Military Review

Fighting lasers of future wars

23
Electronic warfare has long gone beyond the radio wave band originally allocated to it.


Electronics is the basis of high-tech products for domestic, industrial and defense purposes. Its share in the cost of the final product is close to 70 percent, and it is the electronic components that determine the capabilities and degree of perfection of these products. Thus, the level of radio electronics - consumer, professional and special purposes - largely determines the development potential of the state in the modern world, its ability to ensure the formation of a high-tech economy, improve the quality of life of the population and protect national interests. Figuratively speaking, the electromagnetic spectrum becomes the critical resource, the sustainability and safety of a country will directly depend on the ownership and freedom of disposal.

The fact that the electromagnetic spectrum is already completely saturated by consumers and the intensity of its use will only increase, no doubt (see table 1). Providing anyone and unrestricted access to the electromagnetic spectrum to their users in the interests of advancing military, diplomatic and economic goals and, accordingly, the complication, and even complete prohibition of this access to the users of the enemy, is the essence of electronic warfare (EW). Modern EW is no longer just a form of combat and operational support, as it was until recently, but also a kind of warfare, a form of operational-strategic action, the object of influence of which is the system of state and military control of the opposing side, its military and economic infrastructure. The electronic warfare is an integral part of the information warfare (IS) and the technical basis of one of the methods of conducting combat operations in the framework of information security - the fight against combat control systems (ASIS).

Essence EW

In highly developed countries, the concept of EW (Electronic warfare, EW) is more capacious, synthetic and, along with EW itself, in its narrow sense also includes electronic reconnaissance (DER) as an EW supply, whose task is to collect intelligence information optical and radio electromagnetic spectrum.

Table 1

Fighting lasers of future wars


Essentially, electronic warfare involves the impact of fire and electronic damage on electronic equipment (RES) control systems, communications, reconnaissance and targeting, as well as the life support of the enemy in order to change the quality of information circulating in them or stop information exchange, while protecting their systems from similar types of effects, including changes in the conditions (properties of the medium) of the propagation of electromagnetic waves and streams of charged particles. The subject of the DER is the interception of communication channels between people and radio-electronic means, as well as signals from radar, hydro-acoustic and optical-electronic stations, other radiating devices, measurement of physical fields of various objects.

In accordance with the foregoing content of EW in advanced military powers are (see table 2) electronic loss (Electronic attack, ЕА, formerly used the term Electronic countermeasures, ECM), electronic protection (Electronic protection, ЕР, formerly Electronic counter-countermeasures, ECCM ) and electronic information support (Electronic warfare support, EWS, formerly Electronic support measures, ESM).

Table 2



Electronic destruction (REPR) is a set of measures and actions of troops (forces) on the impact on the RES of the control systems of troops (forces), weapons and military equipment of the enemy by means of fire (self-guided radiation weapon), functional (electromagnetic weapons) and information (active and passive radio-electronic interference) damage, as well as changes in the conditions of propagation (reflection) of electromagnetic waves (radio-electronic masking).

Radioelectronic protection (REZ) is to reduce the effectiveness (eliminate or weaken) the impact of the enemy's enemy's RPEs on their REM, protect their REM from electromagnetic and ionizing radiation arising from the use of a nuclear weapon, from unintended (mutual) radio interference (ensuring electromagnetic compatibility) and from technical means of enemy intelligence.

Radio-electronic information support (RIO) consists of systematic measures and actions of troops (forces) to identify and control the functioning of the enemy's radio electronic equipment, to collect, analyze and summarize radio-electronic situation data necessary for organizing and maintaining an electronic warfare.

The content of EW differs in symmetric and asymmetrical conflicts. In symmetrical conflicts involving a collision with an enemy represented by regular armed forces, EW is fully present in all three elements - REPR, REZ and RIO. At the same time, EW ensures the success of the BSBU primarily through the RIO and its key element - the DER, including the whole variety of means for intercepting communication channels, receiving and analyzing electromagnetic radiation, and measuring the physical fields of various objects. Another important element of the RIO will be to alert its forces about the threat of use of weapons by the enemy, for which various radiation warning stations serve as means of detecting and controlling fire. The REPR facilities are used to solve the enemy air defense suppression tasks (active and passive jamming stations, as well as anti-radar missiles carried by airplanes and helicopters), disrupting the enemy’s control system (active jamming systems, self-guiding radiation sources and electromagnetic ammunition), combat by means of air attack (ground forces equipment, ships and ships) during ground, air or sea combat, especially in dueling situations (for the sake of location, thermal and hydroacoustic traps), when moving on the territory left or disputed by the enemy (means of suppressing radio-controlled explosive devices). The REZ facilities, being combined with radar stations and communication systems, ensure their reliable operation in the conditions of electronic countermeasures of the enemy.

