Military Review

Scientists have shared the prospects of interstellar flights

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Scientists say that with small steps mankind is moving towards a future in which flights from one planetary system to another will finally become a reality. According to the latest expert estimates, such a future may occur within one or two centuries if scientific progress does not stagnate. At one time, only with the help of the Kepler super-power telescope, astronomers were able to detect 54 potentially habitable exoplanets. All these worlds far from us are located in the so-called habitable zone, at a certain distance from the central star, which allows us to maintain the planet's water in a liquid state.


At the same time, to get the answer to the most important question, whether we are alone in the Universe, is rather difficult. Because of the very large distances that separate the solar system and our closest neighbors. For example, one of the "promising" planets Gliese 581g is located at a distance of X-years of light years in 20, which is pretty close by the standards of space, but so far very far from ordinary earth technologies. The abundance of exoplanets within a radius of 100 and less than light years from our home planet, and the very large scientific and even civilizational interest that they represent for all of humanity, force us to take a completely new look at the hitherto fantastic idea of ​​making interstellar flights.

The main task that cosmologists and engineers are facing today is the creation of a fundamentally new engine that would allow earthlings to overcome enormous cosmic distances in a relatively short time. At the same time, the implementation of intergalactic flights is not yet discussed. To begin with, mankind could explore our home galaxy - the Milky Way.

Scientists have shared the prospects of interstellar flights

The Milky Way consists of a large number of stars around which planets revolve. The star closest to the Sun is called Alpha Centauri. This star is removed from Earth on 4,3 light years or 40 trillion kilometers. If we assume that a rocket with an ordinary engine will fly from our planet today, then it will be able to overcome this distance only in 40 thousands of years! Of course, such a space mission looks absurd. Mark Millis, the former head of the NASA project to create new technologies in the field of engine creation and the founder of the Tau Zero Foundation, believes that humanity needs to go long and methodically to create a new type of engine. Nowadays, there are already a huge number of theories about how this engine will be, but which of the theories will work, we do not know. Therefore Millis considers it senseless to focus only on one technology.

Today, scientists have concluded that future spacecraft can fly using a thermonuclear engine, a solar sail, an antimatter engine, or a space-time warping engine (or a warp engine, which is well known to fans of the Star Trek series). The latter engine, in theory, should make it possible to fly faster than the speed of light, and hence small time travel.

At the same time, all of the listed technologies are only described how no one knows how to put them into practice. For the same reason, it is not clear what kind of technology gives the most hope for implementation. True, a number of solar sails have already managed to fly into space, but to accomplish the manned mission of interstellar flights, a huge sail with the size of the Arkhangelsk region will be needed. The principle of operation of the solar sail practically does not differ from the wind one, only instead of the air flow it catches the super-focused rays of light emitted by a powerful laser device rotating around the Earth.


Mark Millis in the press release of his Tau Zero fund says that the truth is somewhere in the middle between the solar sails that are almost familiar to us and absolutely fantastic developments, like a warp engine. “It is necessary to conduct scientific discoveries and slowly but surely move towards the intended goal. The more people we can get interested in, the more funding we will attract, it’s the financing that is currently sorely lacking, ”Millis says. Mark Millis believes that funding for large projects should be collected bit by bit, not counting on someone unexpectedly investing a fortune in the implementation of scientists' ambitious plans.

Today there are plenty of enthusiasts around the world who believe and are confident that the future needs to be built now. Richard Obuzi, who is the president and co-founder of Icarus Interstellar, notes: “Interstellar flights are an international initiative of many generations of people, which requires enormous intellectual and financial costs. Already nowadays we must initiate the necessary programs so that in a hundred years mankind can break out of our solar system. ”

In August of this year, the company Icarus Interstellar is going to hold a scientific conference Starship Congress, at which leading world experts in this field will discuss not only the possibilities, but also the consequences of interstellar flights. The organizers note that the conference will also organize a practical part, which will consider both short-term and long-term prospects for the development of deep space by humans.


It should be noted that such space travel requires a huge amount of energy, which mankind in our day does not even think about. At the same time, the improper use of energy can cause irreparable harm to both the Earth and those planets on the surface of which a person wants to land. Despite all the unresolved problems and obstacles, both Obuzi and Millis believe that human civilization has every chance to leave the limits of its “cradle”. Invaluable data on exoplanets, star systems and alien worlds that were collected by the Herschel and Kepler space observatories will help scientists to carefully plan their flights.

To date, the existence of exoplanets around 850 has been discovered and confirmed, many of which are super-earths, that is, planets with a mass that is comparable to that of the Earth. Experts believe that the day is not far off when astronomers will be able to confirm the presence of an exoplanet that would resemble our own two drops of water. In this case, funding for projects to create new rocket engines would increase significantly. Extraction of minerals from asteroids should play its role in space exploration, which now sounds not as unusual as the same interstellar flights. Mankind must learn to use the resources of not only the Earth, but also the entire Solar System, experts say.

Scientists and engineers from the American space agency NASA, as well as the United States Agency for Advanced Defense Research and Development - DARPA, have joined the problem of interstellar flights. They are ready to unite their efforts in the framework of the project “100-year Starship”, while this is not even a project, but a project of the project. The 100-year Starship is a spacecraft that could perform interstellar flights. The task of the current stage of research is to create the “amount of technology” that is necessary for interstellar flights to become a reality. In addition, a business model is being created that would allow attracting investments to the project.


According to Pavel Eremenko, who is the press secretary of DARPA, this project will need “stable investments in financial and intellectual capital” from various sources. Eremenko also stressed that the goal of the 100-year Starship project is not only the development and subsequent construction of a starship. “We are making all possible efforts to stimulate the interest of several generations to innovate and discover breakthrough technologies in a variety of disciplines.”

DARPA specialists hope that the results obtained during the work on this project will be used by the US Department of Defense in various areas, such as life support systems, energy, computer technology.

