into two, God knows. Both organizations existing in the former plant territory are burdened with hefty debts.
THREE-MOUNTAIN MANUFACTURE, Moscow (1799 – 201?)
JSC "Three-Mount Manufactory" (up to 1936 of the year - Partnership Prokhorovka Three-Mount Manufactory, from 1936 to 1992 year - "Three-Mount Manufactory" them. Dzerzhinsky Moscow), founded in the late XVIII century. It was located between the streets Rodchelskaya, 1905, and Krasnopresnenskaya embankment.
In 1799, the merchant Vasily Prokhorov and the dyeing master Fyodor Rezanov founded a printed textile factory in Moscow, which they named Trikhornaya after the name of the area. Later, Vasily Prokhorov bought his share from his partner and became the sole owner of the factory.
From the end of 1830, Prokhorov was granted hereditary honorary citizenship, and the last owner of the factory, Nikolai Ivanovich Prokhorov, in 1912, was elevated to hereditary nobility.
After the October Revolution, the factory was nationalized, but it was able to start normal operation only in 1920 year. In 1936, she was given the name of F.E. Dzerzhinsky. During the years of Soviet power, the enterprise became leading in its field: it was repeatedly re-equipped with the latest technology. Peak performance was reached in 1980-ies - 200 millions of meters of various fabrics.
Currently, the manufactory is being transferred to a new site. The main weaving manufacture already works in the city of Gavrilov-Yam of the Yaroslavl region. In Moscow, there is still a spinning and finishing production, as well as a commercial department, design center and administration.
“As you know, Oleg Deripaska’s structures acquired a third of the company's shares in 2006, subject to the preservation and development of a unique Russian production. The factory experienced 1990 well: the Trehgorka brand was popular, excellent Swiss equipment made excellent fabric, and a team of artists, designers and technologists, where experienced staff and young people were, brilliantly ensured the attractiveness of this fabric.
Moreover, Yumasheva’s husband himself stated that for him the 14 hectares at the White House are pure dust, and he just wants to raise Russian textiles ...
It was under the whining about the salvation of Russian production in 2008 that Deripaska’s structures received tremendous state aid, which saved Oleg the margin call Vladimirovich from deserved bankruptcy.
Then the situation changed - in Moscow, the new mayor, and in general - what the production is in FIG, you have to make money quickly. In general, within the framework of the “development”, a landing of lawyers and managers from the province was involved, the main task of which, apparently, was to dismiss everyone. They started with artists and technologists - they offered to write at their own will, "otherwise, we will dismiss the article anyway." Then came the turn of equipment - the unique Rieter machines, which the Pakistani, Indian and Uzbek textile groups wanted to buy back all the time, decided to just quickly dismantle, and all spinners were given notices of dismissal.
Eliminating the spinner is the end of Trekhgorka, it will be suitable only for packing cheap Chinese fabric in Russian boxes with a proud inscription. At the same time, the plant will be set up in Gavrilov-Yam - the town-forming enterprise in the district center of the Yaroslavl region, which Trehgorka provided with raw materials. But these little things do not inhibit the great aluminum combinator. His task today is to break production at Trekhgorka and concentrate the entire stake (at the moment about one-third), to pretend that everything happened by itself and there is no other way but to build an office and residential complex with lofts in the building of an old factory . Now the glamorous pool with a fitness club has already opened there and another valuable object is functioning - the office of the “noble weaver” Polina Valentinovna Deripaska-Yumasheva. In the future, for the development of Russian textiles, the question of bringing several hundred Vietnamese citizens to Gavrilov Yam according to a quota was agreed upon with the Governor of the Yaroslavl Region.
The workers of the factory, together with the production managers, are trying to protest against the destruction of one of the oldest enterprises in Russia, they are coming to the pickets, but ... With the current government, one can hardly change anything.