In asymmetrical conflicts involving a collision with irregular formations, EW is conducted on a limited scale. At the same time, in rural areas, emphasis will be placed on radio intelligence and the suppression of radio-controlled explosive devices, and in settlements, in addition to the above, also on the suppression of radio communications and wireless computer networks of the enemy, isolating him from the civilian population through blocking access to television and radio broadcasting facilities and social networks in cyberspace.

What's in the future

How do specialists see the future of EW? A person masters more and more new frequency sections of the electromagnetic spectrum, and the EW has long gone beyond the originally assigned radio wave band. Nevertheless, it is he who will remain in the foreseeable future as the main area of ​​operation of the RECs for various purposes. In this connection, the EW systems of the new generation will be mainly radio engineering. They will be complemented by specialized acoustic (hydroacoustic) and optical-electronic complexes. Distinctive features of these systems will be extended (minimum - 3 GHz, maximum - 10 GHz) operating frequency ranges and multivariate emissions, cognitiveness (presence of artificial intelligence elements, embedded expert logic subsystems of control) and adaptability (automatic control of radiation types and power depending on the characteristics , the number and priority of suppressed targets), spatial separation with the possibility of focusing electromagnetic energy on the detected object in real m-time through activation of network technology, modular design and hardware and open software architecture, increased protection from the effects of enemy electronic warfare. The technological base for this will be the use of ultra-precise oscillators, a heterogeneous processor architecture, two-way simultaneous exchange (STAR), electronic beam control in the radio frequency and optical bands, families of nitride (GaN / InN / AlN) transistors and a number of other innovative technologies.


Electromagnetic weapons (EMO), both low-frequency (it has been used in a number of local conflicts since the 90-s of the last century), and high-frequency, currently existing at the level of prototypes (technology demonstrators), will become a reality. The elemental base of the XPS is very sensitive to energy overloads, and the flow of electromagnetic energy of sufficiently high density can burn out semiconductor junctions, completely or partially disrupting their normal functioning. Low-frequency electromagnetic radiation creates electromagnetic pulsed radiation at frequencies below 1 MHz, high-frequency electromagnetic radiation affects microwave radiation, both pulsed and continuous. Low-frequency EMO affects the object through interference with wired infrastructure, including telephone lines, cables for external power supply, information feed and retrieval. High-frequency electromagnetic radiation directly penetrates the electronic equipment of an object through its antenna system. In addition to the impact on the enemy's RES, high-frequency EMO can also affect the skin and internal organs of a person. Moreover, as a result of their heating in the body, chromosomal and genetic changes are possible, activation and deactivation of viruses, transformation of immunological and behavioral reactions.

The main technical means of obtaining powerful electromagnetic pulses that form the basis of a low-frequency electromagnetic pulse is a generator with explosive compression of a magnetic field. Another potential type of high-level low-frequency magnetic energy source could be a magnetodynamic generator driven by rocket fuel or an explosive. When implementing high-frequency EMO, electronic devices such as broadband magnetrons and millimeter-wave gyrotrons, virtual cathode generators (vircators) using the centimeter range, free-electron lasers and wide-band plasma-beam ones can be used as a generator of powerful microwave radiation. generators.

Cruise missiles planning to deliver low-frequency electromagnetic radiation aviation bombs and artillery ammunition. Due to the compactness of antenna systems, high-frequency electromagnetic radiation can be installed on military equipment of the ground forces, aircraft and ships. The use of phased antenna arrays allows you to simultaneously form several beams, quickly change their position and thereby ensure the simultaneous defeat of several targets.

In the optical range of the electromagnetic spectrum, the leading military powers of the world have come close to creating combat lasers, solid-state and free-electron. Land, air and sea-based laser installations (solid-state lasers up to 600 kW and range up to 10 km) or exclusively sea-based (free electron lasers up to 1 MW and range up to 20 km) will be mainly focused on anti-missile tasks , anti-aircraft and anti-barter defense, that is, to combat high-speed maneuvering objects. In addition, the selectivity of the striking effect of lasers will also allow them to be used to suppress optical-electronic devices of the enemy, to detect, identify, and reconnoiter various targets, including carriers of weapons of mass destruction.

