Military Review

Our breakthrough to the East. 30 June 1648 of the year, 365 years ago, began the famous campaign of Semen Dezhnev

Our breakthrough to the East. 30 June 1648 of the year, 365 years ago, began the famous campaign of Semen DezhnevIn the West, they have already openly started talking about the fact that Russia has no right to "usurp alone" the hydrocarbons and minerals of Siberia and the Far East. Say, this is “the wealth of all mankind”, which fell into our hands from heaven, and now we have to share it with the rest of the world (read with transnational corporations).

Allegedly, when the Russian territories are sparsely populated from Baikal to the Pacific, we do not need such spaces at all, nor the vast Pacific coast. Notice that no one makes such claims to Canada, although on the territory (9 984 670 sq. Km) it is second only to Russia, and only 34 568 211 lives in it. And the official motto of this country is “From sea to sea”. But the main thing is not even in this, but the fact that in fact nothing fell into our hands from heaven. We broke through to the Pacific at the cost of unparalleled courage and heroism of the pioneers.

In the 30-40-XI of the XVII century, the Russians moved from Yakutsk in search of "new land" not only to the south and north (up and down the Lena), but also directly to the east, partly influenced by vague rumors that East is the "Warm Sea". In May, the Cossack ataman Dmitry Epifanovich Kopylov equipped the party in 1639, led by Ivan Yuryevich Moskvitin, to reconnoitre the way to the “sea-okeyan” 30.

They were the first to find the shortest way through the mountains from Yakutsk to the Sea of ​​Okhotsk, hitherto unknown, which in the future allowed Semyon Dezhnev to steadily head for the Pacific Ocean from the mouth of the Kolyma by sea.

Eight days Moskvitin detachment descended along the Aldan to the mouth of the Maya. Further, approximately 200 kilometers, the Cossacks walked along May on a flat-bottomed plank - where they were at the oars or poles, and where the line was, they passed the mouth of the Yudoma river and continued to move to the headwaters. After six weeks of the journey, the guides indicated the mouth of the small and shallow river Nyudy, which flows into the Maya river on the left. In the Moskvitin's formal reply, “Painting the Rivers ...”, all the major tributaries of the Mai are listed, including the Yudomu: the latter mentions “... the Podvoloshnaya River Nyudma” (by the Nudes).

Here, the Cossacks abandoned a small plateau, probably because of its heavy rainfall, built two planes and in six days rose to the source of the river. The Moskvitin and its satellites overcame their days lightly, without planes, through a short and easy pass through the Dzhugdzhur ridge, which they had opened, which separates the rivers of the Lena system from rivers flowing to the “sea-okian”.

In the upper reaches of the river, making a large loop to the north, before “falling” into the Hive (the Sea of ​​Okhotsk basin), they built a new plane and in eight days went down to the waterfalls, of which the guides no doubt warned them. Here again had to leave the ship; The Cossacks went around the dangerous area on the left bank and built a canoe boat, a transport boat that contained the 20-30 people. The Cossacks "went up to Lama, fed with wood, grass and root, but on the Lama you can fish a lot along rivers and you can be full."

Five days later, in August 1639, the Moskvitin first entered the Sea of ​​Lamu (later named Okhotsk). All the way from the mouth of the Mai to the "sea-okiyan" through a completely unknown area, the detachment went a little more than two months with stops. So the Russians in the extreme east of Asia reached the north-western part of the Pacific Ocean - the Sea of ​​Okhotsk. On the Hive, where the Lamut (Evens) kindred to the Evenk, lived, Moskvitin set up a winter hut. He learned from locals about a relatively densely populated river in the north and, without delaying until spring, sent 1 October (old style), on the day of the Intercession of the Most Holy Mother of God, on a river vessel a group of Cossacks (20 people). Three days later, they reached this river, which was called the Hunt (the Evenk word “akat”, redefined in Russian, that is, the river). So began история Russian shipping in the Pacific. From the mouth of Okhota, a detachment of Moskvitin passed by sea further east, discovered the mouths of several small rivers, examined more than 500 kilometers of the northern coast of the Sea of ​​Okhotsk, and discovered the Taui Bay. “In the Paintings to Rivers ...” beyond the Hive are listed (the names are slightly distorted) the rivers Urak, Okhota, Kukhtuy, Ulbeya, Yin and Taui. A hike on a small craft showed the need for building a marine vessel - the Koch.

