Military Review

Russian victories in the Caucasus: the battle of Cainla and the victorious conclusion of the Russian-Turkish war 1828-1829. in the Caucasus

In mid-May 1829, the Turkish command launched a serious offensive operation. Erzerumsky seraskir Haji-Saleh gathered 70 thousand army and planned to beat off Kars. In order to divert the Russian troops, auxiliary attacks were also organized: Trapezunta Pasha was to invade Guria again, where an uprising against the Russians was expected; Van pasha had to take Bayazet. Ahmed Bey of Ajara, recovered from defeat near Akhaltsykh (Russian victories in the Caucasus: the seizure of the Bayazet pashalyk and the defense of Akhaltsikha in 1829), again collecting troops.

Paskevich-Erivansky, notified of the enemy’s plans, decided to launch a preemptive strike against the main enemy forces in the Erzerum direction. Only the battalion 4, one Cossack regiment and 12 guns were left in the fortresses of the Bayazet pashalyk. The remaining forces began to focus on striking the Turkish army - a total of about 18 thousand soldiers were assembled with the 70 guns. On May 19, the headquarters of the Caucasian governor arrived in Akhalkalaki, then with a detachment of N. Muravyov passed to Ardahan. Russian forces were located at an equal distance from Kars and Akhaltsykh.

In Ardahan, Paskevich received new data on the enemy troops, which were located in the Saganlug mountain range. Gakki-pasha camp with 20-th. the hull was located 50 versts from Kars, on the Erzurum road. Behind him were the forces under the seraskira - 30-thousand. cavalry and infantry. Chief of Staff with 15-thousand detachment and 20 guns stood in the mountains of Shautetskogo Sanjak, conducting a total mobilization there in the Sultan's army and waiting for the right moment to strike Akhaltsykh.

The Russian command planned to defeat the Turkish troops in parts - first the corps of Gakki-pasha, and then the troops of the seraskir. But the plan failed, the difficult mountain route and the Turkish barriers obstructed the plan. Turkish troops managed to unite. It must be said that the Turkish command also failed to crush the detachments of Burtsev and Muravyov one by one. 2 June 1829 of the year in a battle near the village of Chaboria on the bank of the Poshov-Chay river, the Russian detachments managed to unite and smashed the superior forces of the chief of staff of the seraskir. Akhaltsykh was now safe and strengthened by one battalion. Muravyev’s detachment and part of Burtsev’s forces pulled up to the main forces.

Battle of Kainly (19 June 1829 of the Year)

The battle near the village of Kainly was one of the largest in the Russian-Turkish war 1828-1829. The commander-in-chief divided the army into three parts. The first (main) column of 5,3 thousand people with 20 field guns commanded Muravev. The column was located on the right flank, north of the river Zagin-Kala-su. The left column of 1,1 thousand soldiers with 12 guns commanded by Major General Burtsev, it was located on the left flank, south of the river. About a kilometer from the main column there was a strong reserve - 3,5 thousand regular and irregular cavalry with 20 guns under the command of Major General N. Rajewski. The rest of the forces at 16 guns under the command of General Pankratiev covered the camp, which was located on the mountain Chakhar-baba. Troops were built by 13 hours.

The Turkish cavalry occupied both parallel roads that led to Erzurum. At about 14 hours, the Ottoman cavalry attacked the right flank of the Separate Caucasian Corps. To repel the enemy attack Muravyov used the already well-established tactics of targeting the enemy under artillery fire. Muravyev’s cavalry units escaped forward, attacked the enemy, then quickly retreated, mimicking flight, and the Ottomans pursued them and fell under the gun. Seeing the futility of attacks on his left flank, Erzerum seraskir Haji Saleh ordered to strike Burtsev’s squad and knock him down from position. The attack was sent 6 thousand riders Gakki-Pasha. The Ottoman cavalry twice managed to break through the chain of Russian riflemen, to pass the infantry built in the square and go to the rear of the detachment. Burtsev, seeing the danger of the situation, began to throw guns from one direction to another. In addition, Paskevich-Erivansky sent part of the reserve infantry and light cannons to help him. The Turkish cavalry was not able to succeed here and, having suffered significant losses, rushed back.

After repelling the blows of the Ottoman cavalry, the Russian troops launched an offensive, striking the central position of the Ottoman army. The strong fire of the Russian artillery and the attack of the Russian infantry led to the division of the Turkish army into two parts. Seraskira and Gakki Pasha troops were separated from each other. The seraskira troops were driven back across the Kainlykh River, and the Gakki Pasha to the Khanskoe Gorge, to their camp. To secure success, Paskevich led the Georgian Grenadier Regiment with 8 guns into the gap between the two parts of the Ottoman army.