Information sources:
-http: //www.vesti.ru/doc.html? id = 1100469
-http: //rnd.cnews.ru/reviews/index_science.shtml? 2011 / 10 / 11 / 459501
-http: //www.nkj.ru/news/18905
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  1. Tarpon
    Tarpon 5 July 2013 09: 38 New
    0
    The main task facing cosmologists and engineers today is the creation of a fundamentally new engine that would allow earthlings to overcome vast cosmic distances in a relatively short time.

    If such an engine is created, then it is primarily used by the military.
    The minimum flying time of missiles is a big risk to the security of countries, there may not be enough time for a retaliatory strike and, as a result, the threat of war will increase. Immediately there will be hotheads who want a military victory with one blow.
    1. ziqzaq
      ziqzaq 5 July 2013 10: 10 New
      +8
      Quote: Tarpon
      If such an engine is created, then it is primarily used by the military.
      The minimum flying time of missiles is a big risk to the security of countries, there may not be enough time for a retaliatory strike and, as a result, the threat of war will increase. Immediately there will be hotheads who want a military victory with one blow.

      Nor will there be any interstellar, interplanetary flights until there are a handful of snickering oligarchs on earth whose purpose is power and personal gain, and headquarters in America ......
      1. Evgeniy46
        Evgeniy46 5 July 2013 11: 55 New
        +4
        Quote: ziqzaq
        Nor will there be any interstellar, interplanetary flights until there are a handful of snickering oligarchs on earth whose purpose is power and personal gain, and headquarters in America ......

        oligarchs will not mind expanding their resource base - the ball is not unlimited. But the problem is different. 10 times more pains are spent on creating cosmetics a year than on all space programs in the world. That is, stars will be available at such a pace of thousands in 5-6 years
        1. ziqzaq
          ziqzaq 5 July 2013 12: 06 New
          0
          Quote: Eugene46
          It takes 10 times more pain to create cosmetics per year than all space programs in the world

          A woman cannot be defeated, but as long as there is demand, there is an offer ...
          Quote: Eugene46
          oligarchs will not mind expanding their resource base - the balloon is not unlimited

          Actually, I meant the resources that they control, if at least hypothetically use them for the development of mankind then .....
          Although this is called communism ........
        2. dustycat
          dustycat 6 July 2013 10: 42 New
          +1
          Still believe in a fairy tale that private business can do anything?
          And believe in Santa Claus ?!

          Private business is only interested in its quickest enrichment and self-preservation. And this contradicts all global planetary and especially interplanetary projects.

          It is only within the power of a socialist economy.

          All that the world has achieved in terms of global transport technologies and global technology development has generally been done purely at the expense of state budgets.
          Even access to new sources of resources on the planet was provided only by state budgets and budget projects.
          The maximum that private traders did was local access roads and local roads.
          So it was with the Canadian, American, English railways, with the Trans-Siberian Railway, Turksib, BAM, Droga Moscow-Petersburg, Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod, with a network of highways in the USA, Germany, France, England, Russia, China and all other countries.
          Space programs were generally implemented only on state budget funds.
          Not a single private trader ever invested a dime in a project that paid off only after a year.
          And interstellar flight projects will pay off only in the very distant future - 200-300 years. For a private trader, this period is never.

          That is why 10 times more money is spent on women's cosmetics and cosmetics - the payback period is from 12 hours to three days.
      2. MG42
        MG42 5 July 2013 18: 02 New
        +2
        Quote: ziqzaq

        Nor will there be any interstellar, interplanetary flights until there are a handful of snickering oligarchs on earth whose purpose is power and personal gain

        Why ... some American moneybags are developing private space exploration, and private spacecraft are already flying into space ... >>>
        Report on the flight of a private suborbital manned spacecraft Space Ship One


        And the Abramovichs are investing a denyuzhka in Chelsea and in yachts on the French Riviera ...
        1. dustycat
          dustycat 6 July 2013 10: 47 New
          0
          Master.
          With the expectation of state budget funds and with the participation of state funds.
          Is it okay that this "private ship" was tested and taken off from state launch sites for free?
          1. MG42
            MG42 6 July 2013 13: 00 New
            +2
            Quote: dustycat
            Is it okay that this "private ship" was tested and taken off from state launch sites for free?

            Why did you get that Branson, the founder of the Virgin Group corporation, which includes about 400 companies of various profiles, did not pay for the rental of the runway, that he has little money? winked
            Or did you harness for Roma Abramovich?
            And he is truly a private ship without quotes.
            What launching pad are you completely out of topic >>> comment on the video without even reviewing it. tongue
            1. dustycat
              dustycat 6 July 2013 19: 37 New
              0
              I talked to the "developers" on the Hydepark.
              They hung out quite often last year with their ads.
              They speak printed Russian very well.
              Just think in Russian is no longer coming out and a lot of reservations about Freud.
              Is there nothing that among the co-owners and partners there are a lot of owners and relatives of the owners of almost all the suppliers of NASA and Petagon?
              No, I understand, this is just an accident. wink
              So this "private project" was made with an eye to budget money and with great patronage from the state customer.
              Like the second project, it is a competitor to Soyuz TMA.
              With that, in general, miracles are in the sieve.

              And so ... Repeat on a knee from improvised modern means and materials Bor or Spiral is quite a budget for some sort of our oligarch. Get the opportunity to tear off a piece of the budget pie on this topic. But in Russia, only Roscosmos is allowed to engage in space.
    2. hommer
      hommer 5 July 2013 10: 16 New
      +4
      Quote: Tarpon
      the threat of war will increase. Immediately there will be hotheads who want a military victory with one blow.


      Yes, humanity is not yet ready for such technologies. But they must already be developed. Another aspect - are they waiting for us in deep space?
      "There are two possibilities: either we are alone in the universe, or we are not. Both are equally terrible" - Arthur Clarke.
    3. theadenter
      theadenter 5 July 2013 10: 39 New
      +9
      With high atmospheric resistance - no weapon at a speed higher than the second space one, reaches the surface of the country - it will burn like a Chelyabinsk meteorite.
      1. OLGRIN
        OLGRIN 6 August 2013 19: 09 New
        0
        So that you! And the curvature of space? Muzzle, ass and you are there.
    4. 755962
      755962 5 July 2013 11: 50 New
      0
      The main task facing cosmologists and engineers today is the creation of a fundamentally new engine that would allow earthlings to overcome vast cosmic distances in a relatively short time.