Both Moskvitin himself and the Yakut Cossack Nekhoroshko Ivanovich Kolobov from his detachment presented in January 1646 of the year “skays” about their march, which were the most important documents for other pioneers, in particular, for Dezhnev. It is significant that on the same day, when Ivan Moskvitin set sail, on Pokrov, only in 1648, Semyon Dezhnev and his companions, rounding the northeastern ledge of Eurasia, passed from the Arctic Ocean to the Pacific for the first time in history. Truly, without the protection of the Mother of God, nowhere! Or, as they say: "Without God, not to the threshold."

If we do not know exactly when and where Ivan Yuryevich Moskvitin was born, then Semyon Ivanovich Dezhnev appeared around 1605 in Veliky Ustyug. Nothing is known about his life before 1638. At that time, immigrants from Pomerania and Vologda region took an active part in the development of Siberia. Dezhnev served first in Tobolsk, then in Yeniseisk, and from there he moved to the Yakutsk prison.

The Yakut period of life of Semyon Ivanovich Dezhnev is a chain of continuous feats comparable to the feats of the gigantic heroes of ancient Russian epics.
In 1639 – 1640 Dezhnev leads the submission of the Yakut prince Sahey. In 1641, Mr. Semyon Ivanovich, with a detachment of everything in 15, man collects tribute on the river Yana, successfully repelling the attacks of the superior forces of the "non-peaceful" natives. In 1642, the city of Dezhnev went down the Indigirka River to the Arctic Ocean and founded the Kolyma Islands here. In 1645, the Ostrozhes besieged the 500 Yukagir warriors (tremendous power for those edges). Dezhnev with 18 Cossacks successfully withstood the siege.

Over 20 years of service in Yakutsk, Dezhnev was injured 9 once. But he not only successfully fought, discovered new lands and seas, collected tribute and duties. Semyon Ivanovich was an outstanding Orthodox missionary. Despite the harsh, sometimes extreme conditions in which Cossack “ice trips” took place, the subdued Siberian tribes were not forced to cross to the cross. Both Tsar Mikhail Fyodorovich and his son Alexei Mikhailovich sent strict orders to Siberian commanders from Moscow: to deal with the subjugated natives affectionately, not to charge yasak from patients who could not hunt, and if anyone wanted to be baptized, they should be taken to the service and given to them a sovereign salary.

But since the priests in the Cossack detachments were far from always, the role of preachers, or, as they say now, catechists, were taken by chieftains who had matures in their campaigns — and quite successfully coped with it!

They personally baptized foreigners, which, as is known, in the absence of a priest, the Christian canons allowed.

Therefore, it is clear that God gave success to the pioneers. In 1646, the city of Isai Ignatiev from Mezen laid the foundation for a new Siberian craft - the extraction of valuable walrus bone or, as it was then called, “fish tooth” (the aborigines considered the walrus a giant fish). In 1647, a second batch of industrialists was sent to the Arctic Ocean from the mouth of the Kolyma River for the “fish tooth”, which included Semyon Ivanovich Dezhnev. The duty was assigned to him to collect duty from the loot and to "explain" along the way foreigners. This party soon returned to Nizhne-Kolymsk, encountering impassable ice accumulations on the way, but in 1648, Kholmogorets Fyodor Alekseev equipped a new expedition in the number of 90 people to whom Dezhnev had joined.

She entered the sea 365 years ago, 30 June 1648 g., On seven kochah, and went to the east. In the Strait of Long, during a storm, two coma broke on the ice. The surviving five ships continued to move east, and then south, to the strait between the Eurasian and American continents, now known as the Bering. Probably, Alekseev and Dezhnev entered it in August. But at the cape, named Dezhnev Bolshoy Kamennaya Nose (most likely it was the Cape of Chukotka), another Koch crashed, which delayed the advancement of the expedition, and in late September, when the remaining boats for some reason moored to the shore, the Chukchi attacked the detachment. In the battle with them, Fyodor Alekseev was wounded, and Semyon Dezhnev remained the only chief.

It was after this that the great geographical discovery occurred.

Having descended from the inhospitable Chukchi coast on the day of the Intercession of the Most Holy Theotokos, October 1 in old style, Dezhnev and his companions, rounding the northeastern bulge of Eurasia, the cape, which now bears the name of Dezhnev, for the first time in history passed from the Arctic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean.

Navigators sailed further south along the coast until a storm came. She carried the Kochi across the sea, smashed them and threw Dezhnev ashore near the mouth of the Anadyr River.

Thus, for the first time, 80 years before Vitus Bering, Semyon Ivanovich Dezhnev and his companions passed the strait separating America from Asia. Navigator D. Cook, who called this strait the name of Bering, of course, did not know anything about Dezhnev's feat. In addition, Bering, as is known, did not manage to go through the entire strait, but had to restrict himself to swimming only in its southern part, while Dezhnev passed the strait along its entire length, from north to south. And Bering's expedition sailed on real sea ships, and Dezhnev - on single-mast coaches with a length of 20 meters with low draft!

