Military Review

Increase lesion area

Gunsmith designers have always dreamed of developing such a system weapons, which allows us to destroy as many enemies as possible in one sitting of seven losses, and if there is only one enemy, then without bothering with an exact sight, quickly cover the piece of the space where it is located with a dense stream of bullets. For all its undeniable merits, an automatic weapon still does not completely solve this problem. The authors of the published article went their own way, creating a special nozzle for rifled weapons and ammunition.

The proposed device can be used as an addition to a rifled small arms when using ammunition loaded with a bullet that has additional striking elements (hereinafter referred to as e). The combination of a bullet with dr. and a special removable nozzle should increase the area hit by a single shot - and hence the probability of hitting the target - with a sufficiently stable accuracy of hitting the dr, within the bullet's trajectory. In this case, the nozzle also provides a reduction in the muzzle flame and the sound level of the shot and does not exclude the possibility of firing a cartridge with a conventional bullet. This invention is protected by patents:

• Mirzoev.M., Mirzoev.M., Kalinin A.A. - “Bullet” - RF patent for invention №2262652 from 20.10.2005,

• Mirzoev MM. - “Dulna nozzle” - RF patent for invention №2351868 from 10.04.2009

Bullet and striking elements

Before starting the presentation on the merits of the invention, it seems that it would not be superfluous to have some overview concerning the bullet itself.

It is known that the bulk of military weapons is made up of rifled complexes, in the ammunition of which an elongated bullet is used, acquiring in the rifled barrel the gyroscopic stabilization necessary for its stability on the trajectory. The latter is ensured by a certain step of rifling in weapons of various types and systems. At the same time, as the pitch increment increases, all other things being equal per unit of time, the initial speed increases and the number of revolutions of the bullet decreases around its axis. In this connection, a transition from gyroscopic to aerodynamic stabilization takes place. The latter is achieved by relieving the tail section of the bullet, placing lighter material in this part, or aerodynamic stabilizers. The optimal ratio of speed and stability of the bullet on the trajectory is one of the conditions for the effectiveness of small arms. However, there are other factors that reduce this figure. Therefore, the lack of accuracy of the shooter due to different conditions is compensated for by a large number of shots, thereby increasing the area coverage and the probability of hitting the target, while solving this problem with less ammunition consumption is confirmed by smooth-bore weapons, including the so-called “shotguns” (for example, experienced Samples of special purpose automatic shotguns “SPAS” chambered for an 12 caliber cartridge. However, a shotgun of a smooth-bore shotgun is effective only at a short range, the use of projectiles made up of thin arrows or flat rods, increase the range of damage slightly - in the literature indicated the distance to 100 m. Combined weapon systems, including rifled and smooth barrels having different ammunition with different target area, complicate their use.

Increasing the area hit by a single shot of a rifled weapon with a sufficient density of striking elements was traditionally tried to achieve in two main ways - by increasing the number of barrels (or channels drilled in the body of one “barrel”) with firing a volley or increasing the number of bullets in one cartridge (from 2 to 10) with shooting them all in one shot. There are many examples of this. However, multi-barreled or multi-channel weapons are too cumbersome. The creation of ammunition for rifled weapons that have several damaging elements - for example, a “duplex bullet” - cannot provide a sufficient area of ​​damage by elements that sequentially leave the barrel. In some prototypes of multi-bullets, forced dispersion (“dilution”) was applied at the expense of bevels on the ends of the bullets.

The proposed version of the ammunition can also be made in the dimensions and limits of the power of regular rifle ammunition, but filled with a bullet, in the tail of which there are four dl. cylindrical shape with the possibility of release from the bullet when departing from the barrel due to centrifugal force. Thus, the ammunition provides with one shot an increase in the area of ​​destruction. D.e. placed in intersecting longitudinal notches of the bullet so that they have the possibility of some parallel movement relative to the axis of the bullet, joint rotation with it and around its axis. A reservation is needed here. The DPE, like the bullet, stabilizes due to the gyroscopic effect. To do this, as well as to avoid deformations of the cuts when the bullet moves through the barrel bore, its tail part has a diameter corresponding to the caliber of the barrel in the fields, and the leading head is caliber in the cuts. When moving along the bore, the bullet, rotating, transmits the translational and angular velocity of the d.c. Each axis rotates around its longitudinal axis faster than a bullet as many times as its diameter is less than the diameter of the bullet, acquiring, respectively, greater gyroscopic stability. However, the magnitude of the deviation. from the trajectory is directly proportional to the angular velocity of rotation (the more so that the bullet and the dp rotate in opposite directions). Therefore, to reduce it, you should increase the pitch of the rifling. At the same time, it is impossible to discard the fact that with a decrease in the angular velocity, the gyroscopic stabilization of all the firing elements decreases. Bullets in this case it concerns less, because at the expense of lightening the tail section after separation of a dps it also gains aerodynamic stabilization. In this case, when determining the pitch of the rifling, it is necessary to calculate its value based on the condition of stabilization of the dp, on the trajectory.