Initially, the commander-in-chief wanted to rest the exhausted troops and stay for the night. But by 17 hours, intelligence reported that the enemy was creating a fortified line in front of the River Isti-su. And the storming of the fortified positions of the enemy was not part of the plans of the Russian command. In addition, there was news of the possibility of the appearance of 18-thousand by the end of the day. fresh Turkish corps. This information forced the Count of Erivan to change the previous decision and immediately attack the positions of the enemy. Against Gakki-Pasha, a barrier of two infantry and one cavalry regiments was set up with 20 guns under Burtsev. The strike forces were again deployed in three columns. The right of their two infantry regiments with 16 guns was commanded by Ants. In the left column Pankratyeva entered 3 infantry battalion and 10 guns. The center was occupied by a Raevsky column from 8 horse regiments with 18 horse implements. The rest of the troops guarded the camp from 3 thousand wagons, which were transferred to the Cainly tea.

The new offensive began at 19.30. For the Turkish troops, this movement of Russian troops was a surprise. The Ottomans thought it would be calm before dawn. Especially great confusion caused the fact of walking around the Muravyov and Pankratiev enemy camps on foot. Turkish artillery began firing indiscriminately. But this could not stop the Russian infantry. Soldiers Saleh-pasha began to throw trenches. 3-I Don Horse Mounted Artillery Company of Lieutenant Colonel Polyakov "cheered them up" with a shot fire. The withdrawal of the Turkish infantry acquired the character of a general escape. The Ottomans fled, throwing weapon and property. Russian cavalry and infantry pursued them. Soon the infantry stopped and the cavalry continued their pursuit. Seraskir himself barely managed to get his feet off. In this, Russian troops captured 12 guns, all enemy troop supplies and about 300 prisoners. The remnants of the seraskir troops, a considerable part of them simply fled, were driven back to the Erzerum fortress.

Battle plan for the village of Kainly 19.06.1829. A source: History military operations in Asian Turkey in 1828 and 1829, atlas. SPb. 1843.

20 June in the battle near the village of Miliduz was defeated and detachment Gakki-Pasha. During the night, Caucasian corps units marched 13 versts along a difficult mountain road. By 8 hours of the morning, Russian troops went to the rear of the body Gakki-Pasha. The Turks prepared for the defense of the camp. They still did not know about the defeat of Seraskir troops. When they were informed about this, a big commotion began in the camp. For some time the Turkish artillery tried to shoot at the Russian troops, but soon the shooting stopped and the Ottomans expelled an envoy. Gakki Pasha promised to capitulate, but he asked for personal safety. Paskevich ordered to lay down arms without any conditions.

From the Turkish camp they started shooting again, but as soon as the Russian troops moved forward, the Ottomans almost without resistance began to run. The Cossacks and the Caucasian police persecuted the enemy 15 versts, killed many, captured about 1 thousand people. Gakki Pasha tried to hide in the forest, but he was found and captured.

The 19-20 of June in the battle of Kainly and Milidyuz, under the leadership of Paskevich, completely defeated the troops of the Separate Caucasian Corps and dispersed the 50-thousand. Turkish army Gakki-pasha and Haji Saleh. The Russians captured the entire field artillery of the enemy - 31 gun, 19 banners, about 2 thousand enemies were killed, about the same number were captured. Losses of the Caucasian corps did not exceed 100 people.

The battle plan for the tract Miliduz 20.06.1829.

Capture of erzurum

Turkish seraskir tried to gain a foothold in the fortress of Gassan-Kale, but the soldiers refused to obey him, and had to flee to Erzerum. A separate Caucasian corps made a march in 80 versts for three days and occupied the fortress with 29 guns. The road to Erzurum was free. Gassan-Kale tried to strengthen, armed with captured guns, brought all captured military and food reserves of the enemy. The fortress was turned into a rear base housing.

Russian cavalry approached Erzerum on 15 versts. Almost 100-th. the city, one of the largest in the empire, was in panic. Seraskir no longer had a strong army, he locked himself in his residence, not knowing what to do. The Caucasian governor, having learned about the situation in the city, sent two Erzerum prisoners there. The parliamentarians read a letter from the white king's seraskir to the council of local elders. The townspeople began to think about the surrender of the city. In addition, the deception of a seraskir was revealed, who claimed that everything was in order and that he still had a large army. Most of the tents in the military camp were empty. Seraskir tried to escape. But he was not released beyond the walls of the city.

Russian troops approached Erzerum. On the morning of June 26, Kapiji Pasha conveyed the consent of the seraskira to unconditional surrender. The fortress passed without a fight. 27 June 1829, the Russian troops entered Erzerum. Reinforced height Top-Dag tried to resist. But it was quickly crushed. The Caucasian corps was given 150 field and serf guns, huge reserves of the Anatolian army, a serf arsenal, 6 banners, including the Seraskir and Saleh Pasha batons. The fall of the Erzerum fortress - the main control center of Anatolia and the destruction of the Turkish army under Kainly provided the Russian command with a strategic initiative on the Caucasian front. Paskevich was awarded the Order of St. George 1 degree for the conquest of Erzerum. The Russian commander became a full George Knight, holder of all four degrees of the order.