No less striking is that Dezhnev managed to survive in that situation. The places in which he found himself after the crash were completely wild and unsuitable for life. “And we all went to the mountain [Koryak Highland. - AV], we don’t know our own way, they are cold and hungry, naked and barefoot ... ”- Dezhnev wrote later. With 24 surviving members of the expedition, Semyon Ivanovich walked ten weeks to the mouth of the Anadyr River, where another 9 died. Here he spent the winter, and in the summer of 1649, on newly built boats, climbed the river to the first aboriginal settlements, from which, despite fatigue from misfortunes and losses, he did not forget, according to his “serving” habit, to collect tribute. Here, in the middle reaches of the Anadyr River, a winter hut was arranged, later named the Anadyr fortress. In 1550 from Nizhne-Kolymsk to Dezhnev by land reinforcements arrived. In Anadyr prison, Semyon Ivanovich lived 10 years. They were first investigated and mapped the banks of the Anadyr River.

In 1653, the city of Dezhnev sent by dry route to Yakutsk a batch of the “fish tooth” he had collected in 289 poods. In 1659, Mr. Semyon Ivanovich handed over the team over Anadyr Bar and service people, but remained in the province even before 1662, when he returned to Yakutsk, where he was “turned”, according to the Tsar’s decree, as a Cossack chieftain. From Yakutsk Dezhnev with the sovereign's treasury was sent to Moscow, where he arrived, apparently in the middle of 1664. Dezhnev brought considerable money for that time to the treasury 17340 rubles in silver, and Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich appointed him for a 19-year service a third salary - 126 rubles 20 kopecks silver, and two-thirds - cloth. Isn't it enough? But Dezhnev was pleased. We see the completely opposite picture now in the distribution of income between the state and those to whom it ransomed the wealth of Siberia. But the oligarchs, they say, are not enough.

In 1665, Dezhnev traveled back to Yakutsk and served there until 1670, before being again sent to Moscow with the sovereign's treasury. He got to Moscow in 1671, and here, apparently, was sick, because he did not go back, and at the beginning of 1673, he gave God his soul.

Such people as Semyon Ivanovich Dezhnev and Ivan Yuryevich Moskvitin, with their great feats and labors gave us land in which inexhaustible deposits of gold and diamonds, oil and gas were later discovered.

If it were not for these gifts of the Siberian depths, how would we survive after 1991, when Gorbachev and Yeltsin brought down industry and agriculture? And now how would we live if it were not for Siberian oil and gas? Due to the export of weapons not exceeding 10 billions of dollars a year? And despite the fact that the lion’s revenues from the sale abroad of “black” and “blue gold” did not go to the treasury, but into the pockets of newly minted dollar billionaires, who are already poor in the Russian Federation, to put it mildly, more than in all of rich Europe.

And one more thing that surprises. When the envious and vile West, knowing the difficult conditions we were in a few years ago, declares that Russia "unfairly" owns such a huge supply of energy and it would be necessary to "take everything, and share," how our authorities respond to it ? I must say, much more timidly than Professor Preobrazhensky Sharikov. They, as if making excuses, speak of sovereignty. And why oligarchs are silent, hearing such statements from the West? After all, profits from the export of oil and gas is their personal income?

Well, the oligarchs are silent, because it is unprofitable for them to recall the article of the constitution, which says that “land and other natural resources are used and protected in the Russian Federation as the basis of the life and activities of the peoples living in the relevant territory” ...

No, when the land and the subsoil of the country are the basis of the life and activities of the peoples, here we must not only talk about sovereignty! Liechtenstein also has sovereignty, and for the right to own our richest subsoil there are great feats, self-sacrifice, deprivation, blood, life of the best people of Russia, such as Semen Dezhnev, Fyodor Alekseev, Dmitry Kopylov, Ivan Moskvitin, Nekhoroshko Kolobov and many, many others, everyone whom the poet Pavel Vasilyev called "men with eyes turned to the east."
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  1. Revolver
    Revolver 5 July 2013 08: 46
    Say, this is “the property of all mankind”,

    Then it is necessary to start with oil from the Middle East, otherwise the Arabs are insolent in the end. If they had no petrodollars, there would be nothing to finance Islamic terrorism around the world. They would sit in their Arabia, herd camels, and not blather.
    1. 755962
      755962 5 July 2013 12: 00
      At that time, immigrants from Pomerania and the Vologda region took an active part in the development of Siberia.

      I am proud of my fellow countrymen! The main merit of Dezhnev is that he discovered the strait between Asia and America; his name is the extreme point of Eurasia on the Chukchi Peninsula - Cape Dezhnev; ridge in Chukotka, a bay on the coast of the Bering Sea.