Nevertheless, we publish a link to the site “Save the Three Hills” and wish it to the enthusiasts of every success.
from 24 May 2011 years
Comment EFG: We have already written about a similar situation with Dynamo. Alas! And one more legendary unique factory of Russia, “Three-Mount Manufactory”, is close to the end of its glorious history. And do not indulge yourself and other illusions about the fact that, even in good faith transferring equipment to another city, you can save the unique personnel and the spirit of the enterprise. Someone may want to move from Moscow to Gavrilov-Yam. However, probably, even Deripaska and his patron Putin, it is clear that there will not be too many of these, break people through a knee or kindly beg them. This is a system error.
However, our rulers are surprisingly economically ignorant, although very self-confident. Having learned a few phrases from “economics” that Americans easily move from city to city in search of better work and earnings, they thought that the same wonderful thing could be depicted in Russia, repeating the thesis of “mobility” of the workforce .
Well, at least such an argument could be taken into account. Soviet mega-projects (as well as American mobility) were built in conditions of fairly stable demographic growth, and every year the number of young people entering the industry, if not increased, then at least did not fall.
Now we have a state of demographic abyss. The following year (mainly due to the efforts of Yeltsin and KHNUMX at the beginning of 0), thousands of young people will come to 90 – 600 less than, say, even in 700 year, let alone Soviet times. And after all, the young are the most mobile. Pensioners, for example, who can be encouraged to stay in production, are not inclined to move: an apartment, a summer cottage, a polyclinic, friends, children, grandchildren. So we have to “effective” managers who are not inclined to preliminary systems analysis, import Vietnamese and Chinese.
In general, the volume of production in the textile industry in Russia in 2010 year barely falls short of 35 percent of the level of 1990 year. But the Russian market of light industry products is about 3 trillion. rubles. This is the largest market after the food. And thanks to its quick turnaround, it could become a financial locomotive for the economy.
And again - alas! Thanks to the “wise” economic policy of the government, only 20 – 25 percent of this market is occupied by domestic producers. Everything else is legal and illegal imports.
Far Eastern Radio Plant, Komsomolsk-on-Amur (1993 – 2009)
DRZ "Avest" - was one of the most modern enterprises of the electronic industry in Russia. Created in 1993 at the Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association (KnAAPO), on the basis of a workshop for the production of sighting radar complexes in the framework of the conversion program. Since 1996, the plant has manufactured household appliances under the Avest brand. In the 2003 year, after the privatization of KnAAPO, DRZ was taken out as an independent asset, having a wholly owned subsidiary - OJSC “Production and Trading Company“ Avest ”(Khabarovsk). Became one of the largest radio-electronic enterprises in the east of Russia. Actively introduced to the market, leading the assembly of Chinese, Japanese and Korean components
Then, in order to reduce logistics costs, about 35% of TV production was transferred to production facilities in Birobidzhan. In 2005, Avesta's products accounted for sales of 5,6 TVs,% of the market of the Khabarovsk Territory, DVD-equipment - 15,9%, washing machines - 7,86%. Sales revenue in 2005 amounted to almost 900 million rubles. In December, 2004, General Director of Aves OJSC, Alexander Mikryukov, for success in the development of industry, received a government award - the Order of National Glory. However, at the end of March 2006, the authority of Alexander Mikryukov was suspended, and the plant itself was found to be on the verge of bankruptcy, and soon external management was introduced. At the beginning of 2006, the prosecutor's office of Komsomolsk-on-Amur opened two criminal cases against the management of the company.
In 2007, the plant changed ownership, and in 2009 entered the bankruptcy procedure.
Bicycle factory, Yoshkar-Ola (1950 – 2006)
It originated as a subsidiary of a large defense enterprise - Yoshkar-Ola Mechanical Plant. He produced bicycles popular in the USSR under the trademarks Salyut and Altair. In the best years, the output reached 800 – 900 thousand per year.
He was declared bankrupt in 2001 – 2002 and ceased to exist in 2005 – 2006, although, perhaps, de jure, it continues to exist as some kind of a joint stock company or closed joint-stock company.