Muzzle nozzle

Thus, using the described bullet in a standard weapon without some of its design changes is ineffective. It is proposed to supplement the weapon barrel with a device in the form of a muzzle attachment that performs several functions simultaneously: stabilizing the trajectory of the shot elements in the desired direction, reducing the flash of the muzzle flame, a slight decrease in the sound level of the shot. Note that multifunctional muzzle devices are quite common in small arms (the flame arrester-compensator-muzzle brake of the AK 74 assault rifle, detachable chok is the flame arrester for smooth-bore guns, etc.). Moreover, the proposed nozzle does not complicate the use of the cartridge with a conventional bullet.

Drawing muzzle device and his work: 1 - barrel; 2 - muzzle head; 3 - chute; 4 - pass-through channel; 5 - bullet; 6 - longitudinal bullet notches; 7 - additional damaging elements (EE); x - the direction of the angular motion of the bullet and dr. outside the muzzle


The essence of the device can be understood from the accompanying drawings. In Fig. 1, the barrel (1) is shown, in Fig. 2 - a muzzle head (2) of cylindrical shape, on the inner surface has eight smooth grooves (3) with through channels (4), made at an angle to the axial line. In FIGS. 1 and 2, you can see a bullet (5) as it moves along the bore channel (1) and in the nozzle (2). In the tail section, the bullet has intersecting longitudinal notches (6), which contain four d.s. (7). Bullet and dr. - body rotation. The ratio of their masses can be differentiated when using different materials. Bullet position and dps shown: a section along the "A-A" - at the beginning of movement along the bore; “bb” section - when the bullet is moved from the barrel bore (1) to the muzzle (2), and in FIG. 3 - after departure from the muzzle. The arrows indicate the direction of the rectilinear motion and rotation of the bullet, etc.

When moving from the bore (1) under the action of the powder gases, a bullet (5), moving its part with the cc located in it. (7) into the muzzle nozzle (2), due to the action of centrifugal force, is released from them. D.e. move to the gutters (3) in the section of the through channels (4). The number and multiplicity of the excess gutters (3) in relation to d.s. (7) determine hit by d. in the gutters with exactly equal angular distance between them. The advancement of a bullet from the barrel bore into the muzzle nozzle opens the way for gases to the nozzle, where they expand in all directions. This contributes to a stable movement. along the grooves, which in the areas of the through channels, due to the greater pressure of the powder gases in the cavity of the muzzle head, neutralize the “rebound” of the dye that arose during their contact with the surface of the grooves as compared to atmospheric. This preserves the stability of the movement. on the inner trajectory parallel to the pool and as an after-effect - after departure from the muzzle nozzle. At the same time, there is some slowdown in the rate of flow of powder gases from the muzzle nozzle (2), due to the change in their direction and dispersion through the through channels (4) and grooves (3), and also following the striking elements (5 and 7) contributing reduce flash and reduce the sound of the shot.

Taking into account the gyroscopic stabilization of the dpc, their calculated location in smooth trenches with equal angular intervals between them, it should be assumed that the deviation of the dp from the trajectory of the bullet will not exceed the permissible standards for rifled weapons and significantly exceed the smooth-bore weapon in accuracy with the presence of conditions that reduce the unmasking signs of the shot.

The theoretical basis and practical reproduction on the stand of the action of the bullet and its D. p. through the muzzle head allowed us to make the definition noted above.