Lead Developers

The development and production of high-tech EW and DER devices is a very specific and closed market sector with a high admission price: there are a dozen companies with a small number of companies in the world. World leaders are American Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin, Raytheon, ITT and the British BAe Systems. Russia is also included in this club of the elect: the leading Russian developer and manufacturer of electronic warfare and radio electronic equipment - Concern Radio-Electronic Technologies OJSC. Established in 2009, the holding united under its auspices 18 enterprises - research institutes, design bureaus and production plants specializing in the creation of EW and REV aviation (manned and unmanned aerial vehicles), sea (surface ships and vessels) and ground (separate types of military equipment on a wheeled or tracked base) based. As part of the implementation of the State Armaments Program for the period 2011 – 2020 (GWP-2020) and against the background of the growth of military-technical cooperation with foreign countries, the concern steadily increases its presence on the EW and DER market - the annual increase in sales in the current decade is expected to be 19 percent . In the current five-year period, the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation will receive up to 20 new types of products for individual and group protection from modern reconnaissance and high-precision weapons, including space-based systems, as well as man-portable air defense systems. Recently, state tests have been successfully passed and the EW Moscow-1, Krasuha-2, Krasuha-4, Mercury and a number of others have been put into serial production.

Concern's enterprises conduct research and development work on shaping the appearance of EW and REV systems of a new generation, including the following issues:

  • design of ultra-wideband, 2 – 18 GHz operating frequency band mirror antenna systems with frequency-stabilized radiation patterns (OCR "Sakhalin", head performer - All-Russian Research Institute "Gradient");
  • creation of spatially distributed EW systems, adaptive to the composition and characteristics of the operation of enemy radar control systems, with joint digital processing and the formation of distributed coherent interfering signals for 6 unmanned aerial vehicles (OCR "Himalayas", head performer - Kaluga Research radio engineering institute);
  • creating EW facilities with ultra-wideband (two or three octaves) solid-state transceiver modules and wideband digital processing of radio signals based on multipath (at least four simultaneously generated beams) antenna arrays for decimeter (1 – 6 GHz), centimeter (6 – XNXX) millimeter (18 – 32 GHz) wavelength ranges for 40 generation aircraft, including PAK FA, Su-5С (OCR Rikoshet and Rank, head performer - KNIRTI);
  • the introduction of industrial production technology of a unified series of microwave receiving devices with an expanded (from 60 dB and above) dynamic range of received signals, providing uninterrupted reception with a high probability of reception and highly accurate determination of the parameters of received signals under conditions of deliberate limitation of operation time and changes in the parameters of the enemy's EF emission ( OCD "Piston", the head performer - Taganrog Research Institute of Communications);
  • creating basic hardware and software modules for on-line monitoring and recognition of radio signals with a complex signal-code design (Staple, the head contractor is the Design Bureau for radio monitoring of control, navigation and communication systems);
  • design and manufacture of high-precision digital RTR equipment, including, among other things, the possibility of using high-precision weapons for radio emission sources (ROC Rynda, head contractor - Design Bureau for Radio Monitoring of Control, Navigation and Communication Systems);
  • creation of spatially distributed systems of covert radar air and ground targets on the basis of active phased arrays and passive radar systems in the meter and decameter ranges (OCR "Bullet", "Perturbation-1", "Arc-1", "Leader-SV", head Executive - Design Bureau for Radio Monitoring of Control, Navigation and Communication Systems).


    Domestic and foreign military thought is unanimous in the opinion of the relatively limited capacity and the dubious expediency of further enhancing the characteristics of fire weapons using kinetic energy. In the foreseeable future, a qualitative leap in capacity building of the Armed Forces is possible due to the further intellectualization of control systems, communications, reconnaissance and target designation, as well as the use of countermeasures that use unconventional, primarily electromagnetic methods of influence on the enemy.
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    1. Nevsky
      Nevsky 3 July 2013 15: 34
      10
      Their time has come. Somewhere in the Caucasus laughing :

      1. Irkit
        Irkit 3 July 2013 16: 38
        0
        Cool battle :) recently watched. +
      2. Papakiko
        Papakiko 3 July 2013 18: 54
        0
        Quote: Nevsky
        Their time has come

        HandsomeYYYY! laughing
        Raised only the mood and creative forces.
        Only this is not the Caucasus.
        These tractors are driven in Bulgaria, Romania and so on.
      3. Fetel
        Fetel 3 July 2013 21: 30
        0
        May the Force be with you laughing
    2. igor36
      igor36 3 July 2013 15: 39
      +1
      The technological base for this will be the use of ultra-precise oscillators, heterogeneous processor architecture, two-way simultaneous exchange (STAR), electronic beam control in the radio frequency and optical ranges, families of nitride (GaN / InN / AlN) transistors and a number of other innovative technologies.