Bicycle factory, Nizhny Novgorod (1940 – 2007)
“The history of the Nizhny Novgorod bicycle factory is quite indicative. It was built in 1940 year as the shop of the Gorky Automobile Plant for the production of consumer goods, in particular pedal children avtomobilchiki. But the war began, and the plant began to produce mines. Then the company has changed its profile more than once. From 1956 to 1996, the only factory product was the Shkolnik bicycle, which underwent only one upgrade in 40 years - in 1979. In the middle of 90's, the Nizhny Novgorod Bicycle Factory experienced a protracted crisis - the market refused to accept the prehistoric “Shkolnik”, and at the enterprise itself one “red” director followed another. ”
Until 2002, the bicycle factory in Nizhny Novgorod produced Shkolnik bicycles.
Nizhny Novgorod Arbitration extended bankruptcy proceedings at Velozavod OJSC until July 24
The Arbitration Court of Nizhny Novgorod region 18 January decided to extend for half a year, up to 24 July 2007, the bankruptcy proceedings at OJSC Velozavod (Nizhny Novgorod, a manufacturer of bicycles, a subsidiary of OJSC GAZ (GAZA)), Prime-TASS reported in monday in court.
Competitive production is extended due to the fact that the company has not yet formed a competitive mass.
As previously reported, the Arbitration Court of the Nizhny Novgorod Region 24 in January 2006 of the year introduced a bankruptcy procedure for a period of 1 in OJSC “Velozavod”. The bankruptcy trustee was appointed a member of the non-commercial partnership of the self-regulatory organization of arbitration managers "Eurasia" (Nizhny Novgorod) Valery Torgashev, who until then had been the temporary manager of the plant. As PRIME-TASS was previously informed by V. Torgashev, the bankruptcy procedure was initiated by the debtor himself. At the time of introduction of bankruptcy proceedings, the payables of OJSC Velozavod amounted to 56 million rubles, including 8 million rubles. - for taxes and fees, 3,8 million rubles. - accounts payable of the 1 line (debt on insurance payments to employees of the plant). The main commercial creditor of the enterprise was OAO GAZ (80 percent of competitive payables).
The observation procedure in OJSC Velozavod was introduced 22 June 2005 g. During the period of temporary management, assets worth 2 million rubles were sold, which are aimed at paying severance payments and salaries. JSC "Velozavod" since October 2004, in fact, does not conduct production activities. Now the company employs 35 people. ”
The company actually ceased to exist as early as 2007.
Perm "Bicycle factory" (1939 – 2006)
In any gift edition devoted to the Western Urals, you can find a phrase that Perm is the bicycle capital of Russia. Bicycle "Kama" Perm production has long been one of the most popular and favorite modes of transport in the vast former Soviet Union. And the bicycle factory itself, founded in 1939 on the basis of the Vladimir Gramophone Factory, is one of the main symbols of Perm. With 1956, the plant specializes in the production of bicycles, the production of which was transferred to it by the Gorky Automobile Plant.
In the best years, the company produced up to 400 thousands of bicycles a year, and this was the production of a full cycle - all components were domestic.
“Worn in the Soviet times, the proud name of the October Revolution, the Perm bicycle factory is now called shortly Velta. Today, the “symbol of Perm” is slowly agonizing, terrorizing the citizens. For the past four months, the general directors at Welta have been changing like gloves: in all there were about ten of them during this time. Some of them had time to work in positions less than a day. Others were more fortunate: they were able to stay in the management chair from a few days to a month.
Now on Velta 3400 Perm work. They have not seen the money earned by honest labor for a very long time. The total amount of wage arrears exceeds today 30 million rubles. After in October of last year the next general director was removed, who promised to pay off the debts gradually, the bicycle plant workers blocked the streets of Perm and stopped the traffic. Many then immediately remembered the former name of the plant - the name of the October Revolution. At that time, each worker was paid 500 rubles. It is said that all the cash from the cash register went to this.