From left to right: muzzle attachment (front view), muzzle attachment (side view) with the position of the striking elements at the exit from it, a possible version of the cartridge with the proposed type of bullet on the basis of the sleeve of the automatic cartridge
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  1. report4
    report4 4 July 2013 09: 36 New
    Without shooting tables, it is difficult to judge the effectiveness or inefficiency of a solution.
    Although two fat minuses can be seen right away
    - the cost of such a cartridge will significantly exceed the cost of regular ammunition,
    - The aerodynamics of the main bullet will be significantly impaired.
    1. Ataman
      Ataman 4 July 2013 09: 42 New
      I see the stand, but tried to shoot? When a bullet moves in the barrel, additional damaging elements will prematurely shift due to rifling of the barrel, changing the centering of the bullet and creating additional friction. Will not jam a bullet?
      В дульной насадке дополнительные поражающие элементы никогда не будут так ровно и идеально расходиться, а будут "клинить" и при выходе из насадки хаотично кувыркаться.
      Вырезы в основной пуле снизят убойное действие и дальность стрельбы, зато создадут такой "вой", что противник подумает, что стреляют из миномета.
      In general, to achieve the overall effect, firing a large shot looks preferable.

      Or am I crucifying in vain, but is this article humorous? winked
    2. luiswoo
      luiswoo 4 July 2013 14: 20 New
      Quote: report4

      - the cost of such a cartridge will significantly exceed the cost of regular ammunition,
      - The aerodynamics of the main bullet will be significantly impaired.

      Больно этот боеприпасы на фото, напоминает "Выхлоповский", тобишь дозвуковой. И смысл этих лёгких вкладышей, с аховой аэродинамикой становится ещё менее понятным. Возникает ощущение, что кучность их будет не многим выше картечи. Вероятно на 100 метрах каждый вкладыш раздетится по своим делам.
      It is more logical to dust off explosive bullets. For humans, they did not seem to use them, but with the ballistics of these, everything is in order. (it’s even more logical to use XM25 - large yields of fluff and feathers are guaranteed)
      1. luiswoo
        luiswoo 4 July 2013 15: 40 New
        Well yes, I forgot the duplex bullets.

        Ни каких извращений, а сколько "радости".
  2. bunta
    bunta 4 July 2013 09: 44 New
    Wonderful. Questions:
    1. Why dpe dumb? And as a consequence:
    2. Obviously, the dpe and the main bullet have different ballistic characteristics, that is, at some distance their paths will diverge.
  3. bunta
    bunta 4 July 2013 09: 56 New
    I am more and more delighted with this idea. It is more practical to place, not 4, but six DPEs. Replace the central element with a plastic pallet and a central bullet of a similar ballistics with DPE. Then for the 30mm gun the rate of fire 600 rds.min we have the rate of fire 4200 rds / min 9mm ammunition!
    Get out ink and cry money and in production, for testing!
    1. dustycat
      dustycat 4 July 2013 19: 12 New
      Saiga’s simple shotgun is far more effective, cheaper, and simpler than this prodigy's defeat.
      Эти "пули" разлетаются конусом 45 градусов от самого среза ствола и только самый большой фрагмент летит прямо и недалеко.
      What to admire in this delirium of reason?
      1. ramsi
        ramsi 5 July 2013 08: 24 New
        quote: dustycat - What to admire in this delirium of reason?
        Осыпь "дроби" будет явно равномернее. А почему 45 градусов?..
        If the main bullet is twisted optimally, then the additional ones will be twisted and, conversely, if the additional ones are optimal, then the main one will be twisted. A plastic pallet ...- and the rifling will not break?
  4. Evgeny_Lev
    Evgeny_Lev 4 July 2013 10: 03 New
    Well, dpe can be made in one body of a bullet, so that if it hits a nozzle, the bullet would fall apart (along the structural lines of the fault) without sowing + dpe itself. To get rid of the useless part, which is represented in the figure.
  5. Garysit
    Garysit 4 July 2013 10: 24 New
    Obtaining a patent and launching production are completely different things. Judging by the article, this is a model, no tests have been conducted. An experienced shot is one thing, a series is another, landing tolerances, etc. Yes, and about the Geneva Convention as it prohibits the use of fragmentation of small arms ammunition at the target. There are more questions than answers.
  6. washi
    washi 4 July 2013 11: 26 New
    For small arms is clearly not suitable. Millimeter segments will not only not have a lethal effect, but also weaken the effect of the main bullet. And for art. shells a segmented shell is not a novelty
    1. Evgeny_Lev
      Evgeny_Lev 4 July 2013 15: 14 New
      What about the heavy machine guns and the memory?
  7. seregggca
    seregggca 4 July 2013 12: 34 New

