Military Review

Divide and work

42
Divide and workMechanical engineering of Russia faces the task of not modernization, but a fundamental structural reorganization. Its implementation should consolidate the division of labor as the basic principle of the economy and create conditions for the application of high-performance technologies.


The reason for the collapse of the USSR economy is not the subjective factors of the “negative” internal and external influence, but the technological lag behind the industrialized countries due to the lack of proper division of labor. What has changed in the domestic industry in the post-Soviet period? Almost nothing. The structure of the industry from the standpoint of engineering technology is still inefficient and unviable. Therefore, the challenge facing the Russian industry today is not modernization, but a fundamental structural reorganization. This task should be solved by business professionals. And government officials are called upon to create conditions for this.

Mass as a single

Even during the USSR, centralized management of industry, which resulted in the consolidation of enterprises and the fall in the level of the division of labor, proved ineffective. According to the fundamentals of engineering technology, labor productivity primarily depends on the type of production. The quantitative characteristic is the coefficient of assignment of operations to a specific workplace during the month. During Soviet times and to this day, the current standard regulates types of production from mass to single and the corresponding coefficients from 1 to 40 and more.

Trying to understand the reasons for the unsatisfactory work of the machine shops of a large machine-building plant, the author of these lines, even in 80-ies, established: the rate of consolidation of operations there everywhere exceeded 70. That is, the type of production was single, the changeover of equipment was carried out more than twice a day. The result: a huge loss of time; disproportion of loading of machines and workers; mass defectiveness; the use of mainly universal equipment (high-performance machines, automatic machines, means of mechanization and automation are unclaimed); the need for highly skilled workers and service engineers; large waste materials of uneconomical blanks; a high proportion of manual labor in finishing operations; irregularity; high cost; large volume of work in progress and warehouse stocks. This list can be continued.

Now let's look at the development of the industry in the economically prosperous countries of North America, Europe and Asia, which do not know the revolutionary changes in production relations. In the 20th century, these countries advanced significantly in the division of labor and technological specialization, making the most of the advantages of mass and large-scale types of production. The exploded technological specialization of enterprises was especially widely developed: from 60 of the last century to the present, the share of sales of unified parts and assemblies in the total foreign trade of industrialized countries increased from 20 to 40%.

This experience shows that the optimal number of employees at most machine-building enterprises (taking into account the limitations in controllability and the market demand for the same type of parts and assemblies) is within 200 - 400 people. Of course, there are enterprises with a significantly larger staff, but this is also due to technological feasibility (these are either plants for the primary processing of metallurgical and chemical raw materials, or assembly plants whose products in large volumes are in demand by the market). And they are completed by hundreds and thousands of specialized firms, usually not bound by the common owner, especially a single administration. Finally, there are holdings that unite dozens and hundreds of machine-building enterprises, but they all have their own specialization and function independently, delivering products not only within the holding, but also to all those in need. The division of labor according to the technological principle takes place in these countries and in the defense industry, for example, for the American 37-millimeter cannon GUN MH, the barrel group is made in the Waterwlit arsenal, and the carriage is on Rock Island.

Today as yesterday

The machine-building plants that survived in Russia have basically not changed structurally since the 80-s: they represent a jumble of vast amounts of diverse equipment that is not involved in any production processes and is not able to execute orders for reasonable money and in real time when orders appear. (For the sake of fairness, we note: in 90s, effective enterprises appeared in the industry in the minimum number. The organization was based not on public investment, but on initiative and knowledge, as well as on the availability of leasing of unused production capacity and small funds allocated by mistake oil companies in the form of loans and prepayments. Several factories remained in working condition, including two or three in the segment of the machine tool industry and press-forging equipment, where Ali are former professional leaders, not the party-nomenklatura elite. They were able to organize nodal cooperation with specialized foreign firms. However, such examples are rare.)

The active creation of state corporations, which, from 2007, have included enterprises voluntarily or forcibly, as well as the declared modernization programs, very much resemble a return to the former command-administrative management system.

Judging by the public statements of the country's leaders and high-ranking officials, the problems of enterprises and industries will be resolved through investment (probably, they will not be given government investments in the Russian engineering industry) for the purchase of technologies and equipment. But nothing good will come of it. There is no production environment where these technologies and equipment could be applied.

We are convinced that before modernizing in the Russian engineering industry, it is necessary to carry out a fundamental structural reorganization, which will provide the conditions for the application of high-performance technologies. Only profile specialists and businessmen are able to solve this problem if officials create conditions for this.

Look at the root

Today there are practically no opportunities for the development of private business in the industry. It is impossible to organize at least a small engineering enterprise. Banks will not give a budding entrepreneur even the minimum necessary money (100 - 150 million rubles) for the purchase of equipment, the construction of industrial premises, the replenishment of working capital. And if they had, in the current conditions of lending and taxation such loans are very heavy. Rental of production space, and even with the appropriate technological equipment, under acceptable conditions is unrealistic. Investors in engineering projects in Russia and abroad are not visible.

The structural and economic state of the processing industries, the lack of demand for technological personnel has destroyed the vocational education system, and led to the degradation of higher education. In the place of educational and research laboratories, universities create advertising and marketing centers for non-first-class imported equipment, and instead of engineers, they train management specialists who do not know what they are or masters for teaching what they do not know.

Customs policy also strongly interferes. The state supports the metallurgical segment of the economy to the detriment of mechanical engineering. If finished parts (products) are imported, the customs duty is usually zero. But the import of blanks of these parts is taxed on average 15%. Meanwhile, a significant range of semi-finished metal products in Russia is not produced at all or is difficult to access, most of the procurement industries remained in the composition of giant plants, significantly reduced capacity or closed.