      But in the elemental base, we are far from the United States and from China.
      1. muks
        muks 3 July 2013 17: 36
        +3
        The eighties of the last century. 12 tons on 16 wheels, Kazakhstan as part of the Soviet Union. We tested a product whose principle of operation is based on ... the clinic of Svyatoslav Fedorov. In general, the destruction of intermolecular bonds. And it worked wonderfully - so maybe it’s behind. But neither the USA, nor China, nor any other country in the world has such a thing.
        1. RPD
          RPD 3 July 2013 18: 03
          +1
          METHOD OF DIRECTED DESTRUCTION OF MOLECULAR STRUCTURES OF SUBSTANCE by means of transmission of electromagnetic waves, characterized in that the transfer of energy is carried out by creating an analog phase velocity of the combined energy effect of autonomous sources of electromagnetic waves with a frequency of 1011 - 1018 Hz, located radially with an arbitrary radius to the material being destroyed.
    3. erased
      erased 3 July 2013 15: 57
      +1
      The real appearance of a combat laser is still a long way off. But as soon as it appears, systems of protection and counteraction will immediately appear. By their potential, they will even surpass the laser itself. However, we will see more.
      1. Irkit
        Irkit 3 July 2013 16: 42
        0
        Well, it seems to me it will be more difficult to create a power barrier, and he eats more energy (in theory).
      2. Rus2012
        Rus2012 3 July 2013 19: 50
        +3
        Quote: erased
        The real appearance of a combat laser is still far

        ... looking for what purpose, dear colleague!
        If to blind the surveillance equipment, including satellites, then they already exist. More precisely, they were ... and will be!

        http://izvestia.ru/news/539185
        The 1LK222 laser is the foundation of the entire aerospace countermeasures system. The system has the code name Sokol-Echelon and was developed by the Almaz-Antey concern and the Khimpromavtomatika design bureau.
    4. mogus
      mogus 3 July 2013 16: 02
      0
      explosive magnetic field generator

      Powerful thing ... one-time truth winked , but nothing, - flew in (planned, in a rocket, in free fall), exploded - slips of the device’s cables and burnt electronics ... bully
      1. Rus2012
        Rus2012 3 July 2013 19: 54
        +1
        Quote: mogus
        device cable slips

        - rather a bogged-down electronics ...
        In the Strategic Missile Forces against such things, "chopping off cables" is used against the passage of EMP. For example, "Satan", where the initial stage of the launch, before the passage of the factors of the ground explosion - all the electronics are even specially turned off (control on a different principle and elements)
        1. mogus
          mogus 4 July 2013 02: 41
          0
          not about that. This generator is an explosive device with conductors inside. During the explosion, a large amount of energy is released, and before the destruction of the conductors occurs, the device emits a pulse sufficient to power the railgun. The same energy can be directed to "burning" microcircuits / semiconductors.
    5. mamba
      mamba 3 July 2013 16: 16
      +5
      The title of the article does not match its content. About combat lasers - just one paragraph, and everything else - about electronic warfare.
      1. mogus
        mogus 3 July 2013 16: 45
        0
        Essentially, electronic warfare involves the impact of fire and electronic damage on electronic equipment (RES) control systems, communications, reconnaissance and targeting, as well as the life support of the enemy in order to change the quality of information circulating in them or stop information exchange, while protecting their systems from similar types of effects, including changes in the conditions (properties of the medium) of the propagation of electromagnetic waves and streams of charged particles. The subject of the DER is the interception of communication channels between people and radio-electronic means, as well as signals from radar, hydro-acoustic and optical-electronic stations, other radiating devices, measurement of physical fields of various objects.

        the paragraph explains what and how to deal with

        EW has long gone beyond the scope originally assigned to it by the radio wave range. Nevertheless, it is he who will remain in the foreseeable future the main area of ​​functioning of RES for various purposes. In this regard, the new generation electronic warfare systems will be mainly radio engineering.

        which direction is moving
        They will be supplemented by specialized acoustic (hydroacoustic) and optoelectronic complexes.
        - optoelectronic (lasers)

        The main technical tool for producing powerful electromagnetic pulses, which form the basis of low-frequency electromagnetic radiation, is an generator with explosive compression of a magnetic field.
        - Already invented, embodied in metal, being tested.
        1. Rus2012
          Rus2012 3 July 2013 19: 55
          0
          Quote: mogus
          - Already invented, embodied in metal, being tested.

