Military Review

Frigates for the Russian fleet. Class ships with a difficult fate

The 29 frigate of the 11356 project was handed over to the 2003 June India in a solemn ceremony in Kaliningrad. This is the sixth ship of the project, built for India. All ships of this type were built as soon as possible. The first series (Talwar, Trishul and Tabar) was handed over to the customer between June 2004 and April 2012. The second (Teg, Tarkash and Trikand) - from April 2013 to June XNUMX.

Director of Rosoboronexport Anatoly Isaikin said that Russia is ready to quickly build for India another 3 – 4 frigate of the 11356 project with improved characteristics.

For our own fleet The Yantar plant is building six more patrol ships (frigates) of an almost identical design. The lead ship for the Russian fleet, Admiral Grigorovich, was laid down in December 2010 and is preparing to launch this month. And on July 12, the fourth patrol ship of this series, Admiral Butakov, will be laid on Yantar. Thus, the project 11356 watchdogs are practically the only domestic serial surface ships. By the way, they are being built not only in a large series, but also very quickly.

There is an erroneous opinion that domestic shipbuilding is simply incapable of creating a truly new project. Therefore, they say, we grabbed the development of the old Soviet idea (the project number seems to indicate that this is just a modernization of the TFR of the 1135 project developed in the middle of the 60s of the last century) as the only opportunity to update the fleet. This is not true. Just like the statement that the 11356 project is outdated and does not meet modern requirements is incorrect. Of course, it was originally export. Therefore, it is true that Indian contracts have helped to master their serial construction and commissioning. In part, we can agree that the purchase of these ships was caused by delays and difficulties with completely new military ships (frigates of the 22350 Ave. and corvettes of the 20380 Ave.). But it’s impossible to agree that “11356” is outdated.

The project was developed by the Northern PKB as a purely export. Formally, it is the development of patrol ships (TFR) of the 1135 project (“Petrel”) and the 11351 project (Nerei) - which were built for the naval units of the border troops of the KGB of the USSR. However, in fact, he has very little in common with these predecessors. The predecessors had no strike weapons - anti-ship missiles. True, on the modernized TFR of the 1135M project, the Metel anti-submarine missile complex was replaced with the Rastrub-B complex, which could also fire on surface ships. But the ammunition remained the same - 4 rocket-torpedoes, which was not enough to overcome the enemy’s missile defense. Also, “Petrel” and “Nerey” possessed weak anti-aircraft weapons. It was limited to the Osa missile system, which by the beginning of the 80-s could not effectively deal with enemy air attack weapons. Shipborne artillery could fire on air targets (two 76-mm AK-726 installations on 1135 Ave., two 100-mm AK-100 installations on 1135 Ave.). However, the location of these installations (both in the stern) allowed firing only in a limited sector.

In fact, they were anti-submarine ships of the far sea zone. At the same time, they also did not become fully anti-submarine (as they were originally planned). On the TFR pr. 1135 / 1135M, there was no anti-submarine helicopter, and the range of the hydroacoustic stations allowed them to be used in anti-submarine combat only in pairs: one as a search, and the other as a shock. Therefore, they began to be classified as a guard, not anti-submarine. And on the TFR pr. 11351 (already a real guard), a helicopter appeared, but the anti-submarine missile complex disappeared - for a border warship the fight against submarines was far from the main task.

Meanwhile, the Soviet fleet needed a truly universal ship of medium displacement, with the ability to deal with ships and submarines and able to effectively defend against air attack. And we got such a "wagon". But not as the development of the former guard ships, but as a separate project of a new generation. It was created from scratch in Zelenodolsk PKB, which previously specialized in small ships and boats.

