In the photo Colonel S.V. Pavlov and Sotnik PN Donskov (right)
To date, its performers are just countless from the Reddo group that picked it up following A.Never to A.Malinin. List all just is not possible in a single article. An inquisitive reader can open a Yandex search engine and familiarize himself with them. There are even “exotic” ones - for example, the leader of the LDPR Party, a member of the State Duma of Russia, V.V. Zhirinovsky, who, due to weak vocal data, recites him to music.
Emigrants of both the first and second waves, to put it mildly, were critical of the appearance of the romance due to its, from their point of view, low standard, while historians of the XNUMXth century note a certain positive moment in this event. The romance "Lieutenant Golitsyn" became a logical continuation of the dissident movement in the USSR, which began in the sixties. The then-Soviet society, in conditions of "stagnation", gradually losing social and moral guidelines, disbelieving in communist ideals, mentally began to appeal to those who were expelled to Bizerte and Gallipoli after the end of the Civil War, trying to return the spiritual values and the romance "Lieutenant Golitsyn" lost with them Having become a prologue to a whole direction in songwriting (the so-called “White Guard romance”), he directed the minds of those who are looking in this direction through idealizing the image of a white officer as an unselfish defender of a scolded Motherland and the Orthodox faith, by glorifying his sacrificial feat and offering it as a role model. The significance of the “Lieutenant Golitsyn” romance in the context of all of the above can hardly be overestimated even despite its certain restaurant character, a glassy glass or something. This trend has survived in our days. On the website of the Ukrainian Cossack organization Kiev Cossack Union published a series of photographs discrediting from the point of view of the authors of the young leaders of the International Faithful Cossacks Association, setting itself as one of the main goals of restoration historical the truth about the sacrificial feat of the White movement participants, which was the Cossacks. For the thinking reader, this “compromising evidence” speaks of the path traveled by patriotically inclined youth - from the realities of today's life to a bright legend and on the wings of this legend to finding its own way in the socio-political life of modern Ukraine.
The fictional character Lieutenant Golitsyn today has become the personification of the White Case, its business card, brand:
"Ah, Golitsyn, you are the symbol of Russia.
Burned bridges behind.
Oh, what white on blue
We all have dreams about Russia. "
(romance of A.Dniprov and O. Pavlova)
Since the appearance of the first magnetic recording of the romance, and to this day, interest in its authorship has repeatedly arisen in Soviet society and in the post-Soviet space. An inquisitive reader can find on the Internet a lot of research on this topic - for example, on the website of Sergey Karamayev white-force.narod.ru called "Poems and songs about the white guard (white emigration)". Artists Zhanna Bichevskaya, Mikhail Zvezdinsky, the author of many songs and the organizer of the Black Sea Gull ensemble known in 70 Vladislav Kotsyshevsky and many others declared their authorship. Most recently, the poet and bard A. Galich was declared the author. Who really was the author of the romance "Lieutenant Golitsyn" and the work of which of the participants described in the romance of events could serve as the basis for its creation?
Today, thanks to the enormous amount of information on the Internet on the history of chanson, the huge amount of literature on the so-called alternative history of the two Civil Wars, published since 1991 after the collapse of the USSR, as well as radical changes in the views on these events, the roles of their participants on both sides in the future fate of the peoples of the former Russian Empire that occurred in modern society, it became possible to combine pieces of an information mosaic in one drawing and name the author of the romance "Lieutenant Go lytsyn ", as well as name a person whose poetic work and memoirs served as an impetus for his appearance, becoming a kind of relay race of generations begun in 1918 and carried several generations onto the path of searching for truth.
In 1994, the publishing house "Young Guard" (Moscow) published a reissue of the memoirs of Peter Nikolaevich Donskov "Don, Kuban and Terek in the Second World War". Memoirs were published in the collection "P. Krasnov, A. Shkuro, P. Wrangel, P. Donskov", "The Tragedy of the Cossacks" (the editorial board forgot to put the name of PN Donskov on the front page of the dust jacket). The book was published in small editions in 25000 copies and settled mainly in public libraries, unnoticed against the background of a lot of similar literature. On the Internet, you can find its mention in the collections of many libraries in Ukraine and Russia. For the first time, the memoirs of PN Donskov were published in New York, USA in small editions by the publisher named after the marching chieftain S.V. Pavlov in 1960 year (the publishing house was created by Cossack emigrants, participants of the Second Sporax or the Second Civil War against the Bolsheviks) even during the life of the author . Rare copies of this book are found on online auctions and are fabulously expensive. With the exception of reprinting in the CIS in the year 1994, these memoirs have not been reprinted anywhere - either before the year 1994 or after.