Then there were crowded pickets of workers at the regional and city administrations. Perm has not seen such a mass protest for a long time. The last time something similar happened a few years ago, when the chemical plant Kamteks went bankrupt and the Mashinostroitel workers protested. But "cycling" excitement on the scale significantly bypassed all that came before them.
From "Velty" directly depends on the livelihoods of three districts of Perm, in which live about 80 thousand people. Heat and hot water flow into their apartments through the Velty boiler house. Last summer, gas companies, due to debts, were forced to stop supplying blue fuel to the velozavod. As a result, all three neighborhoods for a long time were left without heat and hot water. In short, the Velty area on the map of Perm is a point of heightened social tension. ”
Source: http://www.ng.ru/regions/2002-02-12/5_bicycle.html (2002)
“Scheduled for today, July 7, the auction for the sale of shares of OJSC Perm Bicycle Plant did not take place. According to Maria Leongardt, the bankruptcy manager of Velta, no bids have been received for participation in the bidding.
100% stake in a subsidiary of OJSC Velta was offered for trading at an initial price of 125 mln. Rub.
The Perm bicycle factory has been put up for sale for the third time. Previous bidding was canceled due to the absence of bids.
According to Leongardt, the sale of PVZ shares is the lenders' only hope to recover at least part of the debts. The total payables of Velta without penalties and fines are 753,6 million rubles. Tomorrow Velta creditors will have to set a new date for the auction.
“Perm Bicycle Plant” will be sold to the stop, ”the bankruptcy trustee said.”
Nobody wanted to buy the bicycle factory entirely, the property went retail, the workshops were separate, the boiler room was separate, the equipment was separate. The fate of the enterprise was predetermined, and in 2005 – 2006. The Perm Bicycle Plant, which by this time bore the name “OJSC Velta,” ceased to exist.
Comment "EFG": Until 1991, the USSR was the third-fourth in the world in bicycle manufacturing. Total production was calculated in numbers from 7 to 9 million units per year, of which 4,5 – 5 million - in Russia. The largest factories were Kharkov (produced Ukraine, Tourist), Minsk (Aist), Perm (Kama), Yoshkar-Ola (Salyut, Altair) and Nizhny Novgorod (Shkolnik). The products of Soviet bicycle enterprises were actively bought abroad, including in China. Until the middle of the 90s, 9 of large bicycle factories operated in the territory of the Russian Federation (in Perm, Sverdlovsk, Gorky, etc.). Competition with the Chinese led to the closure of the flagships of the Soviet bicycle construction - factories in Perm (Kama, Ural), Yoshkar-Ola (Salut) and other cities.
And this is despite the fact that our cities are poorly adapted for cycling. Yes, and we have a rather specific climate - 6 – 7 months of the year on bicycles to ride is not very comfortable. Nevertheless, in rural areas, in small towns, especially in the south, bicycles are used quite actively.
Currently, the bicycle market in Russia is now estimated at 5 – 6 million. Approximately 75 percent of this market is occupied by Chinese imports, and 25 percent - by the “red assembly”, that is, the official assembly from foreign, primarily Chinese, components, under its own assembly brand, for example, Stells or Atom. In Russia, about 20 enterprises assemble bicycles, the largest of which are Velomotrs, the Perm company Stefi-Velo and the Penza Bicycle Plant, which continues to manufacture bicycles under the Sura brand, but now from Chinese components.
However, alas, it can be stated that Russia's own production of full-cycle bicycles has been destroyed. As for the assembly, it is legally and semi-legally assembled in Russia up to 1,2 – 1,4 million bicycles, which is approximately 30 percent of the Soviet level.
In short, the example of the bicycle industry, as well as the watch industry, is clearly seen: even the successful and quite competitive industries on world markets were completely destroyed or reduced to zero levels by unprofessional actions of the authorities and illiterate economic policies pursued in 1991 – 2011.
Proletarsky Plant, St. Petersburg (1826 – 201?)
Proletarsky Plant OJSC is one of the oldest machine-building enterprises in St. Petersburg.