This was the 11540 project (Hawk). He was very successful. With a full displacement of all 4000 t he carried powerful and versatile weapons. The anti-submarine complex exceeded in its capabilities the weapons of the former TFR. It consisted of the Zvezda-1 State Joint-Stock Company, the Vodopad-NK compact and powerful missile-torpedo complex, the RBU-6000 jet-bombing installation and the Ka-2 anti-submarine helicopter, which had a permanent base on board . The air defense complex consisted of the multi-channel self-defense air defense system “Dagger” (a sea-based analogue of the ground complex “Thor”) and two rocket-gun installations “Kortik”. The strike weapons consisted of 27 Uran anti-ship missiles. The 16-mm ship armament was complemented with the AK-100 universal gun mount. By its combat capabilities, this ship exceeded all foreign counterparts (frigates by Western classification) and was one of the most advanced for its time. Unfortunately, because of the catastrophe that befell the USSR, only two ships of this project were completed: the Fearless and Yaroslav the Wise. Today they are one of the most modern ships of our fleet. And it was the ideas embodied in the project “Hawk” that formed the basis of the 100 project. But initially it was not intended for our fleet.

Why was the project strictly export? This is due to the situation in the military shipbuilding program in the 80-s. Paradoxically, but it lacked the further development of patrol ships with a displacement of 3 – 4 thousand tons. Then the military science existed mainly to justify the correctness of the "wise superior instructions." And only thanks to the personal active participation of the ascetic of the Russian fleet — the commander-in-chief of the Navy, Admiral of the fleet of the Soviet Union, Sergey Georgievich Gorshkov — our fleet received a new class of ships. True, Sergei G. resisted classifying them as frigates - in the Western style. Although in fact - it is frigates. But Sergey Georgievich followed his principle: “We have our own distinctive national way. We do not copy foreigners! ”He managed to convince the country's leadership of the need for the 11540 project. However, it was a project Zelenodolsk PKB. Unfortunately, the Northern PKB created its own frigate project after the collapse of the Soviet Union and in the interests of a foreign customer.

Since I had to say a word - I want to devote a few lines to Sergey Georgievich Gorshkov himself. His figure was in stories domestic fleet - great and ambiguous. He led the Navy's record-breaking 30 years. Perhaps he unnecessarily invaded all spheres of naval life and construction. This is always characteristic of large-scale government officials. And Sergey Georgievich, of course, was precisely the statesman. His book, The Sea Power of the State, has become recognized throughout the world by geopolitical work, which shows Russia's place in the world as a great power. It justifies the need for a strong fleet. And Sergey Georgievich devoted his life to his creation. Without a doubt, we owe him a rebirth of sea power, which our country had not had for a very long time before it. Here is a small quote from Gorshkov:

“History has clearly confirmed that without a strong fleet Russia could not be among the great powers. This was well understood by Peter I, who is rightly considered the founder of the Russian regular fleet. It was with the help of this fleet that the difficult, centuries-old struggle of the Russian people for the return of the outlets taken from it to the Baltic Sea was brilliantly completed. However, the lessons of this struggle against foreign invaders were not always correctly understood by the Russian autocracy, who often underestimated the possibilities contained in the power of the fleet, because of which Russia in many cases suffered damage. This was also facilitated by the constant, centuries-old propaganda by the states hostile to Russia, led by England, of the idea of ​​uselessness for a large continental power to have interests at sea. To make such propaganda persuasive, slander was widely used, as if the Russians were not a sea, but a land nation, that the sea was alien to them and they were not capable of navigation. This psychological, and sometimes, physical impact intensified after the fleet of Peter I equalized its power with the English fleet, in which the English bourgeoisie saw an attempt on its self-proclaimed right to be the "ruler of the seas" ... It must be admitted that a long hostile for Russia propaganda found support among influential satraps of the Russian Tsarism, who in every way impeded the construction of the fleet and sought to reduce the cost of maintaining it in the necessary readiness. The narrow thinking of high-ranking royal minions did not pass without a trace. Their reactionary ideas of opposing the fleet of the army and misunderstanding that the strength of the country's armed forces depended on the coordinated development of both components of a single organism, caused for a considerable time a significant damage to the country's defenses. ”

... After Gorshkov left, the sad fate awaited the construction program of the Hawks. For various reasons, not excluding the "human factor", the series of these ships was seriously reduced. And the laying of the headless TFR “Fearless” fell on the era of “perestroika” and “acceleration”. Perhaps that is why it was transferred to the fleet only after 6 years from the moment it was bookmarked. And his brother, Yaroslav the Wise, founded in 1988, broke all records of protracted construction and was transferred to the fleet only in 2009. The third building, built in 1993, is likely to be completed. But already on the modified project, since by the 2000 years the production of many 11540 project systems was lost.