The memoirs of PNN.Donskov are of little interest for a historian who studies in depth the history of the Second World War and the Great Patriotic War because they contain few names, numbers and dates. The author himself in his memoirs says that the time for this has not come yet - the participants in these events are alive, who according to the post-war treaty between the USSR and its allies in the anti-Hitler coalition as USSR citizens should have been extradited to the Soviet government. The memoirs of PNN.Donskov are rather a song in prose - a song for the Don land, its people, their readiness for self-sacrifice in the name of the freedom of their homeland - Don. An overview of the epic civil wars and events in the life of the author takes place from 1918 year to 1944 year. Throughout all the memories, the author cites excerpts from his poems written from 1924 to 1942 during his stay in the Soviet Don. The last page contains the first quatrain of the common-hymn Cossack anthem of the Second Spike, written by him in the year 1942:
"Cossack villages blaze with fire,
Wind carries ashes on the fields of origin.
There is something for us to fight with the bloody commune,
There is something to please our homeland to us ... "
Compare with the above quatrain the first two lines from the first verse of the “Lieutenant Golitsyn” romance in
performed by A.Severny:
"The fourth day the villages burn,
Don land sweats rain ... "
And performed by M. Zvezdinsky:
"The fourth day the villages burn,
A big war walks across the Don ... "
On the 604 page of PN Donskov's memoirs there is a verse-testament to the descendants:
"If you say that in death you are looking for oblivion,
What is broken on the ground of your senses is the ideal,
Do not bend your knees before the hardships of life,
Life is a struggle, not a bright charming ball.
If your strength is on the eve of a fall,
If the fetters of insane longing do not break,
If you're drowning in a turbulent life wave,
I am ready to give you a helping hand.
I am happy to share with you my strength,
To convey my will to work and struggle,
Just open my songs to the silent pages,
And silently all the words will tell you
That a man is born for freedom and light,
Do not exhaust him the benefits of life to the bottom,
What, perhaps, in the element of the poet's suffering
All your torments are just a drop. "
Let's compare the given verse with the second two lines of the first verse of the romance "Lieutenant Golitsyn":
"Do not lose heart, Lieutenant Golitsyn,
Cornet Obolensky, pour the wine ... "
If you do not pay attention to the direct indication of the need for strong drinks, the use of which poets and chanson singers have always been distinguished by, then the semantic coincidence is ideal.
Another fact is striking: the last verse cited by the poet P.N. Donskov proposes to take advantage of his work, his inspiration, his strength to his descendants in difficult moments of life, as if from the forties he foresaw the distant future and the history of his creative heritage. Especially when you consider the consequences of the appearance of the romance "Lieutenant Golitsyn".
But semantic coincidence is only a coincidence. To prove our assumption, let's trace the history of writing a romance from the first known and officially documented or recorded on a magnetic tape the moment of its appearance, decompose in chronological order all that is known about its first performers, claiming authorship, but only what is common knowledge and not requires no evidence i. what is found in official biographies, autobiographies, memoirs and interviews of their contemporaries and is available to all sources.
Romance first appeared in 1977-78's. He sounded in the performance of Arkady North. He was recorded in an underground recording studio owned by Sergei Ivanovich Maklakov - well-known in those years, the patron and fan of chanson. An earlier performance of this romance is nowhere. Absolutely nowhere. The same conclusion is made by Sergey Karamaev on his above mentioned website, who was professionally engaged in such searches. In the official biography of A.Never, posted by his friends and contemporaries on the official website of his name, it is told that during this period the repertoire of A.Never dried up, the songs began to be repeated and A.Never suggested that the song “Lieutenant Golitsyn” be placed in another collection. The same official biography tells us that S.Maklakov’s apartment, where the so-called “underground” recording studio itself was often visited by S.Maklakov’s friend, was a lyric poet Vladimir Romensky, who wrote verses “in the drawer of the table” , that is, he never published his works and, in general, was not going to do it. V.Romensky was offered to put his poems to music. The songs succeeded and it was then that V. I. Romnysky proposed to finalize the “isolated quatrains of the White Guard song” proposed by A. North. It was V.Romensky who created the romance as we used to hear it.