      How Vologda merchants-seamen discovered America
      This is another glorious native of Totma who rose to the rank of vice governor of Alaska. Under the leadership of Ivan Kuskov in 1812, at the very height of the war against Napoleon in Russia, in American California, on the high coast of the Pacific Ocean, it was laid and built as soon as possible Fortress Ross.

      For ten years, Ivan Kuskov led the Russian colony in California. Here new ships were built at the shipyard, vegetables and grain were grown in the fields, mills worked, gardens bloomed, and hillside cows grazed on green hills. Kuskov was engaged not only in trade and farming, but was also immersed in research, and also taught Indians agriculture. His wife Katerina Prokhorovna taught the Indians literacy, compiled a dictionary of Native American dialects, and conducted ethnographic studies.

      He devoted 31 years of his life to serving Russian America, finding himself over 10 thousand miles from his native home and directly linking Totma and Northern California with his fate.

      For services to the Fatherland in 1804, the chamberlain of the royal court, Count Ryazanov, who arrived from Novo-Arkhangelsk, Kuskov was awarded the medal "For diligence" on the Vladimir tape to be worn around the neck. And in 1806, he was awarded the rank of adviser for commerce. This is a high distinction: only five people were awarded this title in Russia.

      In 1821, I.A. Kuskov resigned and, together with Katerina Prokhorovna, returned to her native Totma, where he soon died and was buried in the Spaso-Sumorin Monastery.
      Totma and Russian America are intricately intertwined in the fate of this man. For the 200th anniversary of the United States, Russians living in America minted a medal in honor of I.A. Kuskova as the national hero of the United States.
  2. kavkaz8888
    kavkaz8888 5 July 2013 09: 28
    We are urgently rewriting the chronology. Our Empire has existed for thousands of years on our lands. The history, which children are now teaching, was created by the Romanovs, a pro-Western dynasty, to justify their presence on the throne.
  3. Gray-haired Siberian
    Gray-haired Siberian 5 July 2013 09: 29
    And it’s necessary not only to answer Westerners ’claims (although of course this is necessary - and tougher). We must go on the offensive ourselves. Start from Canada, continue Alaska (I don’t think that they have more order there than we do in Siberia) and Arabian -filled places (complete absence of democracy). Slaughter them with claims until you shut up. Information resources now, thank God, allow.
  4. mogus
    mogus 5 July 2013 10: 56
    everyone needs ... as a resource, but not people sad
  5. stroporez
    stroporez 5 July 2013 11: 27
    on someone else's loaf, do not open your mouth, but for those who are "incomprehensible" --- so since ancient times we have compulsory dentistry ..........
    1. The comment was deleted.
  6. little man
    little man 5 July 2013 11: 37
    Yeah. Once I lived in Chukotka, everything is connected there with Dezhnev.
    Beautiful land, special beauty.
    1. Vladya
      Vladya 5 July 2013 14: 03
      Well, not everything is connected either. There definitely isn’t on the western one, although there are suggestions that Dezhnev stayed in Chaun Bay
  7. alebor
    alebor 5 July 2013 11: 43
    We ourselves are largely to blame. Probably there is no person in the world who would not have heard about Columbus and about the Spanish conquistadors like Cortez and Pizarro. But about the pioneers mentioned in the article, not only in the world, in our own country, many have never heard of, at best they will remember Yermak. But the development of America and the development of Siberia and the Far East are phenomena of the same order. At a time when the most western Europeans - the Spaniards and the Portuguese - began to move further west - to America, the most eastern Europeans - the Russians almost at the same time moved to the East. But, while everyone knows about the former, the latter are known only to a "narrow circle of specialists." Who is to blame for this? We ourselves! Take the United States for example. A great epic was created there, which conquered the whole world, dedicated to the development of the Wild West by numerous pioneer cowboys. A huge number of talented and not very talented films have been created dedicated to this period of American history. Are there many people on our planet who have never seen these films, who are not familiar with courageous heroes in wide-brimmed hats with Colts in their hands? These cowboys are an important part of the national identity of Americans, their national idea. What do we have? The history of the conquest of the "Wild East" is no less epic and dramatic than the history of the conquest of the "Wild West", but how many films do we have dedicated to that era? An ordinary Russian person knows almost nothing about those events. What can we expect from foreigners? But national heroes are the leaven that strengthens the spirit and unity of the people.
  8. Mikhail
    Mikhail 5 July 2013 23: 08
    Eternal glory to the successors of the cause of Ermak Timoevich.
    Each Russian person must know his own national heroes.