Military Review

Manhattan deception


The penultimate truth

There are not many things in the world that are considered indisputable. Well, that the sun rises in the east and sets in the west, I think you know. And that the moon revolves around the earth too. And about the fact that the Americans were the first to create an atomic bomb, ahead of both the Germans and the Russians.
I thought so, until about four years ago I was in the hands of one old journal. He left my beliefs about the sun and the moon alone, but he shook my faith in the American leadership quite seriously. It was a plump volume in German - a filing of the journal "Theoretical Physics" for 1938 a year. I don’t remember why I went there, but quite unexpectedly I stumbled upon an article by Professor Otto Gan.

The name was well known to me. It was Gahn, the famous German physicist and radiochemist, who in the year 1938, together with another prominent scientist, Fritz Strausmann, discovered the division of the uranium nucleus, actually starting the work on creating nuclear weapons. At first I simply ran the article with a glance diagonally, but then completely unexpected phrases forced me to become more attentive. And ultimately, even to forget about what I initially picked up this magazine.

The Ghana article was devoted to a review of nuclear power in different countries of the world. Strictly speaking, there was nothing special to observe: everywhere except Germany, nuclear research was in the pen. They did not see much point. “This abstract matter has nothing to do with state needs,” said British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, about the same time, when he was asked to support British nuclear research with budget money. “Let these scholars bespectacled themselves look for money, the state is full of other problems!” - most world leaders thought so in 30. Except, of course, the Nazis, who just financed the nuclear program.

But by no means the Chamberlain passage, carefully quoted by Hahn, caught my attention. England in general is not too interested in the author of these lines. Much more interesting was what Gan wrote about the state of nuclear research in the United States of America. And he literally wrote the following:
If we talk about a country in which the processes of nuclear fission receive the least attention, then one should undoubtedly call the United States. Of course, now I do not consider Brazil or the Vatican. However, among developed countries, even Italy and Communist Russia are significantly ahead of the United States. The problems of theoretical physics across the ocean are given little attention, priority is given to applied developments that can give immediate profit. Therefore, I can say with confidence that within the next decade North Americans will not be able to do anything essential for the development of atomic physics.

At first I just laughed. Wow, how wrong was my compatriot! And only then he thought: no matter how cool, Otto Gan was not a simpleton or an amateur. He was well informed about the state of atomic research, especially since before the outbreak of World War II this topic was freely discussed in scientific circles.

Maybe the Americans misinformed the whole world? But for what purpose? Atomic weapons in 30-e still no one thought. Moreover, most scientists considered its creation impossible in principle. That is why, before 1939, all the new achievements in atomic physics were instantly recognized by the whole world - they were published quite openly in scientific journals. Nobody hid the fruits of their labor, on the contrary, there was open rivalry between various groups of scientists (almost exclusively Germans) —who will advance faster?
Maybe scientists in the States ahead of the whole world and therefore kept their achievements in secret? Not a bad guess. To confirm or deny it, we will have to consider history the creation of the American atomic bomb, at least as it appears in official publications. We are all accustomed to take it for granted as a matter of course. However, upon closer inspection, it contains so many oddities and inconsistencies that it is simply amazing.

From the world on a thread - States bomb

Thousand nine hundred forty second year began for the English not bad. The German invasion of their small island, which seemed inevitable, now, as if by magic, retreated into the misty distance. Last summer, Hitler made a major mistake in his life — he attacked Russia. This was the beginning of the end. The Russians not only survived against the hopes of the Berlin strategists and the pessimistic predictions of many observers, but also gave the Wehrmacht good luck in the teeth in the frosty winter. And in December, the big and powerful United States came to the aid of the British, who have now become an official ally. In general, the reason for joy was more than enough.
Only a few dignitaries who owned the information received by British intelligence were not happy. At the end of 1941, the British learned that the Germans were developing their atomic research at a frantic pace. The ultimate goal of this process became clear - a nuclear bomb. English nuclear scientists were competent enough to imagine the threat of a new weapon.