The next step is to follow where A. Severny could take the mentioned quatrains (A. Severny himself during his whole creative life did not write a single song, since he was only a performer). In 2007, in an interview with Sergey Chigrin, Vyacheslav Petrovich Kotsyshevsky, in 70, a well-known author and performer of many songs, the organizer of the Black Sea Gull ensemble, known in those years, as well as S. I. Macklakov, who was engaged in underground recording, said that he was He is the author of the romance "Lieutenant Golitsyn" (full transcript posted on blatata.com.). In an interview with V.P. Kotsyshevsky, he talks about the fact that the romance was written for A.N. Severny during their first collaboration, but was not included in the regular compilation because V.P. Kotsyshevsky did not like his performance. As he says, A.Severny did not feel the romance and was postponed for later. Unfortunately, the gentlemen who interviewed V. Kotsyshevsky did not ask what prompted him to write a romance so unusual for him as a poet and a performer of subjects, which is clear from the transcript of the interview. In the same interview, VPKotsyshevsky tells that while being in friendly relations with A.Never, he was aware of many events of his life. In particular, V.P. Kotsyshevsky talks about the fact that the famous chanson performer Mikhail Zvezdinsky is a distant relative of A. Severny and as a result of the friendship between them A. Severny had such a significant influence on M. Zvezdinsky that M. Zvezdinsky took his creative the pseudonym from the real name of A.Severny is Zvezdin (the real name of M. Zvezdinsky is Deinekin). VPKotsyshevsky talks about the fact that in those years Arkady gave many songs to M. Zvezdinsky including his first version of the romance "Lieutenant Golitsyn".
In confirmation of the story of V. Kotsyshevsky in the official biography of A. Severny on the Internet there is a story of his friends that A. Severny is sometimes seriously, sometimes jokingly offered to the performance of poems of frankly anti-Bolshevik content, to which he invariably refused. I did not consider myself a man capable of fighting with the system and leading other people behind him, and then such verses were often converted to non-politicized content. In the same official biography you can find examples of anti-Bolshevik ditties that were offered to A.Never.
We will follow the further fate of the romance to see if someone from those who claim it as an author will try to formalize his right to it and thereby confirm our assumptions and the story of V.P. Kotsyshevsky. All further said, the reader can find in Wikipedia on MM Zvezdinsky, on his own official website in his autobiography and discography, as well as in Wikipedia Yandex on the well-known chanson artist MZ Shufutinsky:
1988 year - MM Zvezdinsky is released from prison after serving his last eight-year term.
1990 year - The court case of the famous bard Alexander Nikolaevich Lobanovsky to M. M. Zvezdinsky by the authors of the songs "Enchanted, bewitched", "Burning out the candles are crying", "Faded roses", "Nerus" and a number of others the author of which M.M. Zvezdinsky. A.N. Lobanovskiy court wins by presenting a certificate of the All-Union Copyright Agency issued to him in the eighties, which shocks MM Zvezdinsky, since the latter did not expect this.
1991 year - MM Zvezdinsky immediately after the collapse of the USSR securing a certificate of the same VAAP authorship to a number of his songs, including the romance "Lieutenant Golitsyn" leaves for the USA, where from 1991 to 1996 he releases six albums of discs, In them there are white-cock songs. One of them is called the Centurion Bold. According to the observations of music critics, the “centurion of the brave” does not enjoy particular success, however, it is constantly performed at concerts along with “Lieutenant Golitsyn”. In the same years, his autobiography appears where he talks about the romance "Lieutenant Golitsyn" written by him at the age of sixteen, i.e., in the 1961 year.