I'm not even talking about how awkwardly large the material and time costs of servicing the supervising and supervising bodies, which often turned state activity into business.

13 steps

To create conditions for the development of domestic engineering, it is necessary not declaratively, but really do the following:

  • Stop the distribution of funds from the state budget and funds in the form of assistance to business entities. Support is possible through the payment of advances for state-order products, the provision of guarantees for banks lending to the creation of specialized enterprises, or the restructuring of inefficient city-forming factories.

  • Develop and implement together with banks a state program that ensures the availability of loans for enterprises of the processing industries. At the stages of creating new and reorganizing existing enterprises, the state, together with the initiators of business projects, should act as a guarantor for long-term loans at a reasonable rate of no more than 5%.

  • Provide tax preferences for newly created or undergoing radical reconstruction of enterprises, for example, a reduction in the social tax rate, the use of "holidays" for income tax.

  • To change the owners of inefficient and non-performing enterprises, introduce a progressive scale of taxes on property, land, and also on the amount of land rent, if the land is not repurchased. The effectiveness of the company to determine annual revenue per employee.

  • Ensure strict compliance with the law on intentional bankruptcy, which involves the withdrawal of assets from the company. Prevent the return of property to inefficient owners of a bankrupt enterprise. Conduct an investigation of such operations over the past, for example, ten years.

  • Simplify the procedure for allotting land, obtaining all kinds of permits and approvals for newly created or developing enterprises.

  • Create an effective procedure to counter raider attacks and hostile takeovers of enterprises.

  • Implement a state program for the development of projects based on scientific and technical development for all processing industries, including mechanical engineering. Regulate reasonable deadlines and project review procedures. The expert commissions should include only established and existing entrepreneurs in the main and related industries, and not officials.

  • On behalf of the state, to sell and donate property of bankrupt enterprises to new owners only for specific business plans that ensure efficient development, including within the framework of the state investment program.

  • Radically revise customs duties on imported goods to stimulate and support processing industries.

  • It is essential to limit the powers of the controlling and authorities, for example, to reduce the number of inspections, to eliminate unnecessary and exorbitant statistical reporting for machine-building enterprises that do not use radioactive and poisonous materials in production. To increase the responsibility of bodies for unreasonable and illegal actions.

  • Legislatively establish the equality of the rights of enterprises of any legal form and size in relation to the use of centralized resources, energy, transport, financial, as well as to receive government orders and contracts.

  • When purchasing equipment by mining companies, primarily oil and gas, provide an advantage to domestic producers.
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    1. Vadivak
      Vadivak 3 July 2013 08: 51 New
      +9
      Author Evgeny MokronosovThe machine-building factories that survived in Russia from the 80's have basically not changed structurally:


      Even the old Soviet machines work, though when they are changed to Chinese, which is issued as a modernization.
      1. Armata
        Armata 3 July 2013 09: 04 New
        31
        Quote: Vadivak
        Even the old Soviet machines work, though when they are changed to Chinese, which is issued as a modernization.
        Hello, Vadim. Germans, Japanese, amers work for us, but now we have come to the conclusion that it is better to buy in Ryazan, Ivanovo, Nizhny Novgorod. Machine tools are no worse than theirs, but will last longer. We do not have a technological lag, but there are critics who, without knowing the topic, the structure of enterprises write all sorts of crap. We have the main problem with the staff, the young people want clean hands, it’s a lot of loot to consider. The whole problem is in the managers. They are now like threshing floor in the spring.
        1. Furnace driver
          Furnace driver 3 July 2013 09: 19 New
          +7
          Indeed, we are not technologically behind, I know from one machine-tool plant, contrary to expectations, it is still working and even began to develop in recent years, and this despite the promised crisis. And there are many young ...
          1. aksakal
            aksakal 4 July 2013 00: 57 New
            +1
            Quote: Furnace Driver
            Indeed, we are not technologically behind, I know from one machine-tool plant, contrary to expectations, it is still working and even began to develop in recent years, and this despite the promised crisis. And there are many young ...

            - hmm, actually, we are not talking about technology as such, but about the technological division of labor, to be more precise, about the method of organizing production. As it is now fashionable to say - about the organization of business processes. Here is the main thing in SABGE: "the consolidation coefficient of operations there exceeded 70 everywhere. That is, the type of production was single, the equipment was readjusted more than twice a day. Result: huge loss of time; imbalance in the loading of machines and workers; mass defectiveness; the use of mainly universal equipment (high-performance machine tools, automatic machines, mechanization and automation are unclaimed); the need for highly skilled workers and adjusters; large waste materials uneconomical procurement; a high proportion of manual labor in finishing operations; irregularity; high cost; large volume of work in progress and stocks. The list goes on. - from myself I will add - I once worked at the Plant named after. Kirov in Alma-Ata. I have a harmful character, and I cut prices with great pleasure, well, as if to increase labor productivity. You can minus - what happened, what happened, but it was fun to see the elongated faces of the workers after the next cut in prices. And I also liked to trust the most "kalym" details only to the newly appeared CNC machines. And watch how the workers were furious, watching how the machine with a smart look grinds out the most delicious parts, while the workers were left with cheap parts. Then they broke. Because the old workers urged young people to break these machines, and they are happy - after all, there are so many scarce things in the control panel of these machines, such as thyristors, transistors, diodes and other things. You can minus - but you will not get away from the truth. In the USSR, there really was such an organization of labor, and this, in general, is technological backwardness in the sense of the organization of labor, in the sense of organizing the division of this labor. In short, everything was rather stupidly organized, alas. The cited list I CONFIRM !!! But the author seemed to start for health, and ended up for repose. These 13 steps are so messy! Below (or above) I posted what I didn’t like - it’s about taxes. and so on. Here I would change these points: "for long-term loans with a reasonable rate of not more than 5%"and this is the point:"The effectiveness of the enterprise is determined by annual revenue per employee"- or, more precisely, would unite them - at such lending rates, I would lend only to those enterprises that in their industry would hold the record for annual gains per employee. This would stimulate labor productivity.
          2. aksakal
            aksakal 4 July 2013 01: 52 New
            +1
            Quote: Furnace Driver
            I know one machine tool factory,