Nevertheless, after more than two decades, the domestic fleet will receive universal middle-class ships - frigates. We were very lucky that, thanks to Indian orders, we managed not only to bring, but also to master the 11356 project in the series. Mastering the 22350 project in a series of ships (which is also classified as a frigate, although its combat capabilities will significantly exceed those of previous generations) will take time. First of all - to bring new weapons systems. And you need to update the fleet. And the frigate of the project 11356 is the best suited for strengthening the combat strength. At the moment it is quite a modern and high-quality ship. He will occupy a niche in the fleet that has not been filled for more than two decades.
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  1. Arberes
    Arberes 4 July 2013 17: 17
    Well, the INDUS were taken away, now we have to seriously take on!
    At the BSF their darlings.
    1. Civil
      Civil 4 July 2013 18: 17
      because they were built from Soviet backlogs
  2. indiggo
    indiggo 4 July 2013 17: 32
    oh air defense would strengthen and norms
    1. Retx
      Retx 4 July 2013 18: 35
      JSC "Concern Air Defense" Almaz-Antey "at the International Maritime Defense Show, which began on July 3 in St. Petersburg, presented its promising development - a naval version of the anti-aircraft missile system -" Tor-M2MKM ".

      "Tor-M2MKM" is an initiative proposal of the concern, designed to increase the capabilities of air and anti-missile defense during the modernization of ships.

      Anti-aircraft missile system (SAM) has high air defense performance against attacks from aircraft, helicopters, cruise missiles, guided bombs and unmanned aerial vehicles.

      The air defense missile system is highly automated, easily mastered by the personnel, the "hot" air defense system will take a little time and will not be expensive.
      1. mark1
        mark1 4 July 2013 21: 11
        "Cold" "Thor" is "Dagger" (SAM self-defense). Accordingly, "Tor-M2MKM" - you can make a similarly modified "Dagger"
    2. Tatar
      Tatar 4 July 2013 18: 42
      here I want to note that the air defense on this box is absolutely useless in its current form and that's why. when operating at a distance of 50 km, more than one aircraft will not enter this line. The theoretical enemy’s missile launch range is 280 km (harpoon). Here and count. what is needed is an extra-long missile rocket and, to a greater extent, a chestnut such as chestnut, cinnamon in the long term armor.
      1. mark1
        mark1 4 July 2013 20: 19
        Quote: Tatar
        here I want to note that the air defense on this box is absolutely useless in its current form and that's why. when operating at a distance of 50 km, more than one aircraft will not enter this line. the theoretical enemy’s missile launch range is 280 km (harpoon).

        Well, according to the anti-ship missile system "Calm" (this is more of a group air defense system), it can operate within a radius of 8-12 km, but there are other aerodynamic targets - reconnaissance aircraft, anti-aircraft defense aircraft, helicopters, although it would be possible to introduce an additional self-defense air defense system (up to 15 km) not superfluous.
        1. PLO
          PLO 4 July 2013 21: 58
          although introducing additional self-defense air defense systems (up to 15 kM) might not be out of place.

          so he still has 2 modules ZRAK Dagger
          1. mark1
            mark1 5 July 2013 00: 08
            Quote: olp
            so he still has 2 modules ZRAK Dagger