Let me remind the reader that the memoirs of PN Donskov were published in the USA in 1960 year. The centurion is the military rank of PN Donskov, both in the first and in the second civil wars (the Cossack military command of the centurion in the Russian Imperial Army corresponded to the general military rank of lieutenant).
2007 year - the party LDPR introduces a bill on the rehabilitation of participants in both civil wars on the side of White Russia and fascist Germany. The bill is not adopted due to lack of funds in the state. budget.
2009 year - the head of the LDPR party V.V. Zhirinovsky becomes another performer of the romance "Lieutenant Golitsyn". MM Zvezdinsky for many years is a member of the LDPR party of Russia.
I think that there are quite a few places where you can find such coincidences - for example, the public library of New York where there is the original memoirs of PN Donskov, or a book of visitors to the cemetery where PN Donkes is buried, but this is not necessary. Having reviewed the listed dates, it is possible to unequivocally assert the authorship of V.P. A. Severny, continuing the story of V.P. Kotsyshevsky, presented M. Zvezdinsky not only a romance but also a story of his writing. The latter, while staying in the USA, not only got acquainted with his memoirs, but also, as well as possible, secured himself in case of a trial, as was the case with A.N. Lobanovsky. In the future, he connects his life with the followers of PN Donskov.
To understand why V.P.Kotsyshevsky was silent these years, you need to look at a series of photos on blatata.com. Poverty at the present time is terrifying. Since the end of 80x, V.P.Kotsyshevsky does not participate in concert activities and is practically forgotten today. In a conversation with S. Chigrin, he says that he has to ask for money for an interview.
In addition, before 1991, the nationwide statement that the romance was written by you based on the memoirs of PN Donskov meant the beginning of great trouble on the part of the KGB of the USSR. Since 1991, this has lost all meaning. A. Severny died in 1980 year, V. Romensky a year later after a car accident. However, VP Kotsyshevsky himself can dispel all doubts - he is alive today. This is a good topic for a journalist, a “white” archeologist, who has to find out which joker suggested that A.Next Cossacks anthem of the Second Sporach, PN Donskov, be performed by A.N. Kotsyshevsky, having familiarized himself with his memoirs, wrote a romance and thus put an end to more than thirty years of searching. In addition to the very history of writing, we can hear the first version of the romance performed by the author - most music critics and connoisseurs of chanson say that all the existing options are “flawed”. Perhaps there is a philanthropist who will give us the opportunity to be back in the distant seventies?
Why M. Zvezdinsky is silent about PN Donskov can be found on Wikipedia on request for M. Zvezdinsky, counting the number of years he spent in Soviet camps. Soviet propaganda made a recidivist criminal out of M. Zvezdinsky, and the cycle of White Guard and Cossack songs actually gives him an honest name, not to mention the monetary equivalent of this honor. In addition, the second important reason for silence is called the visitors of the forum on its official website. One of the visitors subtly notes that all his work is based on two or three songs among which "Enchanted, bewitched" and "Lieutenant Golitsyn" and, recalling the first plagiarism, directly accuses the second of plagiarism.
For those who, after reading the article hastily blame MM Zvezdinsky for plagiarism of the “Lieutenant Golitsyn” romance, I suggest reading the article on Wikipedia about the All-Union Copyright Agency of Russia, the clause “plagiarism”: “A work written based on the work of another author doesn’t plagiarize is and is protected by copyright "and that is what the lieutenant" Lieutenant Golitsyn "is in the performance of MM Zvezdinsky. The original version of V.P.Kotsyshevsky was altered and changed many times by various authors and performers, as is the case with folk songs that do not have an author and, most likely, there except "Burn the Village" and "Lieutenant Golitsyn" (which has no historical prototype and was taken as "cornet Obolensky" for rhyme) there is nothing in common.
Personally, I deeply respect the work of Mikhail Mikhailovich Zvezdinsky. His "Noble hymn" heard in his youth remained in the memory for many long years. In addition, a number of songs on the Cossack themes (including the “Centurion daring”) actually continue the themes of PN Donskov’s work, thereby perpetuating the memory of him.