            - I once received at the Plant to them. Kirov machining center from Ivanovo, director - Kabaidze. Here was a masterpiece! Everyone thought it was a sophisticated Japanese machine from the Japanese company "Ubakhobo" (well, if you read "IVANOVO" laughing ), there was no lag in the machines. It’s just that I actually unsubscribed below — the production organization itself was stupidly organized, which did not reduce costs and instead encouraged productivity, encouraged workers to play cat and mouse with the employer (so that prices would not be cut). As for the waste - yes, the shavings exported many tons, and everyone was indignant at the breakaways that it would be possible to organize everything better, so that there would be so much waste, but in real life no one did anything, and chatted in the kitchens and in the breakroom. The fault was the costly principle of labor organization.
            1. sashka
              sashka 4 July 2013 10: 56 New
              0
              Quote: aksakal
              It’s just that I actually unsubscribed below - the production organization itself was stupidly organized, which did not reduce costs and instead encouraged productivity, encouraged workers to play cat and mouse with the employer (so that prices would not be cut)

              At one time I worked at Tapo and Ch on a German APED-300 machine (automatic). It is a press machine for making cylindrical products from sheet material. Dural, steel, etc. 90th year, and in the shop there are (were) machines manufactured in 1927. On which they made parts for "Il-76" and "Ruslan". So for the fact that with his devices he increased the productivity by 3 times, and the quality by two, they cut the norm by five (5) times. I had to break everything, what I did with my own hands and quit. And no one else worked on this machine for such a rate. Now it is unlikely that anything will change as long as they pay as in Engels, maximum in the city 15000
        2. Vadivak
          Vadivak 3 July 2013 09: 41 New
          11
          Quote: Mechanic
          Hello, Vadim. We have Germans, Japanese, Amers.

          Hi Zhenya. Also not happy. Nothing works for us, the APZ was stolen for metal, KZTZ, Schetmash, machine-tool, forge-and-press too, maybe somewhere like in the "Kuban Cossacks" there is a happy collective farm, but I don't see it
          Quote: Mechanic
          We have the main problem with the staff, the young want clean hands, a lot of loot

          I very much agree with you and with that mustached comrade who
          before graduates of military academies on May 4, 1935 spoke

          Quote


          Technology without people who have mastered technology is dead. Technology, led by people who have mastered technology, can and should produce miracles. If at our first-class factories and factories, on our collective farms and state farms, in our Red Army there were a sufficient number of personnel capable of saddling this equipment, our country would get the effect three times and four times as much as it now has.

          That is why the emphasis should now be placed on people, on personnel, on workers who have mastered technology.

          That is why the old slogan "technology is everything", which is a reflection of the already passed period when we had a famine in the field of technology, must now be replaced by a new slogan, the slogan that "cadres decide everything."

          This is now the main thing.
          1. Furnace driver
            Furnace driver 3 July 2013 10: 10 New
            +2
            And this is how God marks the assault: in one city it is empty, and in the other it is thick ... with production at the present time. Although when the USSR was both there and there was a lot.
            We say this is the case in one thing - in the people who live in these cities. I had a chance to work in one town like this: not a single production was destroyed! And a flax mill and a dairy and two large industrial plants and a weaving mill ... and the city is growing. And all because the inhabitants are fighting, I remember a State Duma deputy from EdR came to the enterprise, so he couldn’t utter a word, so the factory workers overlaid him. Try firing someone or delay your salary, immediately to the prosecutor's office. So there have never been delays. The store was opened with a staircase, but without a railing, so the elderly brought the brains of the city to such an extent that in a swoop and a railing and a ramp appeared ... A lot of things ...
            Such cities as you described are also available, but let's ask you why you allowed this devastation? Why people from other cities do not allow themselves such luxury. Maybe they understand more about life than in those cities that destroyed everything?
        3. Papakiko
          Papakiko 3 July 2013 09: 55 New
          +7
          Quote: Mechanic
          The whole problem is in the managers. They are now like threshing floor in the spring.

          Hello, darling. hi

          Who else, if not us, the Ural people "osschuschit" and see all these charms, miraculous managery.
          The author has clearly not seen a single issue of "How it works", "How it is done", "How it works", "Mega structures", etc. Well, or arrives in a parallel reality.
          To smash into dust the theory of "divided labor" from the author of the article, I suggest the following:
          1) The cotton was processed and twisted into a thread at one factory. (I missed the intentional division of labor when growing cotton)
          2) The thread was taken for 1000 km. to another factory and weaved a cloth.
          3) They drove for 1500 km. and put a drawing on another plant (painting machines (flexography) let them be 10 color.
          4) They drove away for 500 km. to the next plant for cutting.
          5) They drove away for 150 km. to the sewing factory.
          6) They drove away for 15 km. to the finished product packaging factory.
          How much will these satin underpants be?
          drinks hi
          1. S_mirnov
            S_mirnov 3 July 2013 11: 01 New
            +9
            Rarely stupid article. On a cannon shot can not be allowed to such factories!
            "Stop the distribution of funds from the state budget and funds in the form of aid" - with open borders and a freely convertible ruble, our industry is uncompetitive! It's cold here!
            "To develop and implement, together with banks, a state program to ensure the availability of loans" - but why the heck in our country there are so many banks and such frantic interest rates on loans?
            "To provide tax preferences for newly created enterprises or those undergoing radical reconstruction," - And why the hell was it to create a tax system in which factories not only develop, but even cannot exist?