    Сильное трение такого кол-ва пуль( или как утвердают дополнительные поражающие элементы),еще в канале ствола. Повыш. износ ствола + его нагрев + Скорострельность выстрелов? Длинные очереди - они возможны? Относительно малый и разный вес самой пули и пораж. элементов, - нестабильность в полете. Эффективность скорее всего только на определенной дистанции.Короткой. Пробивная способность самой пули уменшится, т.к. часть энергии порох. газов была затрачена на "толкание" еще и пораж. элементов.
    Why do additional damaging elements - do not have a sharp nose? Unclear.
    Насадка? - Ващще критично. Как бы "Без комментариев". Насадка - бред. В лучш. случае просто ухудшит точность.


    Данная идея, - как в зенитном варианте ...калибра около 30мм. Тут масса снаряда и пораж. элементов больше, соответственно даст более нужный-стабильный результат. И вообще ..."масштабы" больше,- итог все минуса будут чуток менее заметны. А главное достоинство - кол-во пораж.элементов - всегда в большем приоретете для ПВО.
  8. IRBIS
    IRBIS 4 July 2013 14: 01 New
    Question. The range of the striking elements? The angle of their expansion from the muzzle end under the action of centrifugal force? At a great range and at a high altitude the specified type cannot be abandoned. (For example, segments of a sub-caliber projectile, rotating the projectile, fly out at a speed of 1800 m / s at an angle of 120 degrees and the range of their encounter with the ground is 50-70 meters).
    There are shells for ready-made slaughter elements, but the range of their use when firing on a buckshot is not impressive.
    Смысл данного "изобретения"? В факте самого его существования?
  9. dustycat
    dustycat 4 July 2013 19: 01 New
    Remote shrapnel is much more efficient, more technologically advanced and easier.
    And this is just a physical distortion of the mind that has no physical meaning.
  10. carbofo
    carbofo 5 July 2013 03: 22 New
    A patent is a patent, but on the technological side heresy, although it may work!
    As already mentioned, the cost of such cartridges will be very high and this already puts an end to the idea.
    It seems to me that it would be better to either bullet a bullet, for example, a bullet tray in the form of the last third in the form of 3 segments, at a close distance it will provide related damaging elements in the form of bullet segments flying apart under the action of centrifugal force.
    Or the second option, pack 3 arrow-shaped sub-caliber bullets in a container.
  11. ramsi
    ramsi 5 July 2013 18: 20 New
    No, it most likely will not work: the expansion of the DET will be excessive. And in general, all such systems (with sub-caliber) seem to be suitable only for guns: the targets are not the same and the masses. And in the rifle - separation of obturators from grams of striking elements - an insoluble problem
    1. ramsi
      ramsi 6 July 2013 09: 01 New
      although, if you make the muzzle nozzle smooth-walled, using it as a choke ... Perhaps when choosing the length and diameter, something will turn out
      1. carbofo
        carbofo 6 July 2013 12: 24 New
        It works or does not work, this question is not worth it, it will most likely work, but how? this is a question and at what price is the same question.
        You say that it will not work, and then you say that the expansion will be excessive, that is, you recognize unsatisfactory performance, which means the device is working, only unfinished.
        I find it unprofitable too complex design for obscure purposes.
        Cutoff for 3 bullets is more technological.
        1. ramsi
          ramsi 6 July 2013 14: 23 New
          I can’t feel how efficiently the muzzle attachment can control the expansion of the DPE, I can’t imagine whether or not to bite the DPE in the cells after running the entire block through the rifling. But the idea itself is like, and it's not so complicated. That's just under 7.62 - it is unlikely to succeed, but a larger caliber, like, is not expected
  12. Zomanus
    Zomanus 7 July 2013 07: 04 New
    Crap. The speed of the main ammunition drops, additional elements in general will not have time to gain speed on such a short section of the nozzle. Bullshit shorter. Then the 12.7 cartridge with a remote-explosive bullet looks more promising.
  13. alymal
    alymal 4 December 2014 13: 48 New
    The drawing is not true, before pieces of a bullet pieces of material, this time. Two - the rotary movement is also received by the pieces of the bullet, they have a movement not only forward, but also to the sides under the action of centrifugal force.

    In the form in which it is drawn, it is similar to the ideas of a Ukrainian schoolgirl with magnets in bronics ...