Who is P.N.Donskov? Very little is known about his memoirs. This is a native of the Don, in the years of the Civil War being a student of one of the educational institutions of Novocherkassk joined the guerrilla unit of the white General IF Semeletova. During the evacuation of the Russian Army from the Crimea to the Entente ships did not get. Together with others I had to lay down weapon. At this point he had the title of centurion. Three weeks of waiting to be shot, five years in prison. After liberation, the teacher. At the time of the arrival of the German fascist invaders lived in the territory of the Don. After the occupation of the Don in the year 1942 is one of the most active organizers of the continuation of the Civil War with the Bolsheviks. He held the position of adjutant of Colonel S.V. Pavlov - head of the Don Defense Headquarters, then - deputy for propaganda and agitation. At the time of publication of his memoirs lived in the United States, New York.
Unfortunately, no more information was preserved about him - neither the date of birth (most likely the same age as the 20th century), or the date of death. Such information was preserved only in the archives of the KGB of the USSR and the CIA of the United States and in those years they were in every possible way hiding as the last, since at the time of publication of his memoirs, PN Donskov was a war criminal and was subject to immediate extradition in the USSR.
From the history we know the following: 2ya hundred General I.F. Semeletova was formed on a voluntary basis in early January 1918, in the building of the Don Cadet Corps. The hundred included several officers, single cadets, several old Cossacks and the main mass - students of 16 - 18 years - students, high school students, seminarians, and just Novocherkassk working youth. February 1918 of the year - Steppe campaign of the Don partisan army (conducted simultaneously with the first Kuban campaign of General L. G. Kornilov). Two months later, the squad of Semiletov was almost destroyed and returned to Novocherkassk after the completion of which was the same 16 youth - 18 years of Novocherkassk. 1 June 1918, by order of General P. Krasnov, Semiletov's detachment was disbanded and his employees were enlisted in General A.I.'s Volunteer Army. Denikin in Partizansky (Alekseevsky) regiment. The regiment took part in all military actions of the Volunteer Army both during the offensive and during the military setbacks.
Then there was a retreat to Novorossiysk, in March the evacuation from Novorossiysk to the Crimea and the November 1920 exodus of the Russian Army from the Crimea.
The fate of the young men of the detachment of General IF Semeletov, congruent with the fate of the Ukrainian youth volunteers at Kruty, was described in his poems by a white officer, participant in the Steppe campaign N.Turoveroff:
Remember, remember to the grave
Smoke crest snowdrift
Victory and death in battle.
The longing of hopeless rut,
Anxiety in frosty nights,
Yes shine dull epaulet
On fragile, not children's shoulders.
We gave everything we had
You, the eighteenth year,
Your Asian blizzard
Steppe - for Russia - hike.
Of the orders for the Terek Guards Ataman Division (created from the division of the own convoy of Emperor Nicholas II after his abdication in Mogilev): October 6 1919 of the year. The order of 34: "Centered to the 1 of the 100th Kizlyaro-Trebensky Regiment, the centurion of Donskov and the headquarters of the 2 of the Tersk Cossack Division Cornery Vertep."
According to the history, this division retreated to Novorossiysk together with other parts of the Volunteer Army, in Novorossiysk they could not get on the ships carrying the remnants of the army to the Crimea, fought off the troops through the territory and arrived on June 27 in Georgia. In November 1920, the division with the remnants of the army of Baron P. Wrangel was transferred to Gallipoli. Unlike evacuation from the Crimea where care was more or less organized, they could not evacuate everyone from Novorossiysk to Crimea. Several tens of thousands of civilians, including about seven thousand white officers, were either captured by the advancing units of the Red Army or returned to the territory of the RSFSR and dissolved among the civilian population.
From the year 1926 to the year 1942, P.N.Donskov wrote in a drawer about six hundred poems and poems for the theater. A little-known Soviet writer in his work of art mentions a certain Don Cossack Pyotr Donskov who participated in the performances of an amateur theater in one of the villages of the Orenburg region. A small part of the poems of PN Donskov was published in fascist Germany. Known edition "Cossack Library 11" 1944 year, Berlin, a collection of "Kovyl", where his poems were printed along with such famous Don poets as N.Turoverov. Contemporaries called PN Donskov singer of the Don, the soul of the Cossacks of the Second Spar.