      Well, certain successes already exist ..
      NASA has created a space ion engine that has been working without interruption for more than five years

      The NASA space agency has developed a xenon ion engine that has set the world record for the longest running time for any type of space engine. To date, he has worked for more than 48 thousand hours, or five and a half years, reports "RBK daily".
      The electric rocket system was created by NASA together with the American company Aerojet Rocketdyne as part of the NEXT project (NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster). NEXT is a solar electric motor that uses electricity generated by the spacecraft's solar panels.


      http://hitech.newsru.com/article/02jul2013/nazadvig
      1. nikolaxp
        nikolaxp 5 July 2013 13: 48 New
        +1
        Ionic engines for satellites have been assembled for 20 years already, only they are small for satellite corrections. And big engines are a secret, but work has been going on for a long time)))
        1. dustycat
          dustycat 6 July 2013 11: 46 New
          +1
          Open secret.
          Work on ionic began in the USSR in the late 1920s, there was a project of an ion xenon-argon atomic rocket, and even a mercury ion in the late 1950s. The dust cooled the predicted level of radiation and mercury pollution at ground launch. But they did not abandon the space launch.
          Actually, the placement in Baikonur itself is the result of a planned test of nuclear plasma engines. Whatever they say.
          Since 1963, satellites with ionic nuclear engines have flown and interplanetary ionic nuclear engines have been tested. The ban on the deployment of nuclear weapons in outer space included a ban on testing nuclear power plants in space, including devices capable of producing fissile materials. And without this, there can be no talk of any development of interplanetary flights of man.
          Because for interplanetary flights, at least automatic ultra-long-range stations, breeder reactors are needed. Recall Voyagers - they are equipped with nuclear weapons, but there are no plasma engines. And if the USSR had time to complete and launch its project of an ultra-long station with a plasma engine and a non-accumulative nuclear warhead? They would have already outstripped the Voyagers four times in range and speed.
          In addition, technologies for the rapid transfer of accumulated materials from the blanket to the core and the transfer of spent fuel to the blanket are needed. It is best suited for this plasma technology by which the USSR was in the lead until 1990 and even in 1997 was still inaccessible.
          In addition, the technology of mercury cooling has great prospects for interplanetary nuclear weapons at BN. The problems of high mercury corrosion are avoided with the help of highly heat-resistant ceramics, the development of which was close to completion at the crushed institute of heat-resistant materials and alloys.
          On the topic of high-temperature ceramics, the Americans are doing something for the engine of their F35, but so far they have not been very able to achieve in this area. Despite the fact that they almost completely took possession of all the Soviet documentation on this topic. Capital investments are too large without the prospect of their payback in the next 30-50 years.

          Therefore, the maximum that can be done in the coming years is to create an interplanetary automatic station with a plasma engine and a magnetic trap for powering a plasmatron and a nuclear power reactor of a recuperator type (there are real industrial designs advertised by Rosatom) on fast neutrons without plasma transfer (plasma transfer in zero gravity is still unpredictable and not worked out due to the international ban on the launch of such spacecraft).
      2. Dovmont
        Dovmont 5 July 2013 18: 52 New
        0
        True, they continue to use in practice our engines and even fight among themselves for them!
      3. Vldmr
        Vldmr 5 July 2013 20: 22 New
        0
        The whole cymes is to find a balance in the flow of the working fluid and the energy costs of the spacecraft. For example, for the effective flow of the working fluid, it is necessary that the specific impulse of the engine be as large as possible, but the kinetic energy of the rejected mass increases, which the spacecraft can report only due to its energy source, by increasing the speed of the jet. For example, in order to have a thrust of 1 ton at a flow rate of the working fluid of 100 km / s (specific impulse of 10000 s), which is not so much for modern versions of plasma engines, power is needed for an engine with 100% efficiency, without taking into account the costs of ionizing the working fluid , at 50 MW. Which, taking into account the imperfect efficiency of the engine and power plant, gives a non-fake heat flux of hundreds of MW, which is necessary to discharge into outer space. And here is the Stefan-Boltzmann law, the radiator must be heated to the highest possible temperature so that it has more or less acceptable dimensions (dependence to the 4th degree on temperature), on the other hand, the Carnot Cycle, which requires as low a temperature as possible refrigerator temperatures to increase efficiency. In general, after cleverly-wise calculations from the point of view of energy efficiency, the speed of a jet stream should be 0,6 KA speed. So now find a middle ground :)))
        1. dustycat
          dustycat 6 July 2013 11: 55 New
          0
          Nekhilo you powder your brains here .. wink
          Taking into account the fact that only radiation cooling is possible for a spacecraft without heat transfer between the masses.

          However, heat transfer between the masses is also possible, but this in itself requires a fair amount of energy.
          And it is also possible cooling with the help of Peltet thermoelements and the like on the principle of action.
          1. Vldmr
            Vldmr 6 July 2013 14: 14 New
            +1
            Read carefully :) I here for what the law of Stefan-Boltzmann mentioned? At 1000K, for a completely black body per square meter, about 57 kW is consumed due to radiation. But Peltier elements will not change anything here, all the same, heat can only be discarded due to radiation.
            1. dustycat
              dustycat 6 July 2013 15: 33 New
              0
              Well, with the available technologies, Peltier will definitely not help much - their efficiency is still very small.