Manhattan deception

At the same time, the British did not build illusions about their capabilities. All the resources of the country were aimed at elementary survival. Although the Germans and the Japanese were fed up with the war with the Russians and Americans, from time to time they found it possible to poke their fist at the dilapidated building of the British Empire. From each such butting rubbing construction was unsteady and creaked, threatening to collapse. Rommel's three divisions shackled almost the entire combat-worthy British army in North Africa. Admiral Doenitz's submarines, like predatory sharks, snooping around the Atlantic, threatened to interrupt the vital supply chain from overseas. Britain simply did not have the resources to enter the nuclear race with the Germans. The lag was so big, and in the very near future it threatened to become hopeless.

And then the British went the only way that promised at least some benefit. They decided to turn to the Americans, who had the necessary resources and could throw money right and left. The British were ready to share their achievements in order to speed up the process of creating a common atomic bomb.

I must say that the Americans were initially skeptical about such a gift. The military department didn’t understand why it was worth it to spend money on some unconvincing project. What is there still a new weapon? Here are carrier groups and armada of heavy bombers - yes, that is power. A nuclear bomb, which scientists themselves imagine very vaguely, is just an abstraction, grandmother's fairy tales. We had to British Prime Minister Winston Churchill directly contact the American President Franklin Delano Roosevelt with a request, literally begging, not to reject the English gift. Roosevelt summoned scholars, understood the matter, and gave the go-ahead.

Typically, the creators of the canonical legend about the American bomb use this episode to emphasize the wisdom of Roosevelt. Look, what an astute president! We will look at it with slightly different eyes: in what kind of a pen they were atomic research at the Yankees, if they so long and stubbornly refused to cooperate with the British! So, Gan was absolutely right in his assessment of the American nuclear industry - they did not represent anything solid.
It was only in September 1942 of the year that a decision was made to start work on the atomic bomb. The organizational period took some more time, and the real thing moved from a dead center only with the advent of the new, 1943 year. From the army, the work was led by General Leslie Groves (later he would write memoirs in which he would detail the official version of what was happening), the real leader was Professor Robert Oppenheimer. I will tell about it in detail a little later, but for now we will admire another curious detail - how the team of scientists who began work on the bomb was formed.

As a matter of fact, when Oppenheimer was offered to recruit specialists, his choice was extremely small. Good nuclear physicists in the States could be counted on the fingers of a crippled hand. Therefore, the professor made a wise decision - to recruit people whom he knows personally and whom he can trust, regardless of what field of physics they were engaged in before. So it turned out that the lion’s share of the seats was taken by the staff of Columbia University from Manhattan District (by the way, that’s why the project was named Manhattan). But these forces were not enough. British scientists had to be involved in the work, literally devastating British research centers, and even specialists from Canada. In general, the Manhattan project turned into a kind of Tower of Babel, with the only difference that all its participants spoke at least one language. However, this did not save from the usual in the scientific community welds and squabbles, arising from the rivalry of different scientific groups. Echoes of these tensions can be found on the pages of the Groves book, and they look very funny: the general, on the one hand, wants to convince the reader that everything was decorous and decent, and on the other - to boast how dexterously he managed to reconcile the quarreled scientific luminaries.

And now they are trying to convince us that in this friendly atmosphere of a large terrarium, the Americans managed to create an atomic bomb in two and a half years. But the Germans, who cheerfully and amicably pored over their nuclear project for five years, did not succeed. Miracles, and only.
However, even if there were no squabbles, such record periods would still be suspicious. The fact is that in the process of research it is necessary to go through certain stages, which are practically impossible to reduce. Americans themselves explain their success with gigantic financing - in the end, more than two billion dollars were spent on the Manhattan project! However, no matter how you feed a pregnant woman, she still will not be able to give birth to a full-term baby earlier than after nine months. The same is with the atomic project: it is impossible to accelerate, for example, the process of enriching uranium.

The Germans worked five years with full effort. Of course, they had mistakes and miscalculations, which took precious time. But who said that the Americans had no mistakes and miscalculations? There were, and a lot. One of these mistakes was the involvement of the famous physicist Niels Bohr.

Unknown operation Skorzeny

British intelligence agencies love to boast of one of their operations. It is about saving the great Danish scientist Niels Bohr from Nazi Germany.
The official legend says that after the start of the Second World War, the eminent physicist lived quietly and calmly in Denmark, leading a rather secluded way of life. The Nazis offered him cooperation many times, but Bor invariably refused. By 1943, the Germans still decided to arrest him. But warned in time, Niels Bohr managed to escape to Sweden, from where the British took him out to the heavy bomber's bomb bay. By the end of the year, the physicist was in America and began to work zealously for the benefit of the Manhattan project.