The company was launched on September 7 1826, under the name "Aleksandrovsky Plant". Since 1843, the plant has become an important supplier of rolling stock for the Russian railway network under construction. In 1845, the first domestic steam locomotive was produced at the Alexander Plant. In 1850, passenger car production began.
In recent years, the company specializes in marine and power engineering. Shipbuilding mechanisms, systems and complexes, in some cases having no analogues in domestic practice, are created at the enterprise for civilian ships and the Navy. In addition, the company produces a wide range of products for construction, transport, agriculture and other industries. The plant is also a supplier of Gazprom and Rosenergoatom.
On April 29, the Arbitration Court of St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region accepted the application for bankruptcy of Proletarskiy Zavod OJSC for review. The claimant is the state corporation Deposit Insurance Agency (DIA). According to Andrei Deryabin, director of the asset management department of DIA, Fontanka reported that the plant owes the agency about 2 billion rubles.
The history of this duty is as follows. Proletarsky Zavod, the controlling stake of which has been owned by the Gitelson Banker Group (Eastern European Finance Corporation (EEFC)) from 2004, periodically took out loans from the banks of its main shareholder OJSC Petro-Aero-Bank, OJSC Inkasbank, OJSC Bank VEFK.
“Bank VEFK” after loss of solvency in 2008, came under control of DIA. After successful reorganization, the bank was sold to Otkritie Bank, losing the status of a legal entity and becoming a branch of the latter (autumn 2010) under the name Petrovsky. One and all last outstanding loans were taken at EEFC Bank for a period of 1. Terms of reckoning for them came from February to July 2009.
It is known that structures close to Gazprombank were interested in buying shares of the Proletarsky Zavod, but at the beginning of 2011, these plans were abandoned because the main real owner of the company, banker Alexander Gitelson, is still wanted in the case of withdrawal of funds from its banks.
According to media reports, the number of plant personnel - 1700 people., The area of industrial buildings - 130 thousand square meters. m
“EFG” comment: Although, as a rule, after the introduction of bankruptcy procedures, very few plants in Russia managed to recover and restore production in the previous volumes and with preservation of the production profile, “Proletarsky Zavod” can still be saved.
BALTIC FACTORY (1856 – 2011)
A strange story continues with the protracted bankruptcy of one of the most significant enterprises in the Russian shipbuilding industry - the Baltic Shipyard.
Here is what Wikipedia writes:
“At present, the Baltic Shipyard is a leader in the domestic shipbuilding market. The company has the most powerful design, production and economic potential, which allows it to build modern ships and manufacture shipboard engineering products that meet international standards.
The most significant project of our time is the world's first floating nuclear power plant “Akademik Lomonosov”, which is currently being built at the plant.
The company was founded by St. Petersburg merchant M. Carr and mechanical engineer of the imperial yacht “Nevka” M.L. Macferdson as a joint ship, foundry, mechanical and shipbuilding plant on the south-west coast of Vasilyevsky Island.
For a century and a half, the plant has been building technically sophisticated and unique ships and ships for its time. Today, one of the most important activities of the shipyard is civil shipbuilding. In recent years, the company has built ships for large customers from Russia, Germany, Holland, Portugal, Norway, Sweden and other countries of the world.
At the beginning of the XXI century, the Baltic Plant plays a leading role in the revival of the national icebreaking fleet: in 2004, the plant won the FSUE “Rosmorport” international tender for the construction of a series of modern diesel-electric icebreakers for operation in the Gulf of Finland. Two diesel-electric icebreakers, Moscow and St. Petersburg, were built, the last one was delivered to the customer in June 2009. Thus, for the first time after the 30-year recess, a series of linear diesel-electric icebreakers was built at the domestic shipyard. In 2007, the company launched the nuclear-powered icebreaker "50 Years of Victory".
Over the 150-year history of the enterprise, more than 500 warships, submarines and civilian ships were built. From the day of its foundation, the plant was the first to master new projects of ships and ships, which were later built by other Russian shipyards. ”
Baltiysky Zavod experienced serious financial difficulties due to debts of 15 billion rubles and the actual absence of the owner during the whole of last year.