The Don Defense Headquarters, one of whose organizers in 1942 was PN Donskov, was created in the territory of the Don-occupied German fascist invaders with the permission of the command of the German Wehrmacht mainly former white Cossack officers to continue the civil war with the Bolsheviks. Military organization, Don Cossack army at different times (1942 -1945 year) totaled up to 35 thousands of servicemen and their families. The ultimate goal of the struggle is the creation of an autonomous Cossack state in the German-occupied territory. С1942 year 1943 year - the fight against the red partisans in the territory of the Don, Don defense from the advancing Soviet troops, the construction of fortifications. After leaving the Don in connection with the occupation of its territory by Soviet troops, it remained to simply "go with the flow" - this is a fight against partisans in Belarus and partisans of Tito in Yugoslavia. In 1944, after the start of the struggle for leadership of the Don Army in connection with the approaching defeat of Germany in the war and the ensuing assassination of Colonel S.V.Pavlov (S.V.Pavlov was killed by a sniper's bullet through the windshield of a car while driving on a country road) The Don Cossack Army was enrolled in the POA, the army of the notorious traitor to the USSR, General Vlasov. In 1945, the Don Cossack army surrendered to British troops in Lienza (Austria). During the issuance of the Soviet command in view of the unarmed resistance rendered, part of the Cossacks and Cossacks died, a small part fled to the mountains. The rest of the expression of the historians of the Cossacks of the Second Spur "crumbled into dust in the camps of the USSR."
How PNNDonskov could end up in the USA can only be speculated. Two days before the Cossacks were extradited to Lients, their officers were deceived and taken to the Soviet occupation zone (in 1946, they were convicted in Moscow and executed by hanging Helmut von Pannwitz, General P. Krasnov, A. Shkuro, etc.), so you can conclude that PN Donskov in Lienza was not. Knowing that PN Donskov openly clashed with the leadership of the Don Cossack Army, we know his open letter to General P. Krasnov where he accuses him of preparing a contract killing of Colonel S. V. Pavlov, we can assume that he went after the death of his boss and friend, as well as after the transfer of the Don Army to the ROA (which he, PNN.Donskov, was an opponent of) was created in the Russian Separate Volunteer Corps from the first wave of immigrants and their children who lived in Yugoslavia and, like the Don Cossack Army, fought with the partisans T ito The corps consisted of several hundreds of White emigre Cossacks. From history, there is a case when one full day of a marching column with battle flags and in the form arrived the Atamansky division - the same division where a certain centurion was attached to the Separate Russian Corps (later named the last White Russian Armed Forces). PN Donskov during the retreat to Novorossiysk in 1919 year. The Separate Russian Corps surrendered to the English troops was held in the town of Kellerberg (Austria) until 1952, after which everyone in this camp received permission to settle in the United States. Half along with the command of the corps settled near New York.
Reading the memoirs of PN Donskov, it can be concluded that he was not the executioner of his people, did not exterminate him in merciless hatred for the fact that this people chose other leaders in 1918 year. Being on the territory of the Soviet Don PNN.Donskov witnessed the policy of physical destruction of the Don Cossacks as an element alien to the proletarian society. He survived on Don famine 1932-33's. He talks about all this in his memoirs.
Why PN Donskov can be called a "centurion bold" by analogy with the song of M. M. Zvezdinsky - I recommend reading his memoirs. I will cite for many a fact not known from the history of the Second World War - besides the 330 entourage of Paulus’s thousandth army near Stalingrad, there could be another such “cauldron”. Taking advantage of the confusion of the German command after the closure of the ring around Paulus's army, the Soviet command launched an unnoticed tank-infantry column unnoticed where, due to the importance of the attack, all privates were replaced with junior commanders in the Bataysk area to cut off the German-fascist armies in the Caucasus. PNNonskov found and then stopped with three hundred Cossacks this column with one gun with two dozen shells and incendiary bottles.
PN Donskov can be understood and perceived, one can hate awarding him with hundreds of epithets and comparisons, but after all, the romance was sung, we would sing and sing precisely because of him. Still ahead is the search for his lost poems and poems containing not so much the anti-communist propaganda that has bothered everyone, how many songs to Don, his people, his stories.