The legend is beautiful and romantic, only it is sewn with white threads and does not withstand any checks. There is no more credibility in it than in the tales of Charles Perrault. Firstly, because the Nazis look like complete idiots in it, and they have never been like that. Think hard! In 1940, the Germans occupy Denmark. They know that a Nobel laureate lives in the country, who can be of great help in working on the atomic bomb. That same atomic bomb, which is vital for the victory of Germany. And what do they do? For three years, they occasionally visit the scientist, knock politely on the door and quietly ask: “Herr Bohr, do you not want to work for the benefit of the Fuhrer and the Reich? You do not want? Well, okay, we'll come back later. ” No, this was not the style of work of the German special services! Logically, they were supposed to arrest Bora not in 1943, but in 1940 year. If it works out - to make (to force, not to beg!) To work for them, if not - at least, to make sure that he cannot work for the enemy: put him in a concentration camp or destroy him. And they leave him quietly walking around, under the noses of the British.

Three years later, legend says, the Germans finally come to the conclusion that they are supposed to arrest the scientist. But then someone (it was someone, because I did not find anywhere else an indication of who did it) warns Bohr about imminent danger. Who could it be? The Gestapo habits did not shout at every corner about upcoming arrests. People were taken quietly, unexpectedly, at night. So, the mysterious patron of Bohr is one of a fairly high-ranking officials.
For now let us leave this mysterious rescuing angel alone and continue to analyze the wanderings of Niels Bohr. So, the scientist fled to Sweden. What do you think, how? On a fishing boat, dodging the boats of the German coast guard in the fog? On a raft made of planks? No matter how wrong! Bor with the greatest possible comfort sailed to Sweden on the most ordinary private steamer, which officially entered the port of Copenhagen.

For now we will not puzzle over the question of how the Germans released the scientist, if they were going to arrest him. Think better about this. The flight of a world-famous physicist is a very serious emergency. On this occasion, inevitably, an investigation should have been conducted — the heads of those who had missed the physicist, as well as the mysterious patron, would have flown. However, no trace of such an investigation could be found. Maybe because he was not there.
Indeed, how much value did Niels Bohr have for developing an atomic bomb?

Born in 1885 and becoming a Nobel Prize winner in 1922, Bohr addressed the problems of nuclear physics only in the 30 years. At that time he was already a major, accomplished scholar with fully formed views. Such people rarely succeed in areas where innovative approach and innovative thinking is needed — namely, that area was nuclear physics. For several years, Bohr did not manage to make any significant contribution to atomic research. However, as the ancients said, the first half of life a person works in the name, the second - the name in person. In Niels Bohr, this second half has already begun. Being engaged in nuclear physics, he automatically began to be considered a major expert in this field, regardless of his real achievements. But in Germany, where such world-famous nuclear scientists as Gan and Heisenberg worked, the Danish scientist knew the real value. That is why he was not particularly actively trying to attract to work. It will work out - well, we can hear for the whole world that Nils Bohr himself works for us. It will not work - not bad either, it will not be confused with its authority.

By the way, in the United States Bor was pretty much confused under his feet. The fact is that the outstanding physicist did not believe at all in the possibility of creating a nuclear bomb. At the same time, his authority forced him to reckon with his opinion. If you believe the memories of Groves, the scientists who worked within the framework of the Manhattan project treated Bor as an elder. Now imagine that you are doing some difficult work without any confidence in the ultimate success. And here someone who you consider to be a great specialist comes up to you and says that you shouldn’t even spend time on your work. Is it easier to work? I do not think.

In addition, Bor was a staunch pacifist. In the year 1945, when the States already had an atomic bomb, he categorically protested against its use. Accordingly, his work was treated coolly. Therefore, I urge you to think again: what did Bohr bring in more — movement or stagnation in the development of the question?