            Well, yes, I somehow missed it, although the ZRAK "Kortik" is not a full-fledged replacement for the short-range air defense system, it is unsatisfactory in terms of reliability, accuracy, reaction, at the moment from the better working "Dagger" and separately some kind of MZMA of the AK-630 type
        2. Tatar
          Tatar 5 July 2013 08: 23
          during a hypothetical war, reconnaissance aircraft, PLO aircraft, helicopters obviously also will not express a desire to fly into the coverage area of ​​ships
          1. mark1
            mark1 5 July 2013 10: 05
            Quote: Tatar
            during a hypothetical war, reconnaissance aircraft, PLO aircraft, helicopters obviously also will not express a desire to fly into the coverage area of ​​ships

            Well then. we can consider a hypothetical task, for example, to ensure the deployment of a submarine grouping in a given square, successfully completed ...
            1. Tatar
              Tatar 5 July 2013 11: 26
              and you think the submarine will approach the AUG at the distance of 100 torpedo launch for the Kit torpedo No. 65-76, which, moreover, was removed from service or for granites 500-700km. for greater clarity, here are the pictures
      2. Setrac
        Setrac 4 July 2013 21: 58
        Quote: Tatar
        the theoretical enemy’s missile launch range is 280 km (harpoon).

        This is the theoretical launch range, when starting from the maximum range, the probability of hitting will tend to zero, but you are right, no one will approach 50 km.
      3. patsantre
        patsantre 5 July 2013 01: 08
        This is if there is not even a helicopter AWACS ... very useful thing, it turns out.
      4. Nayhas
        Nayhas 5 July 2013 05: 05
        Quote: Tatar
        here I want to note that the air defense on this box is absolutely useless in its current form and that's why. when operating at a distance of 50 km, more than one plane will go beyond this line

        Yes, not a single naval air defense system can repel an organized air raid using modern means of destruction. So it makes no sense to fence on a frigate super-long-range air defense system ...
        1. Tatar
          Tatar 5 July 2013 08: 28
          Then, in general, fuck everything and fly under the white flag.
        2. mark1
          mark1 5 July 2013 10: 18
          Quote: Nayhas
          Yes, not a single naval air defense system can repel an organized air raid using modern means of destruction. So it makes no sense to fence on a frigate super-long-range air defense system ...

          An ultra-long-range air defense system is an element of an air defense squadron (warrant), one of the main tasks of a frigate is to organize an air defense and anti-aircraft defense squadron (warrant), and a short-range air defense system is an element of self-defense of a ship, air defense missile system, and MZMA. KAZs (in theory) - the last frontier.
  3. Whale
    Whale 4 July 2013 17: 52
    Meanwhile, in Russia, 10 years repairing 1 submarine
  4. harrymur
    harrymur 4 July 2013 18: 08
    not guys, it’s not so simple, like the model range is good, but around there are pests, the ideology of World War 3 suggested that the zhelyazyka lives at sea for a maximum of 30-45 minutes, from this came the carabels, the iron was designed that should have used up its ammunition before destruction , everything is harsh and practical,
    it’s also a completely different situevina, we have a unique opportunity to give our brains in design bureaus freedom of thought and the embodiment of all fantasies (even diabolical ones) in iron, we need to drive the loot in the shipyard so that they are ahead of their time and make it possible to translate design ideas into iron, even the most crazy ideas, this is the meaning of peacetime, it's time to build a shipyard, IMHO
    1. cdrt
      cdrt 4 July 2013 20: 31
      "brainwashed" in KB already under 70 everything. And the new ones - 20-year-olds - hmm ... ignoramuses ...
      1. harrymur
        harrymur 4 July 2013 21: 24
        the sea has no horizon, if there is a limit there will surely be someone who wants to look further, the main thing is to give a buoyancy margin so that they are not afraid to look ahead))
  5. makst83
    makst83 4 July 2013 19: 11
    strange it all somehow ...... for India 3 ship for 1 year with a penny, but for us 1 ship for almost 3 year !?
    1. bddrus
      bddrus 4 July 2013 19: 38
      you do not confuse ?? even on Wikipedia, the last three frigates have been built since 2007 - 6 years, for five years each ship
    2. kris
      kris 4 July 2013 20: 02
      Quote: makst83
      strange it all somehow ...... for India 3 ship for 1 year with a penny, but for us 1 ship for almost 3 year !?