            In general, the author makes the impression of a fool struggling with the consequences, and not understanding that the cause must be eliminated!
            1. Furnace driver
              Furnace driver 3 July 2013 11: 50 New
              0
              Quote: S_mirnov
              In general, the author makes the impression of a fool struggling with the consequences, and not understanding that the cause must be eliminated!

              To the very point - correctly noticed!
            2. Papakiko
              Papakiko 3 July 2013 12: 11 New
              +3
              Quote: S_mirnov
              struggling with the consequences, and not understanding that the cause must be eliminated

              Golden words!
              I will not spread over the tree and 2 small examples from real life:
              1) VSMPO-Avisma and Boeing.
              At VSMPO, a complete mess and all sane-specific people (negligence) went to Boeing. Without rollbacks, cuts, nothing can be delivered at all (metal, raw materials, components, tools). Everything on a Boeing is like hours and salaries and work.
              2) GOZ or a federal project on the one hand and an individual on the other (ZAO, PO, LLC or institute) (although it was similar with Volkswagen in Kaluga, Gazprom, Transneft, etc., strive to get into someone else’s pocket)
              Agreed work, say 45 rubles.
              Work-service is done, the contractor reports, ships the product-service and receives 2 rubles. Where is the rest? belay
              Officials begin to make a helpless gesture and translate arrows at the Ministry of Finance.
              And there miracles begin and the shaitan wanders so differently along the corridors that the desire completely discourages him from tied up with "such work".

              Why is that?
              Everything is done intentionally and not by you and me.
            3. zart_arn
              zart_arn 3 July 2013 12: 53 New
              +4
              I completely agree with you, Alexander. Those who apparently didn’t stand close to the factory entrance passed, apparently. It seems like the author of this article, who offers (on his own points I translate into Russian)
              1. Finish off completely inefficient enterprises and stop feeding barely living
              2. "Develop" a credit system and say that "there is no money"
              3. To alleviate the tax burden ... for newly created banks and merchants.
              4. To oust unwanted competitors from the market with the punishing lever of the state apparatus
              5. Again, the unwanted walk
              6. Provide land allotment ... for the construction of mansions and shopping centers in sweet places.
              7. And God forbid law enforcement officers attack the criminal bank - declare them raiders.
              8. We will include our people in the commission so that we and they will get it.
              9. Again, we will go bankrupt and we will drive our own.
              10. We will revise customs duties and it will turn out as always.
              11. And so that technical supervision and labor inspection doesn’t even show a nose, and the people with him.
              12. Again, "this is for me, this is again for me."
              13. This is how?
              Maybe it turned out a little exaggerated, but it will be so.
              1. aksakal
                aksakal 4 July 2013 00: 30 New
                0
                Quote: zart_arn
                . To alleviate the tax burden ... for newly created banks and merchants
                - I remember there was such a personal tennis coach at EBN - Shamil Tarpishchev. Taking advantage of the proximity to the "body" and driven by good intentions, which are known to be paved with the road to hell, he broke tax breaks for sports organizations in terms of importing chicken legs from the United States. Under this case, they created a Soyuz Contract, they began to import chicken legs in trains without taxes ... This did not help the Russian sport, because weasels like Berezovsky crawled into this little thing, they fed the athletes with "breakfasts" or got off with handouts, the Poultry of Russia was finally finished off with this step, and besides, the Russian budget missed such billions through this tax hole! Mlyn, who just does not ask for tax breaks, appealing to their special importance for the country! And seamstresses from Light Industry, and here in SABZH machine builders, and even defense workers from the military-industrial complex! When will it reach them that there are no games with taxes? All taxes should be the same for all industries, you can regulate something a little, but no more! Otherwise, the same rake as with Tarpishchev will be. No use, no benefit, only crooks got cooked and that's it!
            4. aksakal
              aksakal 4 July 2013 00: 34 New
              -2
              Quote: S_mirnov
              In general, the author makes the impression of a fool struggling with the consequences, and not understanding that the cause must be eliminated!

              - And you again about yours - about the most dark and worst concentration of evil - Putin? laughing Good luck! Amer will thank you very much if you manage to expel a malicious creature from the Russian throne through your publications laughing
          2. Armata
            Armata 3 July 2013 11: 29 New
            +4
            Quote: Papakiko
            How much will these satin underpants be?
            Hello fellow countryman. You don’t swing at the sacred. How am I going to live without my beloved family members later? laughing In general, you're right. There are issues of cooperation, but they should not be so global.
        4. Dimanrus86
          Dimanrus86 3 July 2013 11: 27 New
          +1
          Yes, and the tools in Russia are not doing very bad, now I switched to the Dield of the Smolensky Plant and Interskol - I don’t know any problems and I advise everyone, but the vaunted BOSCH puncher for a lot of money, died on the first garage repair)))
          1. kris
            kris 3 July 2013 11: 34 New
            +2
            Quote: Dimanrus86
            Yes, and the tools in Russia are not doing very bad, now I switched to the Dield of the Smolensky Plant and Interskol - I don’t know any problems and I advise everyone, but the vaunted BOSCH puncher for a lot of money, died on the first garage repair)))

            Interskol and DIOLD are Chinese. In Russia, only the brand is registered and put into boxes.
            This is now quite common. ZMZ "Double Resource" - more than half of them are brought from China, and at the plant they are only packed in boxes.
            1. Papakiko
              Papakiko 3 July 2013 11: 54 New
              +2
              Quote: kris
              more than half are brought from China, and at the factory they are only put in boxes.