A strange picture is taking shape, isn't it? It became a little clearer after I learned one interesting detail, which seemed to have nothing to do with either Niels Bohr or the atomic bomb. This is the "main saboteur of the Third Reich" Otto Skorzeny.
It is believed that Skorzeny’s elevation began after he released from prison the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini from 1943. Placed in a mountain prison by his former comrades-in-arms, Mussolini could not seem to hope for release. But Skorzeny on the direct instructions of Hitler has developed a daring plan: to land troops on gliders and then fly off on a small airplane. Everything turned out as well as possible: Mussolini at large, Skorzeny in honor.

At least that's what the majority thinks. Only a few well-informed historians know that cause and effect are confused here. Skorzeny was entrusted with an extremely difficult and responsible business precisely because Hitler trusted him. That is, the rise of the "king of special operations" began before the story of the rescue of Mussolini. However, very shortly - for a couple of months. Skorzeny was promoted to the rank and position precisely when Niels Bohr fled to England. The reasons for the increase I could not find anywhere else.

So, we have three facts. Firstly, the Germans did not prevent Niels Bohr from leaving for Britain. Secondly, Bohr brought the Americans more harm than good. Third, immediately after the scientist was in England, Skorzeny was promoted. And what if these are details of a single mosaic? I decided to try to reconstruct the events.

Having captured Denmark, the Germans were well aware that Niels Bohr was unlikely to assist in the creation of the atomic bomb. Moreover, it will be more likely to interfere. Therefore, he was left quietly to live in Denmark, under the very nose of the British. Maybe even then the Germans hoped that the British would kidnap the scientist. However, for three years, the British did not dare to do anything.
At the end of 1942, vague rumors about the start of a large-scale project to create an American atomic bomb began to reach the Germans. Even taking into account the secrecy of the project, it was absolutely impossible to keep an awl in the bag: the instantaneous disappearance of hundreds of scientists from different countries, one way or another connected with nuclear research, was to push any mentally normal person to similar conclusions. The Nazis were confident that they were far ahead of the Yankees (and this was true), but this did not stop the enemy from doing nasty things. And at the beginning of 1943, one of the most secret operations of the German special services is carried out.

On the threshold of the house of Niels Bohr, a well-wisher appears who informs him that they want to arrest him and throw him in a concentration camp, and offer his help. The scientist agrees - he has no other way out, to be behind barbed wire is not the best prospect. At the same time, the British, it seems, slip the linden about the complete indispensability and uniqueness of Bohr in the nuclear research case. The British peck - and what can they do if the prey itself goes into their hands, that is, in Sweden? And for complete heroism they take Bor out of there in the womb of the bomber, although they could comfortably send him on the ship.

And then the Nobel laureate appears at the epicenter of the Manhattan project, producing the effect of an exploding bomb. That is, if the Germans managed to bomb a research center at Los Alamos, the effect would be about the same. The work has slowed down, moreover, quite significantly. Apparently, the Americans did not immediately realize how they were cheated, and when they did, it was already too late.
And you still believe that the Yankees themselves designed the atomic bomb?

Mission "Alsos"

Personally, I finally refused to believe in these bikes after I had studied in detail the activities of the Alsos group. This operation of the American special services was kept secret for many years - until its main participants left for the best world. And only then came to the light information - however, fragmentary and scattered - about how the Americans were hunting for German atomic secrets.

True, if you thoroughly work on this information and compare it with some well-known facts, the picture turned out to be very convincing. But I will not get ahead. So, the group "Alsos" was formed in 1944 year, in anticipation of the landing of the Anglo-Americans in Normandy. Half of the members of the group are professional intelligence officers, half are nuclear scientists. At the same time, in order to form "Alsos", the Manhattan project was mercilessly robbed - in fact, the best specialists were taken from there. The mission of the mission was to collect information about the German nuclear program. The question is, how desperate the Americans were in the success of their undertaking, if they made the main bet on the theft of the atomic bomb from the Germans?
Desperate cool if you remember the little-known letter of one of the atomic scientists to his colleague. It was written 4 February 1944 of the year and read:
It seems we got involved in a bad job. The project is not moving forward one iota. Our leaders, in my opinion, do not believe in the success of the whole undertaking. Yes, and we do not believe. If it were not for the huge money that we pay here, I think many would have long been engaged in something more useful.