      Our budgetary loot can be twisted for years in their banks.
      And the Indians can strain!
  6. Nikola351
    Nikola351 4 July 2013 19: 26
    As it turns out, we are building new ships and they are worse than the old 11540 and 11356; it turns out that we are now building on old projects that the Communists did not have time to sell. I think it's very sad
  7. waisson
    waisson 4 July 2013 19: 42
    I suggest that we have a shipbuilding sharaga for the aligarchs on the Volga, we can give them the Indian order, and we ourselves will sharply work for the defense industry and the country RUSSIA is enough to put on some shoes and put on a look. Our minister moved
  8. indiggo
    indiggo 4 July 2013 19: 50
    everything is fine project 11356 but imperfect but it is not planned as the main one. all ships of this series
    will be based on the Black Sea Fleet. our main frigates 22350 will go there too, at least somewhat accurately.
    you just need to understand that after the actual destruction of the fleet and industry it is impossible to demand more, 11356 a good ship. with very great potential for modernization. as soon as industry and science are restored and modernized ... for the Black Sea, this is enough for 10 years.
    1. cdrt
      cdrt 4 July 2013 20: 41
      That is why he is so imperfect?
      This is a normal ship 10-15 years ago.
      Yes, not Horizon of course, but quite at the Type 23. GAS level is certainly worse, the radar too, but the air defense system seems to be better, the air defense missile system is also much better. It’s quite on the level.
      In addition, if you recall - the same Nikolsky regretted that they did not finish releasing new modifications of 1135, but began to make Hawks. It seems like in the undercover fight one another zayuyorol. And it seems he wrote that in terms of seaworthiness 1135 exceeded incl. and hawks.
      And so it happened - the Hawks stopped, but 11356 livelier than all the living ...
      I think it's good.
      You don’t need an analogue that will be mastered for decades (in other words, it will not be fully operational), but what will really create a fleet here and now. And then for now ... in the Russian Navy there are 2 11540 frigates, one still alive 1135, one alive 1135M, and grandfather 090, which is more than not enough ....
      1. Nayhas
        Nayhas 5 July 2013 05: 08
        I support, pr.1135 is one of the most successful in the USSR, why did you have to start fussing with 11540 and even more so 22350 ... War of interests of course ...
  9. Mirrors
    Mirrors 4 July 2013 22: 47
    A small note: it is not customary to call warships ships in the navy. Vessels are supply vessels. As for the 11540 project, I was surprised by the design approach. Was on the first building when he was still in the factory. So I had to "enter" the KPS along the vertical ladder through the hatch :-) Just like a boat. It is undignified for a rank 2 ship, it is immediately evident that the boatmen were designing.
  10. sergey158-29
    sergey158-29 5 July 2013 00: 00
    Hindus need to bow to the legs that supported the shipbuilders!
  11. Alex Nick
    Alex Nick 5 July 2013 01: 07
    At the moment, it is a completely modern and high-quality ship. (I read between the lines: a bit outdated, but it will, just in case). Something I do not like the wording. It’s better to master the new project 22350.
  12. indiggo
    indiggo 5 July 2013 03: 29
    So they try to master 22350. Industry does not pull. and in the world you yourself see what is happening. here they plug holes than they can, and rightly so, as soon as the redoubts are brought to mind, it will be possible to start up the series.
    Yes, and the construction time will be reduced at times !!! Of course I want everything at once, but it's impossible! One thing I can tell you for sure is very positive.
  13. Nayhas
    Nayhas 5 July 2013 05: 23
    The situation with the frigates is difficult, the military-industrial complex managed to enter the fleet of three! type almost identical in displacement and armament! This is what frank wrecking put it above! The petrels were built in a mass series, so starting the construction of the modified project was not just not difficult, but much cheaper than starting the construction of 11540 and especially 22350. As a result, India already has six 11356, we have two 11540 and one 22350 ... head 11540 and walks in a cropped version ...