              But there are other technologies. For example, heat pumps with gas turbines. Efficiency is also not a fountain, even to the point of rubbing parts, but they can reduce the radiated heat by two to three times converting it into electricity for magnetic traps and solenoids of an ion accelerator. Well, or just lighting the greenhouses on manned.
  2. sashka
    sashka 5 July 2013 09: 52 New
    +2
    Has anyone seen a UFO with a sail in the ass? And the Super Earth is comparable to our Earth. What does the Super have to do with it? Moreover, just theoretical calculations and a fantasy game. A hint of cash allowance in the future.
    1. theadenter
      theadenter 5 July 2013 10: 49 New
      +2
      I haven’t seen a UFO at all. what
      1. Dovmont
        Dovmont 5 July 2013 18: 54 New
        0
        And I saw a UFO, but only drunk, so I could not make contact with him!
    2. nikolaxp
      nikolaxp 5 July 2013 13: 57 New
      +4
      All of these are UFOs (if any) wink ), judging by all the materials and rumors about luminous objects and balls, they use the plasma shell (as if inside a ball lightning) for high-speed movement, which gives them the advantage of entering and leaving the Earth's atmosphere without consequences. This plasma sheath minimizes the impact of the external environment, airspace resistance and excessive material loads. Even in the USSR, we have repeatedly tried to cover with a plasma, at least partially, an airframe and rocket glider. The main disadvantage was that the plasma (ball lightning) absorbs almost any radiation and destroys the electrics with electronics (wires, blocks burn, sensors go down, there is no connection and it is impossible to determine the position in space). Well, plus you need a large source of energy to hold the plasma, and the crew’s health suffers so much from excess electromagnetic radiation.
      1. dustycat
        dustycat 6 July 2013 15: 36 New
        0
        Maybe plasma, or maybe quantum wormhole technology.
        It assumes an even greater level of technology and power consumption, but does not contradict the known laws of physics.
  3. Straus_zloy
    Straus_zloy 5 July 2013 09: 56 New
    0
    creation of a fundamentally new engine that would allow earthlings to overcome huge space distances in a relatively short time.

    no engine will allow to overcome interstellar distances in a relatively short time

    Nowadays, there are already a huge number of theories about how this engine will be, but which theory will work, we don’t know


    No, science is not yet ready for this. And it will never be ready if you do not start again seriously investing in fundamental research, and not only in what can be "thrown onto the market" in 3-5-7 years

    It is necessary to make scientific discoveries and slowly but surely move towards the intended goal. ..., it is financing that is currently sorely lacking

    And will not be missed as long as the world lives according to the consumerism of Western ideology


  4. Psyjoker
    Psyjoker 5 July 2013 10: 03 New
    +3
    We could fly to Mars, but they started talking about the stars. What other engines are faster than the speed of light? And the principle of causality? And how to brake this bandura? And what about the energy that will be released at such speeds when hitting a grain of sand? And how can space-time be curved if gravitational "waves" have not been found, and the principle itself is not so good as clear? Fantastic, nothing more.
    And who needs them now? You won’t earn money from space exploration and universal existence, which means that people don’t need it, only enthusiasts sad
    1. Vladimirets
      Vladimirets 5 July 2013 10: 40 New
      0
      Quote: Psyjoker
      What other engines are faster than the speed of light? And the principle of causality? And how to slow down this bandura? And the energy that will be released at such speeds in a collision with a grain of sand

      Science must answer these questions.
      Quote: Psyjoker
      Fiction, nothing more

      Everything was once fantastic.
    2. dustycat
      dustycat 6 July 2013 11: 59 New
      +3
      Firebox Mars.
      With such guidance, they would still crawl through the atmosphere.
      It is necessary to make an automatic interplanetary station with a plasma-nuclear control system for catching and driving Voyagers.
      And manned to Mars and the processing of asteroids will be just a side effect of this project.

      Do not drag every screw for this ship out of the well of Earth's gravity!

      Who is the first in the wipers of the lunar station on this project ??
      I am the first!
      1. Raven1972
        Raven1972 6 July 2013 13: 06 New
        0
        Quote: dustycat
        Do not drag every screw for this ship out of the well of Earth's gravity!

        Definitely +++++ good
        And where in the wipers on the lunar station record? I'm in line for you soldier
  5. Samuray
    Samuray 5 July 2013 10: 37 New
    -1
    By the way, I did not see information on your site regarding the Proton accident.
    1. Rumata
      Rumata 5 July 2013 11: 49 New
      -2
      Quote: Samuray
      By the way, I didn’t see the information on your site regarding the Proton accident.

      The accident is a duck. everything took off normally. Here is the proof
      1. Vlad_Mir
        Vlad_Mir 5 July 2013 21: 21 New
        +3
        Are Israeli cosmonauts drifting in the vast expanses of the universe? So far, the Israelis have learned to shoot at rusty Arabian flying pipes, and not even hit everyone!
  6. FunkschNNX
    FunkschNNX 5 July 2013 10: 42 New
    +1
    Improving technology is inevitable. According to some forecasts, humanity already in this century can come close to the point of technological singularity followed by an avalanche-like growth. Even during the period of recent history, it is obvious that technologies are developing not linearly, but in proportion to the mass of knowledge (or some indicator similar in function).
    1. Setrac
      Setrac 5 July 2013 14: 28 New
      +1
      Quote: Фкенщь13
      Improving technology is inevitable. According to some forecasts, humanity already in this century can come close to the point of technological singularity followed by an avalanche-like growth. Even during the period of recent history, it is obvious that technologies are developing not linearly, but in proportion to the mass of knowledge (or some indicator similar in function).

      This avalanche-like growth will allow us to master the solar system, and then again a long, slow development until the next technological leap.
  7. Canep
    Canep 5 July 2013 11: 00 New
    +3
    It is worth noting that such space travel requires a tremendous amount of energy, which humanity today does not even think about.

    The whole development of civilization is ultimately the management of energy and the struggle for it. A man became a man when he made a fire. Now people control the energy of nuclear fission, on the approach - the energy of synthesis. What in the future? we probably won’t know because we won’t live.
  8. Letterksi
    Letterksi 5 July 2013 11: 16 New
    +2
    A good article showing how to cleverly cut money. The builders of communism would simply envy such ideas. They promised to build communism in 70 years, but these already take 100 years! So that those who will take the money now do not live up to the "cherished" dream, and there would be no one to judge for the waste. Instead of, for example, making education more widely available to people in the same time frame, they will build a spaceship! lol Russian cuts of APEC, Sochi14, Skolkovo simply pale in comparison to the vigorous spacecraft. And most importantly: "we must start now." Of course now, because now you want money, not tomorrow.

