- Yuri Ivanovich, recently in the media a lot has been said about those systems of electronic surveillance, electronic intelligence, which are used by the Americans ...
- All modern weapons systems consist of electronic stuff. Be it a warship, a modern fighter or a spacecraft. If you can say so, electronics determines the consumer characteristics of weapons systems. The basis of the foundations is the modern level of electronics. The final characteristics of weapons systems depend on the state of the electronic component base. Even 8 years ago, the situation in this regard was on the verge of being critical. We seemed to lag far behind the leading powers seriously enough. But significant measures were taken. In particular, the Strategy for the Development of the Electronic Industry, the Federal Targeted Program for the Development of the Electronic Component Base were adopted. Then other additional measures were implemented, including the program for the development of the military-industrial complex. As a result, the situation began to change.
The electronic component base has a very large nomenclature. These are thousands of products. And a number of them, Russian-made, are today quite well quoted on the global arms market. The efforts undertaken in recent years in the field of microelectronics have allowed a slight reduction in the backlog. In terms of technological capabilities, we are already close to world leaders. Potentially, we can manufacture microelectronics, which today is competitive in its characteristics with the electronics produced by world famous brands. And, of course, it is necessary to promote your projects to the market in order to conquer, expand your own, let's say, a certain niche.
- Today, the same United States of America pays great attention to the development of non-strategic means ...
- The grounds for this are advances in science and technology, primarily in electronics. There are means that allow with high precision to direct various types of weapons at the target with an error of literally several meters. If earlier when flying missiles only data from an autonomous system was used, then today, as a rule, combined means are used. This is an inertial system, on the one hand, and on the other, a navigation receiver that allows for correction, to bring the combat unit or rocket with high accuracy to the target.
- At the same time, we must bear in mind that electronics systems are vulnerable ...
- Of course. You can put electronic noise and all these systems stop working. You can enter such a hindrance that will divert warheads from the intended target. You can put a very effective interference at the desired frequency and thereby eliminate the possibility of using these systems. These are very difficult questions, but the tendency to use high-precision ultrafast weapons are available, they must be considered. These works are not of a massive, serial nature. Certain developments are underway both in the Americans and in ours. But the fact is that the fight against these funds can be much more efficient and cheaper than creating these tools themselves. How, in fact, it happens when it comes to the constant struggle between the systems of attack and defense.
In order to apply countermeasures, it is necessary to have information support. Moreover, this applies to a multi-level information system, including both space and ground reconnaissance components, and tools operating at different distances, with different accuracy characteristics. The Americans today already have in operation space systems that monitor the launching capabilities from the territory of Russia or from other regions of various types of rockets. Our system, which was created in the middle of the 1980-s, makes it possible to see the fact of the launch of a ballistic missile. It gives a signal that something has flown out of a certain area. The strategic missile today, as a rule, moves along a ballistic trajectory. In order to predict the point of its fall, it takes some time. Now we are at the stage of modernization of the system we have. The process of creating a new generation of space tracking system is underway. We have quite seriously increased the pace of recreating the ground level of the warning system. Recently, a new plant of high factory readiness was put into operation in Armavir. This is a unique station, which by its characteristics far exceeds all previous ones. Similar stations are placed around the perimeter of our entire border. They will close all rocket-threatening directions, which is a guarantee of timely detection and formation of a signal for response actions. The space train adds the likelihood of making the right decision. He gives a message that something has flown, but it is not yet known where all this will fly. And the ground train is already accurately calculating, gaining information for responding.
- Recently you became the chairman of the military-technical commission of the Council of Ministers of Defense of the CIS countries. Can we influence the CIS partners in the purchase of our weapons?
- Of course, we are very interested in this as manufacturers and serious players in the global arms market. But on the other hand, we cannot forbid our colleagues, it is their choice to buy any weapon of interest to them, including those not produced in Russia.
- On its website, the Ministry of Defense has published a plan for the activities of the department until 2020 of the year. Do we not reveal our secrets?
- The publication on the website of the Ministry of Defense of our plan before 2020 did not in any way disclose any secrets that could harm our country or the Armed Forces of Russia. The presidential decree outlined the main directions of modernization and rearmament of the Russian Armed Forces. We need to reach the 30% target for advanced weapons by the year 2015. By 2020, this indicator should be at least 70%. The goal that we pursued was to show in an accessible form to the whole country, to everyone, that this plan is systematic and complex. The plan shows that during the implementation of the state armament program, we have approached the issue of systematicity in detail. This refers to a range of activities. This is not only the delivery of modern weapons to the troops, but also the advance preparation of military infrastructure. In practice, this means the following: if we receive from industry, say, a strategic missile, then we already have where to put it. We do not take it to the arsenal for storage, where it will gather dust and lie down. This rocket, which came from industry, will fall into the mine, on combat duty. This is the first. Secondly, personnel will be trained who will have to work directly with this and similar missiles. And all this will be balanced from a financial point of view.