              Not so bad.
              most of China is traveling - and this is an unfortunate fact.
              And our tools do and do very much to the level that HILTI recognize.
        5. My address
          My address 3 July 2013 13: 06 New
          +4
          Eugene, you are absolutely right. If according to the author, then again it is necessary to destroy enterprises of 400 people, in each of them create workshops for 40 people, of which 30 will be, as you put it, "managers". Orders, production will be engaged in 10. There will be labor productivity! The author does not know, or does not want to know, that there are universal machine operators, but there are opamp, that there is a small-scale and one-off production.
          1. Armata
            Armata 3 July 2013 13: 13 New
            +4
            Quote: My address
            Eugene, you are absolutely right. If according to the author, then again it is necessary to destroy enterprises of 400 people, in each of them create workshops for 40 people, of which 30 will be, as you put it, "managers". Orders, production will be engaged in 10. There will be labor productivity! The author does not know, or does not want to know, that there are universal machine operators, but there are opamp, that there is a small-scale and one-off production.
            Here, Alexander agrees. Not a single CNC can replace a good station wagon, but they are already an endangered class.
        6. aksakal
          aksakal 4 July 2013 00: 21 New
          0
          Quote: Mechanic
          Hello hello

          mechanic and Vadim, welcome.
          Quote: Mechanic
          We have the main problem with the staff, the young people want clean hands, it’s a lot of loot to consider. The whole problem is in the managers. They are now like threshing floor in the spring.
          - hmm, this is actually a new productive force that does not want to fit into the outdated production relationship you are proposing. The conflict between obsolete production relations and new productive forces, according to Marx, how does it end? Learned the teachings of Marxism-Leninism? Want to get adventures in Russia? Then try to drive this youth into the workshops, it will be fun for you, because the youth somehow do not burn with the desire to stand on the conveyor all their lives and like a monkey twist the same nut every day. Some kind of nailing with microscopes. Make robots, so let them plow at the factory, and give people more creative work - that's why they are people
      2. Ross
        Ross 4 July 2013 10: 27 New
        0
        Quote: Vadivak
        Author Evgeny MokronosovThe machine-building factories that survived in Russia from the 80's have basically not changed structurally:


        Even the old Soviet machines work, though when they are changed to Chinese, which is issued as a modernization.

        About 8 years ago, piston rings were ordered in China for a friend. So they could not meet the tolerance, which is easily performed in Russia at local factories. Referred to Chinese machine tools equipment. Only having purchased in Germany after a few years, they were able to do in the clearance, which in Russia has always been feasible.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. smel
      smel 3 July 2013 09: 02 New
      0
      I liked the article. The author competently and identified development paths. The only sad thing is the utopianism of these steps under current legislation. Well, I did not like the attack at the beginning of the article against the economy of the USSR. Before this economy (read industrial and scientific potential) we still have to grow and grow. And it is not known whether we will grow. Although we strive. Yes, and recent events in the industry of Kazakhstan confirm these words.
      In general, PLUS. Good article by a responsible and thoughtful author
      1. Cheloveck
        Cheloveck 3 July 2013 21: 09 New
        +1
        Quote: smel
        I liked the article. The author competently and identified development paths. The only sad thing is the utopianism of these steps under current legislation. Well, I did not like the attack at the beginning of the article against the economy of the USSR. Before this economy (read industrial and scientific potential) we still have to grow and grow. And it is not known whether we will grow. Although we strive. Yes, and recent events in the industry of Kazakhstan confirm these words. In general, PLUS. Good article by a responsible and thoughtful author

        Responsible and thoughtful ???
        Is this what he answered or is responsible for?
        And where and in what place does he think (and does he think at all, rather fulfills the paid order)?
        A sort of cabinet theorist from engineering, stupidly looking into the mouth of Western sponsors.
        Soviet mechanical engineering possessed such a powerful margin of safety that it took a dozen years of brutal pressure to destroy it, from the destruction of the structure of cooperation through artificial hyperinflation to the forced introduction of "effective managers" into the leadership, backing up all this with rabid propaganda about our technological lag. (by the way, the "lag" turned out to be so strong that the poor high-tech West still cannot reach the level of the "laggard" in a hefty list of positions).
        And, by the way, oh ..., the author is cunning a little, referring to the experience of the West, they have almost no production left, everything is brought to Korea, China and the countries of Southeast Asia. Hmm ...

        As for enterprises numbering 40 people, not a single sane specialist will entrust such an enterprise to make anything more difficult than nails, because such an enterprise is not able to provide high-quality incoming control, nor contain decent heat, nor normal electroplating, even with simple technological support, alas, big problems.

        Something like that.
        The article is a fat minus.