    Interestingly, when Tsiolkovsky invented his famous formula for jet propulsion, did anyone demand money for it? If he took, then the formula would never have been invented - a dairy cow is not allowed under the knife. lol
  9. The comment was deleted.
  10. viruskvartirus
    viruskvartirus 5 July 2013 11: 22 New
    -1
    And what is "Alpha Centauri" I know the constellation Centaurus. Centaurus does not exist.
    1. Black
      Black 5 July 2013 20: 12 New
      +3
      Quote: viruskvartirus
      And what is "Alpha Centauri" I know the constellation Centaurus. Centaurus does not exist


      "Do you see the gopher? - No. - And he is !!!"

      Alpha Centaurus is the star system in the constellation Centaurus, closest to the Sun. It consists of three components: the cramped binary system of α Centauri A and α Centauri B and the red dwarf Proxima Centauri invisible to the naked eye ...
      1. viruskvartirus
        viruskvartirus 8 July 2013 11: 57 New
        0
        http://www.astronomy.ru/forum/index.php/topic,71718.0.html и вам ответ
    2. Rumata
      Rumata 5 July 2013 20: 49 New
      +2
      Quote: viruskvartirus
      And what is "Alpha Centauri" I know the constellation Centaurus. Centaurus does not exist.

      Captain Jean-Luc Picard, upset by your comment. I alone knew what Alpha Centauri was like that 7-8 years old? This is the closest to us, and probably the most famous star ...
      1. Tektor
        Tektor 5 July 2013 23: 08 New
        +3
        Proxima Centauri - the closest star to us ... (lat. Proxima - “closest”) Proxima Centauri is located about 4,22 light years from Earth. With education, problems again ... From Alpha Centauri - 4,36 light years.
        1. dustycat
          dustycat 6 July 2013 12: 13 New
          +1
          Uh ..
          And Tau Whale ?!
          There, the nearest exo earth was found in the zone of liquid water, it even seems ..
          11,8 light years.
          And she’s definitely not alone, unlike Alpha Centauri.
          With a speed of 0,2C is quite achievable for a generation.
          At least it makes sense to build a ship automatic machine for flying in that direction on existing technologies.
          Or towards Alpha Centauri. Or Epsilon Eriadan.
      2. viruskvartirus
        viruskvartirus 8 July 2013 11: 57 New
        0
        http://www.astronomy.ru/forum/index.php/topic,71718.0.html вот вам ответ
  11. DAGESTAN333
    DAGESTAN333 5 July 2013 11: 24 New
    16
    Instead of consolidating in a single impulse to realize colossal and beautiful ideas, mankind is engaged in idiotic showdowns of a class, ethnic and religious nature ...
    1. KG_patriot_last
      KG_patriot_last 6 July 2013 23: 12 New
      +1
      Well, do not say ... the development of other planets would be a fateful breakthrough for living intelligent organisms like humanity!
      Israel does not have enough land: on a whole planet, populate a billion Jews and so on on the list ... And now what? No discoveries: oil impeded the development of an entire planetary civilization ...
  12. Yun Klob
    Yun Klob 5 July 2013 11: 54 New
    +1
    It is necessary to develop teleportation, as in cartoons for children.
    1. nikolaxp
      nikolaxp 5 July 2013 13: 03 New
      0
      Teleportation is good, even if such a method were now discovered (namely, controlled teleportation of a specific object to a pre-selected point in space, since spontaneous teleportation of particles is already open), it is practically impossible to implement. I will explain why:
      1. At the moment, it is almost impossible to calculate the coordinates of the teleportation site, since the Earth constantly rotates around its axis (440 m / s) + at the same time rotates around the Sun (30 km / s) + The solar system moves in the galaxy with at a higher speed (250 km / s) + the galaxy itself moves in the universe + the universe itself is constantly expanding.
      2. All these speeds are not constant and periodically vary slightly +/-. If their changes are deduced into error, then on a scale of the universe this value will be insignificant (practically tends to zero), and on the scale of the Earth with such coordinate calculations, a teleported object will unpredictably appear at any point in a giant region that falls within this error.
      3. The position in space with the constant movement of the entire universe and space objects at high speeds, are also calculated with a large error. Summing up this error with the previous one, the dispersion zone will increase in two. So it will be a great success if the teleported object is at least within the planetary zone, and not somewhere far away in space.
      PS: The big mistake of many people is that they, living on Earth and sitting on the couch, think that they are not moving anywhere, in fact they change their location, in the scale of the universe, about a thousand kilometers in space in a second. (440m rotation of the Earth, + 30km around the Sun, + 250km of the solar system in the galaxy, + hundreds of km / s the galaxy itself, etc. + 85 km / s expansion of the universe).
      1. Dovmont
        Dovmont 5 July 2013 19: 00 New
        +1
        Quote: nikolaxp
        1. At the moment, it is almost impossible to calculate the coordinates of the teleportation site, since the Earth constantly rotates around its axis (440 m / s) + at the same time rotates around the Sun (30 km / s) + The solar system moves in the galaxy with at a higher speed (250 km / s) + the galaxy itself moves in the universe + the universe itself is constantly expanding.

        What am I supposed to do now? I just wanted to teleport to my neighbor while her husband was at work! And after your horror stories with the calculations of movement, I even felt the fear that I wouldn’t miss the teleportation destination !!
  13. nikolaxp
    nikolaxp 5 July 2013 13: 38 New
    +2
    The only reasonable way, today, for interstellar and interplanetary flight, is to isolate or shut off the mass of a particular object (which is what CERN scientists are doing when trying to find the Higgs Boson - with which it is supposed to understand what is responsible for the mass of matter). It is assumed that a small specific particle, which is part of the atomic nucleus, is responsible for the mass of any substance. Just imagine, if there was such a possibility of turning off the mass of any object, the problem of reaching the speed of light would immediately disappear, there would be no overloads, magnetic and gravitational effects of the Earth, the Sun, black holes and other large space objects. To move, for example, a giant spacecraft of hundreds of thousands of tons, with the mass turned off, the smallest effort would be enough => the simplest engine. All physical laws and theories that took into account the mass of matter will cease to act on this particular object, all restrictions will disappear.
    The main problem in this theory is that when isolating or disconnecting the mass of a specific object, its molecular and atomic bonds would not break up, otherwise the object will turn into dust. Scientists have not yet fully predicted the behavior of matter, in the absence of mass in it.
    1. Straus_zloy
      Straus_zloy 6 July 2013 08: 35 New
      +2
      The search for the Higgs boson does not imply a disconnection of the mass. bully You should read such a concept as the "Equivalence Principle" for now:

      http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CF%F0%E8%ED%F6%E8%EF_%FD%EA%E2%E8%E2%E0%EB%E5%ED%F
      2%ED%EE%F1%F2%E8_%F1%E8%EB_%E3%F0%E0%E2%E8%F2%E0%F6%E8%E8_%E8_%E8%ED%E5%F0%F6%E8
      % E8
  14. silver_roman
    silver_roman 5 July 2013 13: 40 New
    +1
    That while we have a mess on the ground, while some nations destroy others, nobody will fly anywhere. you need to put things in order, and then dream. if we can’t raise the sphere of education like teachers, doctors, etc. So for now, all this is romance in the minds of dreamers and no more ...
  15. fzr1000
    fzr1000 5 July 2013 14: 00 New
    +2
    According to Pavel Eremenko, DARPA spokesperson



    This "made me happy".

    Hey there in the Kremlin, in the Russian Academy of Sciences, in the Government of the Russian Federation! Your ...... is not ashamed, huh?
  16. srha
    srha 5 July 2013 14: 12 New
    +1
    So far, the output of 1 kilogram of cargo into near space costs more than 20 thousand green ones, and 1 kilogram beyond the solar system more than several million green ones - colonization, which means there will be no full-fledged space exploration.

    It is necessary to develop technologies for the cheap output of cargo from Earth into space - and these are not chemical missiles! And not even an air start. Does anyone do this?
    1. dustycat
      dustycat 6 July 2013 12: 17 New
      +1
      In the framework of the capitalist monetary economy, this is an absolutely hopeless business.
      Cheaper prices are possible only within the framework of the socialist economic model.
  17. Nevsky
    Nevsky 5 July 2013 14: 45 New
    +1
    What are interstellar flights? Or even interplanetary?

    Scientists are busy with other, consumer ...

  18. Odysseus
    Odysseus 5 July 2013 14: 46 New
    +1
    Yes, the one who solves the famous "traction problem" will make a revolution for mankind no less than the invention of the wheel. Moreover, this could become one of the great "National (people's) ideas".
    But as long as the world is ruled by "his majesty the capital" I'm afraid this will remain a dream.
  19. Vtel
    Vtel 5 July 2013 15: 00 New
    +3
    The most real is the lunar program, especially for military purposes - the creation of permanent lunar military bases on it. And everything else is far distant fiction or death to the bay of big dough.
  20. Taoist
    Taoist 5 July 2013 15: 01 New
    +4
    The cosmic expansion of humanity has no alternative. Well, unless, of course, you do not consider the death of humanity as an alternative. The question is the finiteness of the Earth's resources, which are now being actively squandered on "consumerism" There is one more aspect related to the survival of mankind as a biological species. "Don't put all your eggs in one basket" - a planetary cataclysm a la "Armageddon" is not something incredible, and in this case, humanity will be able to survive and restore the population only if there are sufficiently large (genetic diversity) colonies in other worlds. Moreover, the colonies are completely autonomous in terms of life support (which is unlikely in the solar system)

    The saddest thing in all this is that the technical capabilities of interplanetary and even interstellar flights have been available for quite some time. The question again comes down to resources. To ensure the construction, support and colonization of at least the nearest planets (not to mention the stars), the united efforts of all mankind are needed and the same resources that will have to be taken away from "consumerism". So as long as the new "iPhone" is more expensive for us than the starship, we cannot count on a breakthrough in this area. Alas, it may be too late and instead of the planned and confident creation of "Homo Cosmicus" we will be forced to feverishly build new "arks" in a vain attempt to save at least something ...
    Another question
  21. liberty
    liberty 5 July 2013 15: 21 New
    +2
    Under communism, the chances for the rapid development of various types of engines would skyrocket. And for pessimists I can only say one thing: don't whine. Better google the "Astra" project.
  22. fzr1000
    fzr1000 5 July 2013 15: 40 New
    +2
    The picture was taken by me at the Moscow planetarium. Clickable. This is an iron meteorite. Look at its even edges. A bit like a Cube of Transformers. Does anyone really have doubts about interstellar flights and other civilizations? And we on Earth share all oil and gas.
    1. Petrix
      Petrix 5 July 2013 16: 48 New
      +1
      The meteorite, obviously, was cut by earthlings, studied.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. fzr1000
        fzr1000 5 July 2013 16: 57 New
        0
        It's not at all obvious if you're not joking.
      3. The comment was deleted.
  23. MG42
    MG42 5 July 2013 16: 59 New
    +1
    Scientists say that humanity is moving in small steps towards a future in which flights from one planetary system to another will finally become a reality. According to the latest estimates of specialists, such a future may come within one or two centuries, if scientific progress is not stagnated.

    For now, it remains only to dream, to live up to the time when fundamentally new engines are invented and "jumps in hyperspace" will become possible.
    1. dustycat
      dustycat 6 July 2013 12: 24 New
      +1
      An analogue of hyper jumping is the wormhole effect.
      Unfortunately, it is really possible to investigate only outside the planet and the solar system. Since one of the dangers is the most likely discovery of a wormhole to the nearest black hole or white dwarf.
      So again it is necessary to somehow unlearn "crawling" around the planet and between the planets of the solar system.
      Until we enter the interdimensional space, there will be no breakthrough.
      1. MG42
        MG42 6 July 2013 12: 55 New
        +3
        Quote: dustycat
        An analogue of hyper jumping is the wormhole effect.

        Well, I have specially posted the video below "Journey to the Black Hole", it says about it in detail.
  24. MG42
    MG42 5 July 2013 17: 26 New
    +2
    The last engine in theory should make flying faster than the speed of light, and therefore small travels in time.