Technique is becoming more complex. And the qualifications of the staff must be very high. It is not enough to fulfill the obligations of the state armament program in time. This, as mathematicians say, is a necessary condition. But a sufficient condition - that this weapon is also effectively used. So that it does what it should do, that is, reflect possible threats and always be on guard of the country's defense capability. And for this you need to have a ready infrastructure. Roughly speaking, the place where this technique can be taken. And this is a very serious question. These are not only special objects - mine installations, moorings, shelters or something else. It is also a social infrastructure. People who will maintain this technique must live with dignity. They should have official housing, their children should go to school, families should receive decent medical care, and the list goes on. This is a complex question. For 2, the implementation of the state armaments program has been marked by a certain imbalance, and we are forced to correct it today. Up to the point that we have already begun to reflect on some items, and not to slow down the industry?
- What do you have in mind?
- The industry has accelerated, begins to fulfill its obligations, and our infrastructure is not always ready. Indeed, I will not hide, this balance has emerged, and we are now forced to take extraordinary measures in order to accelerate the preparation of infrastructure. The solution of this problem by the Minister of Defense is taken under personal control. Weekly at selector meetings under the leadership of the Chief of the General Staff, once a month under the leadership of the Minister of Defense, we are watching live status on live sites - and we have webcams at these sites. Approved graphics. And for us it is very important that by the time the technology is adopted, the infrastructure is already ready. For example, a submarine that will come to a new base in Novorossiysk already has a place to get up to.
Another important aspect is training. It is no secret that in recent years, higher military educational institutions have been sharply reduced. The army has become completely different, and such a number of universities is no longer required. They should be exactly as necessary. But it is necessary to have the necessary number of contract officers to work on the new equipment. They need to be prepared, you need to have the necessary simulators in order not to use the technique itself as a training tool. All these aspects are very important. Everything should be in place and on time done. And the formation of this plan, which we published, was intended to show the consistency and complexity. Moreover, it is the tip of the iceberg. Now, this plan will be translated into specific plans of a specific district, for a specific type and type of troops. The process of its implementation will involve a huge quantitative personnel of the Armed Forces, up to the brigade commander. He should know what he will do tomorrow and the day after tomorrow, what equipment to expect in 2015, and what in 2018, whether his places are ready for its adoption, whether his officers are ready to exploit it. Are there any apartments for these officers to live in? Is his office housing occupied or free? These are all complex questions. And the goal of this plan is to approach their solution in a comprehensive and systematic way.
- One of the most important issues is the purchase of equipment abroad ...
- The issue of purchasing equipment as a final sample abroad is, in my opinion, a road to nowhere. Firstly, we ourselves are major suppliers in the global market. Moreover, the technical characteristics of the export appearance of the product, according to which we give permission for export, are significantly lower than what we have ourselves. They are rounded. And this is quite logical. At the same time you think we will sell the most modern? Of course not. But to do everything yourself, too, in the present conditions is hardly possible. In the conditions of the "iron curtain" we were forced to do so. Were forced to produce everything yourself. But the world has changed, we are no longer living in the Soviet Union. No need to invent a bicycle and spend meaninglessly, unwisely state money. If there is an opportunity, then you should try in an alliance with foreign partners, and most of them are ready for this, build joint production, buy a production license. Thus, we can step over the outlined lag and quickly learn how to do everything ourselves. Actually, everyone follows this path: both China and India, and the leading industrial powers. There is no other way. The main thing - to keep all the reins in their hands. All design, engineering documentation should be Russian. You can not lose control ...
- Can the next state armament program, calculated up to 2025, with the appropriate financial conditions, provide for the construction of an aircraft carrier?
- The appearance of an aircraft carrier in the next state armament program can be predicted. In the current program there are none. But this is primarily a question of our financial capabilities. I think that the appearance of the project of the aircraft carrier in the next program with a high probability can be considered. I would say so carefully. For this there are scientific and technical capabilities of the Russian industry, as well as production capabilities. That is, the Russian industry has the potential to create them. But it is a very expensive pleasure. These are tens of billions for one aircraft carrier. Therefore, you need to look at financial opportunities. Sometimes, instead of a single aircraft carrier, it is more expedient to purchase, say, several frigates or corvettes in order to reinforce a particular grouping. Because the aircraft carrier itself will require escort ships. I think that we will return to this issue soon. Carriers - a highly effective mobile tool that can serve as a serious help, say, in non-strategic, local conflicts.
The question of the construction of the third and fourth amphibious assault ships-docks (MFDD) of the “Mistral” type should be decided only after the Russian Navy gets experience in operating the first two ships of this type. The first two “Mistral” - “Vladivostok” and “Sevastopol” - these are non-negotiable projects. Contracts for them are concluded. In October, the first "Mistral" will be launched and will pass factory tests. Then he will come to us at the Baltiysky Zavod for retrofitting with special equipment, weapons, and communications equipment, and after that he will go to the troops. The French are on schedule, I think that on the second “Mistral” there will be no issues related to the deadlines. As for the third and fourth, let the Navy first take the first and the second, see what the effectiveness of their use is, if they really close those questions that were not closed to us, then we will decide whether we can enter into contracts for the third and fourth or not. The main purpose of concluding these contracts is that we really do not have large-block construction technologies. And this project, although it is moral from a moral point of view for Russian shipbuilders, because they lost their jobs, but, on the other hand, for them this is a step forward, because they got this technology, and having mastered it, they will be able to build such ships, including aircraft carriers.