        Although, if you think about it, then under the present system it is simply dangerous to gather many proletarians in one place. Whatever one may say, the working class is really a threat to capital ...
        Hmm, no fools are sitting at the helm ... passed ... in the 17th. belay
    4. Grigorich 1962
      Grigorich 1962 3 July 2013 09: 08 New
      -4
      A smart person gives sound thoughts and suggestions. Sin to senior management not to heed
    5. papss
      papss 3 July 2013 09: 09 New
      +3
      I read from the first lines
      The reason for the collapse of the USSR economy is not subjective factors of “negative” internal and external influence, but a technological lag behind industrialized countries due to the lack of a proper division of labor.
      He lived in the USSR, the areas in which he lagged behind - electronics, automotive, light industry. According to Stalin, at the beginning of the 30s, the USSR, which was formed in 1922, lagged behind developed countries by 50-100 years ...and the collapse of the economy, as a result of revolutions, the civil war of excesses in agriculture not received
      The article aroused conflicting feelings, since all subjective factors of “negative” internal and external influence were rejected. But the USSR, in the early 80s, occupied a strong second place in the world ... namely in industry and engineering. How else? If it was not how and how rockets for space were created, rockets for our possible opponents, the best weapon in the world ...
      1. Furnace driver
        Furnace driver 3 July 2013 09: 23 New
        +3
        Quote: papss
        He lived in the USSR, the areas in which he lagged behind - electronics, automotive, light industry.

        I agree only partly on electronics: ours began to switch to the microelement base too late. The miscalculation of leadership, but not science: the main developments in this segment are exactly the same with the USSR: the same laser ...
      2. pensioner
        pensioner 3 July 2013 09: 34 New
        +3
        Quote: papss
        He lived in the USSR, the areas in which he lagged behind - electronics

        I think no! In mass electronics, there may have been a lag, but not a critical one. And in the military - not what!
      3. Papakiko
        Papakiko 3 July 2013 10: 05 New
        +4
        Quote: papss
        But the USSR, in the early 80s, occupied a strong second place in the world ... namely in industry and engineering. How else? If it was not how and how rockets for space were created, rockets for our possible opponents, the best weapon in the world ...

        I will add you spices in cabbage soup.
        This is the number of space rocket launches in the USSR from the late 70s to the early 90s.
        1976 - 100, 3 unsuccessful
        1977 - 100, 3 unsuccessful
        1978 - 91, 3 unsuccessful
        1979 - 89, 2 unsuccessful
        1980 - 89, 2 unsuccessful
        1981 - 100, 2 unsuccessful
        1982 - 108, 9 unsuccessful
        1983 - 99, 1 unsuccessful
        1984 - 97, 1 unsuccessful
        1985 - 100, 3 unsuccessful
        1986 - 94, 4 unsuccessful
        1987 - 97, 1 unsuccessful
        1988 - 94, 4 unsuccessful
        1989 - 75, 1 unsuccessful
        1990 - 78, 4 unsuccessful
        1991 - 61, 2 unsuccessful
        Below, like a mattress, things were.
        1976 - 27, no unsuccessful
        1977 - 26, 1 unsuccessful
        1978 - 33, 1 unsuccessful
        1979 - 16, no unsuccessful
        1980 - 15, 2 unsuccessful
        1981 - 19, 1 unsuccessful
        1982 - 18, no unsuccessful
        1983 - 22, unsuccessful no
        1984 - 22, no unsuccessful
        1985 - 18, 1 unsuccessful
        1986 - 9, 3 unsuccessful
        1987 - 9, 1 unsuccessful
        1988 - 11, no unsuccessful
        1989 - 18, no unsuccessful
        1990 - 27, no unsuccessful
        1991 - 19, 2 unsuccessful
        1992 - 28, 1 unsuccessful
        1993 - 24, 2 unsuccessful
        The conclusion suggests itself. hi
        "Well, in the USSR they did not know how to work or work, labor productivity was not any."
        1. Furnace driver
          Furnace driver 3 July 2013 10: 13 New
          +1
          I will please you, Russia in the number of launches is just as important in the first place as the USSR
          1. Papakiko
            Papakiko 3 July 2013 10: 33 New
            +3
            Quote: Furnace Driver
            I will please you, Russia in the number of launches is just as important in the first place as the USSR

            It is not a matter of the number of launches, but the quantity of equipment not delivered to orbit.
            The USSR had an accident rate of 3%.
            The mattress has 5%.
            And now we have almost 8%.
            1. papss
              papss 3 July 2013 10: 44 New
              0
              Quote: Papakiko
              Quote: Furnace Driver
              I will please you, Russia in the number of launches is just as important in the first place as the USSR

              It is not a matter of the number of launches, but the quantity of equipment not delivered to orbit.
              The USSR had an accident rate of 3%.
              The mattress has 5%.
              And now we have almost 8%.