“For the timely payment of wages to workers and the development of production, a new legal entity has already been created for which contracts will be signed. Earlier, in October, Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Kozak announced that the Central Bank of the Russian Federation had transferred to the management of United Shipbuilding Corporation (USC) shares of the Baltic Plant, which at that time were in his possession on loans of the United Industrial Corporation (OPK) ex - Senator Sergey Pugachev.
In addition to Baltzavod, other shipbuilding assets of the defense industry (Shipbuilding Plant Severnaya Verf OJSC and TsKB Iceberg OJSC) were also pledged to the Central Bank on loans for 32 billion rubles issued to the bankrupt MeIC.
On January 13, the Arbitration Court of St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region introduced a monitoring procedure against OJSC Baltiysky Zavod.
About this RIA "News"said the official representative of" Baltiysky Zavod - Shipbuilding "Ltd., to which the company's obligations to fulfill existing contracts are transferred.
"Today, a monitoring procedure has been introduced, this is the first stage of bankruptcy proceedings at the Baltic Shipyard. The plant will continue to work until the arbitration court determines that it is impossible to pay off the debts, and there will be bankruptcy proceedings further," he said.
The court’s decision was made at the request of the St. Petersburg Bars-Hydraulics Group LLC as part of the case on the similar claim of the Trading House Sanesta-metall (St. Petersburg). The arbitration at the end of October left the application of the trade house without consideration, but the proceedings did not stop.
At present, the arbitration of St. Petersburg also received three separate claims for bankruptcy of the enterprise - from Sberbank, Russian Mining and Metallurgical Company LLC (RGMK, Moscow) and the Melitopol Refrigerating Machine-Building Plant of Ukraine Melitopol Refrigerating Engineering Plant. No reviews have yet been scheduled.
At present, the Moscow Arbitration Court has satisfied the claim of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation and imposed a penalty on the shares of Baltzavod (88,32%), the cost of their sale is determined in the amount of 220 rubles per share. The owners of the shares are CJSC Junior, CJSC TechnikLine, LLC Nano-Stroy, CJSC Inter-Stroy and CJSC Trust Holding, which were defendants at the suit of the Central Bank.
S. Pugachev was one of the largest Russian magnates close to the Yeltsin family and V.V. Putin According to media reports, Mezhprombank kept their personal accounts for Naina Yeltsin and the daughter of President Yeltsin - Tatyana Dyachenko and Elena Okulova. In 1995, Mezhprombank issued credit cards to members of the B. Yeltsin family.
In the era of Putin, Pugachev positioned himself as a sponsor of the Sretensky Monastery, the head of which is Putin's personal confessor, Tikhon (Shevkunov). According to Pugachev, Tikhon is also his confessor.
According to the Forbes list, in 2005 – 2008. Pugachev's fortune was estimated at 2 billions of dollars. In 2010, he was considered one of the wealthiest non-residents of Britain, possessing significant assets in this country. Pugachev has a very extensive property in France.
It was on V. Putin’s 11 April 2007 submission that the chairman of the Tuva government, Kara-ool, appointed Pugachev as government representative in the Federation Council, thereby making it possible for Pugachev to extend his senatorial powers.
In June 2010 of the Pugachev family controlled by Mezhprombank was unable to make regular payments on unsecured loans worth 32 billion rubles. After that, the Board of Directors of the Central Bank of Russia (CBR) approved the restructuring of Mezhprombank's debt on unsecured loans for a period of six months against the pledge of shipbuilding assets of the United Industrial Corporation controlled by Pugachev. However, it soon became clear that more than 99 percent of loans turned out to be overdue for Mezhprombank.
Mezhprombank owned, as already mentioned above, the United Industrial Corporation, the main industrial diamonds of which were ex-Soviet defense monsters - the Baltic Shipyard and the "Northern Shipyard".
From this point on, the entire financial and industrial empire of S. Pugachev is uncontrollably rolling down.