    First, you need to be able to create an artificial "black hole", let's open it, but where will there be a way out of it? So that it does not happen like in one fantastic movie >>> the ship is brought directly to Hell ..

    Journey to the Black Hole. What could it look like?
  25. KG_patriot_last
    KG_patriot_last 5 July 2013 17: 53 New
    0
    While a person estimates time trying on his personal life, there will be no flights.

    There is such a cool game: called Starcraft. 3 races: terrans (humans), protoses (humanoids), zerg (insect-like crap).

    So for travel you need either: how people will consolidate (and return to slavery or come up with robots with artificial intelligence). Then it will be possible to launch giant ships in the direction of other stars, with the hope that some will be able to find a suitable planet and inhabit it. Not so in subsequent generations.

    Or like protos, discover new physical principles and use the energy of the entire solar system to move quickly, and increase your life expectancy.

    Or, like Zerg: suspended animation, full adaptation to outer space and slow movement for millions of years, until you fall on the planet you need in terms of parameters.

    In general, so far, complete fantasy ...
    1. dustycat
      dustycat 6 July 2013 12: 27 New
      0
      No, why are we so afraid of socialism?
      There is also socialism. Not fiction at all.
      The whole question is a competent education system without the dogma of politics.
      So far, all education systems have been fixated on political confrontation.
      Because of this, the USSR collapsed - the policy in education was more important than knowledge.
  26. Vtel
    Vtel 5 July 2013 20: 15 New
    +1
    All this fantasy is realizable exactly as far as God will allow. And Thank God, otherwise we will all fly away, and who will remain on Earth, like here everyone has been dirtied, flew to another flower bed.
    1. dustycat
      dustycat 6 July 2013 12: 35 New
      +3
      Why there is no God.
      Postulate 01. God is perfection.
      Postulate 02. Perfection cannot create something imperfect.
      Postulate 03. This world is imperfect.
      By virtue of postulate 02 and 03, postulate 01 is self-destructing.

      Say proved the existence of the Devil?
      Postulate 11. The devil is a complete evil.
      Postulate 12. The devil is absolute imperfection.
      Postulate 13. This world is not a perfect evil.
      By virtue of postulate 12 and 13, postulate 11 is self-destructing.

      Conclusion. Man is neither the fruit of God nor the fruit of the Devil.
      So there is nothing to blame God if your mind is loaded with laziness.
  27. Setrac
    Setrac 5 July 2013 21: 19 New
    +1
    Quote: Vtel
    All this fantasy is realizable exactly as far as God will allow. And Thank God, otherwise we will all fly away, and who will remain on Earth, like here everyone has been dirtied, flew to another flower bed.

    Why did you say that? As the Orthodox say, this is a clinic, excuse the expression, do you also go to the name of God to shit? But what about "don't mention it in vain?"
  28. sergey158-29
    sergey158-29 5 July 2013 22: 34 New
    0
    It would be better to share the prospects for the movement of electric vehicles on Earth! request
    1. MG42
      MG42 5 July 2013 22: 57 New
      +2
      Quote: sergey158-29
      It would be better to share the prospects for the movement of electric vehicles on Earth!

      The comment is off-topic, so the words of the song <... so what, there’s not much sense in the fact that someone is flying and someone is crawling ..> wink
    2. anomalocaris
      anomalocaris 6 July 2013 04: 10 New
      0
      Before the advent of fusion power plants - none. For it is difficult, expensive and not at all environmentally friendly.
      1. Setrac
        Setrac 6 July 2013 13: 42 New
        0
        Quote: anomalocaris
        Before the advent of fusion power plants - none. For it is difficult, expensive and not at all environmentally friendly.

        Actually, this is the reason to explore the moon - helium-3. There will be no development without economic reasons. In addition, before you master it, you need to study, you need to create scientific stations on other planets, create a transport system, etc. There is no end to the work inside the system.
        1. anomalocaris
          anomalocaris 6 July 2013 14: 26 New
          0
          The reasons for doing space exploration are a wagon and a small trolley. And they are all archival. The funny thing is, for the first steps, in general, there are no technical or technological obstacles. By the way, read the fiction of the 50-60s. There, just in the vast majority of cases, the beginning of the planned exploration of near space refers to the end of the 80s - beginning of the 90s. But these books were written far from fools. But for some reason it did not grow together ...
          But why space programs are curtailed, instead of what would develop, this is another and very interesting question.
  29. Enot-poloskun
    Enot-poloskun 5 July 2013 23: 17 New
    0
    Through the thorns to the stars?

    It seems to me that despite all the crises and cataclysms, it is our country that will be the first to succeed!
    1. dustycat
      dustycat 6 July 2013 12: 37 New
      +1
      As soon as he returns from the socialist economy.
  30. shiyanov.denis
    shiyanov.denis 6 July 2013 02: 54 New
    0
    A military presence in space should not be allowed. But every scientist understands that, without personal defense, you are a sucker in war. The future depends on today's defenses. And those who do not understand this, they simply have no future. Here you cannot look at internecine wars between the countries of the planet. Humanity, by cosmic standards, has just been born. If we don't complete this course, Young Fighter for Territory Control, we may be in a little trouble.
    1. dustycat
      dustycat 6 July 2013 12: 39 New
      +1
      Here, fearing a military presence in space under the pressure of the Anglo-Saxons, they put an end to the real technologies of interplanetary travel and space exploration.
    2. KG_patriot_last
      KG_patriot_last 6 July 2013 14: 09 New
      0
      Where there will be a man, there will be a military presence. 2 men and 1 women aboard a ten-year flight are already military operations. On a scale.
      1. dustycat
        dustycat 6 July 2013 15: 50 New
        0
        Polygamy is by no means the achievement of Nepalese alone.
        On the territory of Russia there are also peoples who consider it normal that one woman can very well live with several men.
        If it were not for Orthodoxy with Islam, there would be many more such nations.
        The ancient Slavs, Yakuts, Buryats, Bulgars, it was considered wrong if the girl did not give birth before marriage. Such children were called primates and were often raised as brothers of a girl by her parents.
        So to say, a healthy prima quality guarantee of the bride.
        Later, with the baptism of Russia, it became shameful to marry and be spoiled before marriage. It went from the Anglo-Saxons.
        In some Volga and Koryazhsk villages, this is still the case.
        Well, what kind of godfather were you?
        So all this is a matter of education.
        Europe is no longer obsessed with who the dad is.
        But at the same time something brought them into the wrong steppe ...
  31. Taoist
    Taoist 6 July 2013 13: 05 New
    +1
    The most real of the available alternatives for interstellar flights (without taking into account scientific and not very fiction) based on the technologies available to mankind can look like this:

    1) Establishment of a permanent base on the moon. Creation of a production cycle there for the assembly of heavy nuclear spacecraft. Extraction and filling with a working fluid. Based on the system of nuclear tugs, reconnaissance and search in the asteroid belt for a suitable metal asteroid. Installation of a system of nuclear reactors, tunnels and a "closed life support" system inside the asteroid, installation of high-thrust nuclear engines for maneuvering within the solar system and ion engines for acceleration in interstellar space.
    Such an "asteroid starship" with a crew of several thousand people makes it real to achieve and colonize (when finding suitable planets) the nearest star systems within the time interval of a person's life. (40-50 years in flight). All the technologies necessary for such a flight have already been created by man.

    Unfortunately, such a flight (and even preparation for it) will require a great concentration of forces and cooperation of all industrialized countries of the world, but at the same time it has absolutely no commercial benefit. Which makes such a project even more fantastic than the invention of "teleportation" of "warp engines" and other accessories of the "space opera".
    1. dustycat
      dustycat 6 July 2013 15: 57 New
      -1
      And since all this will not bring a cent of revenue to land corporations, there is an opportunity for such development only after the establishment of socialism in at least one country with a completely purely socialist economy with a population of at least half a million people.

      Are we starting to establish socialism in a new way?
  32. Setrac
    Setrac 6 July 2013 13: 57 New
    0
    Quote: Taoist
    The most realistic interstellar alternatives available

    You need to start with the orbital transport system. On modern disposable rockets, we are not like stars, we will not fly to planets. We need an apparatus like Buran, only to take off without the help of a carrier rocket, maximum - additional fuel tanks. The scheme is as follows, 30% of the weight is the weight of the Buran-2020, 70% of the weight is additional fuel tanks with fuel. The point is not to shoot expensive engines, but for this it is necessary to increase the specific thrust per unit weight of the engine.
    1. dustycat
      dustycat 6 July 2013 15: 58 New
      0
      Yangel's "Spiral" in the version of an air launch from An125.
      Although Yangel also miscalculated the Buran air launch option with An225
  33. Nevyatoy
    Nevyatoy 7 July 2013 02: 09 New
    0
    As I understand it, the greater the speed of the interstellar ship will be, the more dangerous it will be even small particles. That is, if you accelerate a spaceship to a relatively high speed, a collision even with a small particle will destroy it? Then what is the point of looking for a solution to improve engines if an increase in ship speed is proportional to an increase in danger from small particles?
    1. Paladin
      Paladin 7 July 2013 09: 10 New
      0
      Quote: NeSvyatoy
      As I understand it, the greater the speed of the interstellar ship will be, the more dangerous it will be even small particles. That is, if you accelerate a spaceship to a relatively high speed, a collision even with a small particle will destroy it

      I agree, I think it is necessary to develop alternative ways of moving that would take not 40-100 years, but 3-5 ... and that's why I think so:
      Imagine this situation - you send an expedition, and after 40 years, having arrived at the designated system, it discovers - an EARTHLY COLONY ... and why, and all because progress does not stand still and is accelerating all the time ... while they were flying, they simply simply discovered new principles of movement ... An example of this is the development of aviation - compare planes from the beginning of the 100th century and planes from the middle of the XNUMXth, and better than the end, of the XNUMXth century ... but only XNUMX years have passed winked
      1. Taoist
        Taoist 7 July 2013 11: 29 New
        0
        Unfortunately, so far there are no theoretical developments on such engines. When and in what form they will appear is very difficult to predict. So one should not cancel one another. Well, the risk is always present. However, I have no doubt that those who wish to take a chance will be more than enough.
  34. Kir
    Kir 7 July 2013 14: 19 New
    0
    Yeah ......, except for the fact that all these technologies are muttering FIG knows how long and many of the "engines" have the USSR-Russia homeland ....., but in general, as soon as it comes to financing, then I remember that the striped whales, perhaps like no one else, well, except for our recent past, it looks like an adventure with a known outcome.
    With regards to the same, forgive the stupid search for "brothers in mind" what and whom and how are we looking for? Simply put, what is life, including reasonable? judging by the filthiness of the Earth, then we humans look so to speak not very reasonable !!!
    With regards to my beloved CMM, fortunately or unfortunately I do not know her personally, But! as I have already written more than once, there is no doubt that some of these clots are not just energy, but intelligent life is a plasmoid form.
    Now, according to the theory of relativity, that's just relativity, since ...... but in general, one should not forget about the Theory of Locally Anisotropic Space Time, in accordance with which the same speed of light taken as a constant in vacuum near large gravitational "fields" CAN BE STRONGLY INHIBITED, ETC, etc. , and, accordingly, excuse me about what light years and other things can we talk about?

    And as a complement, a computer desk from me
  35. Asan Ata
    Asan Ata 7 July 2013 18: 35 New
    +1
    I don’t understand something, why is it not discussed here such a simple thing as cosmic radiation? Well, yes, everyone a priori accepted that the amers flew a certain number of times to the moon. BUT THERE WERE NOT PROTECTED FROM HARD RADIATION BEYOND THE EARTH'S RADIATION BELT. In theory, at least the cancer was provided to them, but everyone is healthy, except for Armstrong, the head of Hollywood. Well, that is, they did not fly, but ours were bought for permission to sell oil for the cordon and were silent. When flying to distant lands, in my opinion, it is necessary to calculate the trajectory so that all the time in the sunny shadow, well, how about the relict one? Apparently, it’s not fate until we can launch heavily loaded rockets with lead, water, more than that, to ensure the protein of our cosmonauts from turning into mucus.