              I'm glad not for this ... but that it has been saved. Over the past 20 years. What have we and the United States experienced? We did not compare the number of launches, but the theorem "well, we did not know how to work or work in the USSR"
            2. Furnace driver
              Furnace driver 3 July 2013 10: 58 New
              -1
              Well, given that we do not have control over the entire output trajectory, but there were floating before, I would have written off part of the failed launches ... This, of course, does not concern the last embarrassment with the proton.
              I remember when the Soviet Union was also suddenly for no reason ours began to fall, then the Americans began to fall sharply, then both ours and them stopped falling sharply.
        2. papss
          papss 3 July 2013 10: 31 New
          0
          What conclusion ... you added spices to yourself ... Consider yourself ... USSR 1472 launches - 45 unsuccessful, on average 1 unsuccessful to 32.7, mattress, ... 309 launches, years 1992-1993 do not count ... and unsuccessful 12 ... respectively an average of one in 25.75
          And also ... that you only listened to the end of 70 ... and
          the whole conclusion about the USSR as a whole was given
          ..in addition
          USA
          1957 - 1, 1 unsuccessful
          1958 - 23, 16 unsuccessful
          1959 - 19, 9 unsuccessful
          1960 - 30, 13 unsuccessful
          1961 - 45, 12 unsuccessful
          1962 - 61, 7 unsuccessful
          1963 - 47, 9 unsuccessful
          1964 - 68, 7 unsuccessful
          1965 - 75, 6 unsuccessful
          1966 - 83, 4 unsuccessful
          1967 - 64, 4 unsuccessful
          1968 - 49, 3 unsuccessful
          1969 - 44, 2 unsuccessful
          1970 - 29, 1 unsuccessful
          1971 - 36, 4 unsuccessful
          1972 - 34, 2 unsuccessful
          1973 - 25, 2 unsuccessful
          1974 - 23, 1 unsuccessful
          1975 - 30, 3 unsuccessful
          the USSR
          1957 - 2, no unsuccessful
          1958 - 5, 4 unsuccessful
          1959 - 4, 1 unsuccessful
          1960 - 9, 6 unsuccessful
          1961 - 9, 4 unsuccessful
          1962 - 22, 7 unsuccessful
          1963 - 24, 9 unsuccessful
          1964 - 33, 7 unsuccessful
          1965 - 53, 7 unsuccessful
          1966 - 50, 7 unsuccessful
          1967 - 74, 11 unsuccessful
          1968 - 80, 7 unsuccessful
          1969 - 82, 14 unsuccessful
          1970 - 88, 8 unsuccessful
          1971 - 92, 10 unsuccessful
          1972 - 79, 6 unsuccessful
          1973 - 89, 3 unsuccessful
          1974 - 85, 4 unsuccessful
          1975 - 93, 4 unsuccessful
          Figures show that the USSR even increased significantly launches
          1. Papakiko
            Papakiko 3 July 2013 10: 46 New
            0
            Quote: papss
            And also ... that you only listened to the end of 70 ... and

            The Soyuz-Apollo program was implemented on July 15, 1975.
            We assume that this is the point of congruency between the powers.
            About% ratio above is written.
        3. fzr1000
          fzr1000 3 July 2013 10: 44 New
          0
          Russia
          2005 year
          Total 26 launches. Successful 23.
          2006 year
          Number of launches: 25 Successful launches: 23
          2007 year
          Number of launches: 26 Successful launches: 25
          2008 year
          Number of launches: 27 Successful launches: 26
          2009 year
          Number of launches: 32 Successful launches: 31; 1 launch recognized as partially successful
          2010 year
          Number of launches: 31 Successful launches: 30
          2011 year
          Number of launches: 32. Successful launches: 28.
          2012 year
          Number of launches: 24. Successful launches: 23.
          2013 year
          Number of launches: 16. Successful launches: 15. Planned launches: 18
    6. treskoed
      treskoed 3 July 2013 09: 15 New
      +1
      What has changed in the domestic industry in the post-Soviet period? Almost nothing. The structure of industry from the standpoint of engineering technology is still inefficient and non-viable.

      Effective and viable for those who are at the helm of the "domestic industry". After all, the filling of personal pockets has grown incredibly, and the results do not bother them. You need not 13 steps, but one - the leader for the area entrusted to him - is responsible for the HEAD!
    7. Canep
      Canep 3 July 2013 09: 22 New
      +8
      The reason for the collapse of the USSR economy is not subjective factors of “negative” internal and external influence, but a technological lag behind industrialized countries due to the lack of a proper division of labor.

      This is not very true, or rather complete nonsense. Until the 80s, there was no lag behind the industrially developed countries. I studied in 86-89 as a CNC machine operator. 25 years have passed and I am now working at a new plant built with the help of Western specialists, where the share of CNC machines is 35%, and we will be assured (these very Western specialists) that this is the most modern equipment today. A friend left for Germany (they studied together in those years) and says that (since he has experience in CNC operations) they bought him such a machine (he works as a turner in a small company) and said that it was the most modern machine. His comment - "Shit, in the 80s we did better."
    8. Alex66
      Alex66 3 July 2013 09: 32 New
      +1
      "The reason for the collapse of the USSR economy is not the subjective factors of" negative "internal and external influence, but the technological lag behind the industrially developed countries due to the lack of a proper division of labor."
      And who did not allow to overcome the technological backwardness, who prevented the rational division of labor (in the USSR it is much easier than under capitalism)? And it was precisely these internal negative factors that fell under the influence of external ones, which, instead of work, were engaged in "perestroika", did not give it away, they hung noodles on our ears about democracy and glasnost.
    9. Airman
      Airman 3 July 2013 09: 56 New
      +2
      Quote: Grigorich 1962
      A smart person gives sound thoughts and suggestions. Sin to senior management not to heed