Case by Bayburt. Victory

Vansky Pasha, having received news of the fall of Erzerum and the defeat of Seraskir, immediately withdrew his troops from Bayazet, who withstood two violent attacks. His troops scattered. On July 7, Burtsev’s detachment occupied Bayburt without a fight. Ivan Grigorievich Burtsev, having learned about the movement of the enemy corps of the Trapezes pasha, decided to strike him suddenly in the night from 18 to 19 in July. In the battle near the village of Hart, he led his detachment to the attack, personally becoming the head of the Muslim regiment and in the heat of the battle received a mortal wound.

Paskevich, having left a strong garrison at Erzerum under the command of Pankratiev, marched in Bayburt. There the former Shirvan, and now the infantry count of Erivan regiment was transferred from Akhaltsykh. On July 26, Paskevich attacked the village of Hart, where up to 12 thousand Ottoman militias from among the highlanders (Lazs) were concentrated. The enemy suffered a complete defeat and was dispersed. You could step on Sivas, in the depths of Asia Minor, or capture Trebizond on the Black Sea, receiving the support of the Black Sea fleet. However, the further offensive, despite the highest fighting spirit of the Caucasus Corps, was hampered by poor roads, the length of Russian communications, which were threatened by attacks by mountaineers and small enemy units, as well as the insignificance of the corps forces to continue the offensive operation in such an extensive theater of operations.

Paskevich ordered the Bayburth fortifications to be blown up and withdrew the troops, reducing the stretching of forces. The city was transferred to the management of the Bek of ofoff, who expressed humility in Russia. He for a good fee promised to protect the city. But the Bek betrayed, Turkish troops began to gather in the city. The vicar, taking the 8 infantry battalions, the 2 regular regiment and the 5 regiments of the irregular cavalry with the 34 guns, on September 24 spoke again to Byburt. The enemy did not expect the appearance of Russian troops, but was not afraid and took the fight. 5-thousand Ottoman detachment attacked Russian troops. Two Russian columns with the support of artillery hit the enemy, the Ottomans could not stand it and ran. Russian cavalry captured the enemy artillery and began pursuing the fleeing. 6 guns were captured, 12 banners were captured. The Ottomans lost about 2 thousand people killed and captured. The loss of the Caucasian corps was 110 people.

The battle of Bayburt took place after the signing of the Peace of Adrianople 2 (14) September 1829. According to him, the Russian Empire passed most of the eastern coast of the Black Sea, including Anapa, Sujuk-Kale, Sukhum. Istanbul recognized the transition to Russia - Georgia, Imeretia, Mingrelia, Guria, as well as the Erivan and Nakhichevan khanates. Russian troops left most of the captured fortresses and fortifications. It should be noted quite a humane attitude of St. Petersburg to defeated Turkey, the other powers, after such brilliant victories in the Caucasus, would have taken much more. Several thousand Armenian and Georgian families, at the request of the Caucasian governor-general, received the right to resettlement in the Russian Transcaucasian provinces. They were waiting for death for a cordial attitude towards the Russians. The immigrants were guarded by Russian troops. Ivan Fyodorovich Paskevich for the victories of the Separate Caucasian Corps in the campaign 1828-1829. He was awarded the rank of Field Marshal.
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  1. Dmitry 2246
    Dmitry 2246 4 July 2013 11: 32
    The brilliant victories of the Russian troops delight.
    They allowed to redraw the entire Caucasus.
  2. Vladimirets
    Vladimirets 4 July 2013 11: 39
    Paskevich, of course, is handsome. Article +.
  3. Ross
    Ross 4 July 2013 11: 53
    thanks for the article
  4. scorpido
    scorpido 4 July 2013 12: 07
    And another glorious page of Russian weapons)
  5. Karlsonn
    Karlsonn 4 July 2013 16: 18
    A wonderful series of articles. "+"

    The assault on the Kars fortress 23 June 1828 year. SUKHODOLSKY January.
  6. carbofo
    carbofo 5 July 2013 09: 09
    Who else knows how, 18000 Russians to 65000 Ottomans and defeat with a crushing score?.
  7. Vladimir73
    Vladimir73 7 July 2013 19: 44
    Thank you for the article. Unfortunately, these historical events are undeservedly hushed up. Thanks again!
  8. Southerner
    Southerner 7 July 2013 19: 48
    Thanks to the author, I was once again convinced that the Turks are not able to fight
    1. Vladimir73
      Vladimir73 7 July 2013 20: 07
      If they didn’t know how, they would not have created the Ottoman Empire :)
  9. Mista_dj
    Mista_dj 11 July 2013 15: 24
    These things - you need to teach in schools !!!
    In our history, full of great people and events, the whole of Europe will develop with it and half will not be recruited!
    That's what shkolota needs to be brought up!
    Thanks to the author, article +.