Currently, S. Pugachev lives mainly in France, his son Alexander received citizenship of the French Republic and is actively engaged in business in this country, mastering the remnants of the former empire of his father, who Sergey Viktorovich managed to leave under his control. For example, only in the advertising campaign of the Paris newspaper France Suar, bought by the Pugachev family, according to various estimates, from 20 to 40 million dollars were invested.
In this regard, the role of Vladimir Putin, which the Prime Minister decided to play in the fate of the Baltic Shipyard, is rather incomprehensible. At the beginning of December, 2011, Putin visited the plant and declared that he had to be rescued ... through bankruptcy, and all existing contracts would be transferred to the newly created enterprise “Baltic Plant - Shipbuilding”.
In other words, it was the head of government that advised to apply in this case that “gray scheme” of avoiding creditors, which is quite common in business: when all debts remain in a bankrupt enterprise, and all assets are in a newly created enterprise.
To put it mildly, this scheme can be questioned on the subject of its flawless legitimacy. Very often in such cases, willy-nilly, for noble purposes or for mercenary motives, the “most hard-for-all” of most of the creditors occurs.
Therefore, the Baltic Shipbuilding Shipyard most likely will not have an easy fate: first, creditors will try to extend the claims to him, and, secondly, the reputation of the enterprise created in this way in the business community will not be very brilliant. And it will be quite difficult for him to get loans. Who will credit such an enterprise, which, at the next stage of its existence, can again turn into some kind of “Baltic Shipbuilding – 2”, leaving all debts in the Baltic Shipbuilding Shipbuilding? And so on?
In our opinion, it would be much more correct if the state represented by Putin did not engage in dubious fuss and entanglement of creditors, but simply paid 10 billions of ruble debt to the Baltic Shipyard. It's not cheap, but it's just 300 million dollars, and this is not a very big price for saving the flagship of domestic shipbuilding.
But the Russian prime minister rarely bothers himself with moral reflection or reflections on the reputation of the enterprise “saved” by him, believing that everything he does is good and legal, and all problems can be solved by willful effort.
We do not claim at all that V. Putin and S. Pugachev are bound by some financial interests, for example, large blocks of shares, which are currently in the trust of some citizen Pupkin, but at the "right time" transferred to "the one who needs it."
Of course, the Prime Minister of Russia V.V. Putin is free to selflessly save his oligarch buddies and their property in any way possible, including saving them from having to pay creditors.
That's just not worth giving these obscure "gray schemes" for the only possible option to save the domestic industry.
As for the Baltiysky Zavod (and in the future, apparently, of the Northern Shipyard), then, as recent national history shows, enterprises “saved” in this way very rarely stay afloat. There are no proofs of this: from the Rubin and the Saratov aircraft factory to the Trekhgorka and the Dynamo plant.
PS In this section, we consider it expedient to concentrate on the fate of the largest and most high-tech enterprises, the very ones that were supposed to provide a breakthrough for the country into the future and about which so many pathetic words with aspirations and soulful rolling of the eyes were uttered and continue to be said by the highest officials of Russia ...
At the same time, for the most part, those enterprises that ended their existence (more correctly, were destroyed as a result of erroneous economic policies) in recent years, that is, in 2001 – 2011.
We consider these two clarifications fundamentally important for an objective and comprehensive analysis of the sincerity of words and the effectiveness of the actions of the current government, which virtually protects domestic high technologies from TV screens. The cases, alas, are such.
Many of the enterprises listed in the heading could have been saved in 2005 – 2009, some can be saved even now. Undoubtedly, if instead of sterilizing gas-oil superprofits in the Stabilization Fund, they were invested in perishing high-tech enterprises, if loan rates were forcibly reduced to 5 – 6 percent, as the EFG repeatedly suggested in 1997 – 2011, and the enterprises would have survived and the crisis 2008 – 2009 would not hit the Russian economy so painfully.
In preparing the publication, in addition to the quoted sources, the official websites of the above-mentioned enterprises, as well as electronic encyclopedia resources, were also used.