      A clever person proposes to razderbanit large enterprises into sharashka, so that later each bolt and nut can be bought through intermediaries. We already went through the "optimization" of enterprises, when several dozen private shops appeared from one plant, and the plant was closed, because it became unprofitable for someone to sharpen bolts and nuts.
    10. Furnace driver
      Furnace driver 3 July 2013 10: 20 New
      0
      off-topic question: Now an article appeared in the news, opened, read, wanted to leave a comment - I couldn’t, I look again at the news - there is no article. no one knows what kind of miracles?
    11. uralkos
      uralkos 3 July 2013 10: 55 New
      +6
      In order for anyone to work, it would be necessary for the machine workers to receive as a general director, and they would not forget the personnel serving these machines, or we will continue to feed foreign specialists, actually paying for their development, and at the same time killing our potential specialists. I myself am from Magnitogorsk, we have CNC machinists get 30-40t.r. , and the personnel serving these machines receive 15-20t.r. Well, who will work for such crumbs. Our prices are at the level of St. Petersburg. I myself am currently working on a shift; at the moment we are completing the project of Lukoil PGU-235. I am an EMR master (department of electricians, instrumentation and A, ACS). Experience 19 years. I get 60t.r. per month, despite the fact that I work 10 hours a day, 6 days a week. Well, and what do you think, how long will I stretch out on such a schedule? That's why they don’t want to go to work like we do. Much easier to sell, buy and sell again. Let the people live with dignity, we will give birth to children and we will revive industry, this is the key foundation of any economy, the people are the main pride and wealth of Russia, which you can and should invest in, and not (lay) from above.
    12. papss
      papss 3 July 2013 10: 55 New
      0
      Quote: Papakiko
      Quote: papss
      And also ... that you only listened to the end of 70 ... and

      The Soyuz-Apollo program was implemented on July 15, 1975.
      We assume that this is the point of congruency between the powers.
      About% ratio above is written.

      Congruence is the principle of honesty towards oneself and others ... Is the SOYUZ-APPOLON program only this point between the powers of the USSR and the USA? Or maybe space in general and its development in this case? And your point of congruency to the USSR is being built only under the SOYUZ-APPOLON program?
    13. papss
      papss 3 July 2013 11: 31 New
      0
      For this article, as an economist, I recommended reading valid scientific articles on this topic "Economic Strategies" No. 02, 2007 Skobova V.G., Doctor of Visico-Mathematical Sciences, Professor and Chernov A.S., Professor MEPhI article "Comparison economies of the USA, USSR and Russia "
    14. ovgorskiy
      ovgorskiy 3 July 2013 11: 35 New
      +1
      The author, as usual for a not-so-successful and competent entrepreneur, blames everything on the state. The state must, the state is obliged, etc. etc. And what should an entrepreneur do? Get a free property, get a soft loan, trade through both, and start demanding a new one. The fact is that we all went through this in the 90s and later. They divided the factories into small firms and safely ruined everything. They received preferential loans and went bankrupt, received tax benefits at the initial stage, and then liquidated the enterprises. ALL it was! A loan of 5% was particularly killed, i.e. banks must issue loans at a loss (less than inflation). The article was written by an illiterate journalist, very far from production. When will we have normal businessmen who will not blame everyone and everyone for their failures, and will succeed with their work and mind.
    15. PValery53
      PValery53 3 July 2013 12: 57 New
      0
      Quote: Vadivak
      Nothing works for us, the APZ was stolen for metal, KZTZ, Schetmash, machine-tool, forge-and-press too, maybe somewhere like in the "Kuban Cossacks" there is a happy collective farm, but I don't see it

      We are talking about the city of Kursk. I will add: the large factories "Fiber" and RTI were also "bombed". It is impossible to understand what the bulk of the city's population lives on?! .. Moreover, all roads and not all lawns are clogged with foreign cars. Looks like our population is "cunning" ...
    16. Flash_96
      Flash_96 3 July 2013 21: 22 New
      +1
      I don’t agree with the previous comments on the equipment. At the enterprise where your humble servant worked, car assembly, by the way, was considered the most reliable and high-quality equipment at the machining centers of Bosch engine blocks, we didn’t find anything like that and there was a robotic welding line for Kawasaki cabs, they also praised !!! ! So there is no need to say indiscriminately that everything is ours is the best, not everyone could do it themselves, far from everything !!!! Best regards, colleagues ...
    17. family tree
      family tree 3 July 2013 21: 24 New
      +1
      Is everything ingenious simple? We take, but at least the same "Sevmash", separate the shops from it and send them to free navigation. Let them establish relations with each other and work at the assembly shop ... Hurray!
      Stop. Somewhere already. In 1991, in Belovezhskaya Pushcha, a large enterprise, called the USSR, was divided into workshops. What happened is what we have. In most empty workshops, except for drafts due to broken windows, and pulling up the remains of equipment in ferrous metal, no activity.
      The author is a fool, for examination. Recognized insane, let them treat. Recognize sane, hang on an aspen, by the neck.
      1. Flash_96
        Flash_96 3 July 2013 21: 31 New
        +1
        Yes, there is a rational grain in the article, in terms of processing standardized parts massively in small enterprises, believe sometimes large enterprises take some production steps hard, I remember how many ..... there were a lot of defects with the processing of engine block heads, but if- if they were already ready come, I’m sure they would save specifically !!!!
        1. family tree
          family tree 4 July 2013 00: 19 New
          +1
          Quote: Flash_96
          I remember how much ..... with the processing of the heads of engine blocks, there was a lot of marriage, but if they had already arrived, I’m sure they would save specifically !!!!

          That is, at a large enterprise, the technologists did not give out the technology for processing the cylinder head, so it is necessary to give small orders? Yes, easily, almost with a file, manually, only they will break the price, as for manual work. Plus shipping costs. Plus they need to be found. How much will the engine cost? Who will buy it?
    18. sashka
      sashka 4 July 2013 07: 32 New
      0
      13 steps .. Fine, very fine. It's like "500 days" under Yavlinsky and Chubais. And everyone will be happy. Provide, increase, create conditions .. Everyone and everyone is talking about this, and for quite a long time. No Country Master Plan , so we rush from side to side .. From one promise to another.