          I would even say - adopted ...
      2. Mikhail3
        Mikhail3 3 July 2013 22: 46
        0
        Combat lasers in potency, like Lenin in St. Petersburg. That is, the development of increasingly complex, accurate and compact electronic structures makes you ... more vulnerable! This means that an advantage will be given to one whose computing equipment is not electronic. Mechanics, like our art calculator on a turbine and ... lasers! That is, optical computers.
        Star Wars combat lasers can be blinded even now. The batteries are just not in vain laughing When creating an energy source that is compact enough to power a hand-held laser, no lasers are needed for nothing. Such a battery itself, when destroyed, will release so much energy that you can’t wish for a better weapon. Then the population of the planet will actually decrease significantly, don’t go to the grandmother ...
        1. mamba
          mamba 4 July 2013 09: 02
          0
          Quote: Mikhail3
          an advantage will be given to one whose computing is not electronic.

          Wooden scores, slide rules, arithmometers and Bradis tables are the key to invincibility in future wars! laughing
          Quote: Mikhail3
          Mechanics, like our art calculator on a turbine and ... lasers! That is, optical computers.

          Keep in mind that semiconductor fiber optic lasers used in long-distance optical communication systems and in promising optical computers are pumped by electronics and the information they transmit is also processed by electronics. All this is vulnerable to EMP. The lasers themselves, physically disconnected from the pump generator, are not sensitive to electromagnetic radiation. They are also resistant to all types of ionizing radiation, only with neutrons there can sometimes be problems.
          Quote: Mikhail3
          Such a battery itself, when destroyed, will release so much energy that you can’t wish for a better weapon. Then the population of the planet will actually decrease significantly, don’t go to the grandmother ...

          A friend of mine, who worked at the Saratov plant of chemical current sources, told how the behavior of a powerful lithium battery battery during a short circuit in the load was studied at the test site. The roof of the concrete bunker where this battery exploded flew up several meters. But the world's population did not notice this. laughing
    6. Averias
      Averias 3 July 2013 16: 42
      +2
      A combat laser is a great thing, of course. And since they say this everywhere, it means that in the future they will begin to use it on the battlefields. But here's the hitch, creating a means of protection against the laser is much simpler and cheaper than the laser itself. The first thing that the laser rests on is the energy source, then there is an obstacle in the form of the atmosphere and everything connected with it (humidity, fog, rain, snow, etc.). Also, some types of laser weapons (there was already an article) that create the laser channel and the current is pumped into it (lightning discharge in the right place) - is fraught with breakdowns in the atmosphere (oops, and is discharged where it is not needed). There is a suspicion that the countries that are developing in this area (including WE). They have some trump cards in their sleeves. Otherwise, why all this fuss?
    7. TUNISIA
      TUNISIA 3 July 2013 18: 52
      +2
      Laser weapons have not yet been created, and I already have a mirror against enemy blasters hi
      1. mamba
        mamba 4 July 2013 09: 14
        0
        Quote: TUNISIA
        I already have a mirror against enemy blasters hi

        Better to use reflectors. It returns radiation towards the source.
    8. starhina01
      starhina01 3 July 2013 19: 38
      +1
      Everything new is well forgotten old hi
    9. Vitaly Anisimov
      Vitaly Anisimov 3 July 2013 21: 38
      +1
      Lasers, drones, robots .. It's all useless against Russian men with "pitchforks" .. They want to check again .. Well, welcome to the Russian open spaces ... (pitchforks fly well with us ..)))
    10. Ogogoshka
      Ogogoshka 3 July 2013 22: 31
      0
      the armament should be coherently directed radiation, the laser is only a warm-up.
      1. mamba
        mamba 4 July 2013 08: 23
        0
        Quote: Ogogoshka
        the armament should be coherently directed radiation, the laser is only a warm-up.

        The laser is precisely the generator of coherent and directional radiation. If he is a workout, then what are you talking about? what
    11. KazaK Bo
      KazaK Bo 4 July 2013 09: 10
      0
      The article is interesting, but ... But it is better not to discuss this topic in the open press. The theme of electronic warfare is not for the press at all. For printing, you can lay out what has been achieved ... that way 30-40 years ago ... and even that is not all. Sometimes something doesn’t agree ... that it is presented so distorted in order to mislead potential opponents ... something ... in general, the truth is unlikely to be found in open press about electronic warfare ...
      Sorry, maybe someone will not like this my offer, but .... it’s better to just read to satisfy curiosity.
      1. mogus
        mogus 4 July 2013 12: 04
        0
        the generator in question was shown on "Russia 2" "Science 2.0" - I don't remember the name of the issue ...
        And the rest, who knows, maybe we did not serve in the army and fantasize bully