This letter was brought in due time as evidence of American talents: here, they say, what we have done, in a year and a little we have drawn out a hopeless project! Then in the USA they realized that not only fools live around, and they hurried to forget a piece of paper. With great difficulty I managed to dig up this document in an old scientific journal.

They did not spare money and effort to support the actions of the Alsos group. She was beautifully equipped with everything necessary. The head of the mission, Colonel Pash, had with him a document from US Secretary of Defense Henry Stimson, who obliged everyone to render all possible assistance to the group. Even Allied forces commander Dwight Eisenhower did not have such powers. By the way, about the commander in chief, he was obliged to take into account in the planning of military operations the interests of the Alsos mission, that is, to capture first of all those areas where there might be German atomic weapons.

In early August, 1944, or to be precise - on the 9, the Alsos group landed in Europe. Dr. Samuel Gaudsmith, one of the leading US nuclear scientists, was appointed scientific director of the mission. Before the war, he maintained close ties with German colleagues, and the Americans hoped that the "international solidarity" of scientists would be stronger than political interests.
The first results of “Alsos” was achieved after the fall of 1944, the Americans occupied Paris. Here Gaudsmith met with the famous French scientist Professor Joliot-Curie. Curie seemed genuinely pleased at the defeat of the Germans; however, as soon as it came to the German atomic program, he went into a deaf “unconscious”. The Frenchman insisted that he knew nothing, heard nothing, the Germans did not come close to the development of the atomic bomb, and in general their nuclear project was exclusively peaceful. It was clear that the professor was keeping something back. But there was no way to put pressure on him - for cooperation with the Germans in what was then France, they were shot regardless of scientific merit, and Curie was clearly most afraid of death. Therefore, Gaudsmith had to leave empty-handed. During his entire stay in Paris, vague, but threatening rumors constantly kept reaching him: there was an explosion of a “uranium bomb” in Leipzig, and strange flashes in the mountains in Bavaria were observed at night. Everything said that the Germans are not very close to the creation of atomic weapons, or they have already created them.
What happened next is still hidden by a veil of secrecy. They say that Pasha and Gaudsmith still managed to find some valuable information in Paris. At least since November, Eisenhower has constantly received demands to move forward, into Germany, at any cost. The initiators of these requirements - now it is clear! - ultimately, there were people associated with the atomic project who received information directly from the Alsos group. Eisenhower didn’t have a real opportunity to carry out the orders he received, but the demands from Washington were becoming more stringent. It is not known how this would have ended if the Germans had not made another unexpected move.

Ardennes Mystery

As a matter of fact, by the end of 1944, everyone believed that the war was lost to Germany. The only question is when the Nazis will be defeated. It seems that only Hitler and his inner circle adhered to another point of view. They sought to delay the last moment of the disaster.

This desire is completely understandable. Hitler was sure that after the war he would be declared a criminal and would be tried. And if you take time, you can achieve a quarrel between the Russians and the Americans and ultimately get away from the water, that is, out of the war. Not without a loss, of course, but without losing power.

Let's think: what was needed for this in a situation when Germany had all that remained? Naturally, spend them as economically as possible, keep flexible defense. And Hitler at the very end of the 44th throws his army into a very wasteful Ardennes offensive. What for? The troops are given completely unrealistic tasks - to break through to Amsterdam and throw Anglo-Americans into the sea. To Amsterdam Germanic tanks it was at that moment how to the moon on foot, especially since fuel splashed in their tanks less than half the way. Scare allies? But what could frighten well-fed and armed armies, behind which was the industrial power of the United States?

In general, so far no historian has been able to clearly explain why Hitler needed this offensive. Usually, everyone ends up arguing that the Fuhrer was an idiot. But in fact, Hitler was not an idiot, moreover, to the very end, he thought quite sensibly and realistically. Idiots can rather be called those historians who make hasty judgments without even trying to figure out something.

But look at the other side of the front. There are even more amazing things happening! And it’s not even the fact that the Germans managed to achieve the initial, albeit rather limited success. The fact is that the British and Americans were really scared! And the fright was completely inadequate to the threat. Indeed, from the very beginning it was clear that the Germans had little strength, that the offensive was local in nature ... But no, Eisenhower, Churchill, and Roosevelt just panic! In the 1945 year, 6 in January, when the Germans were already stopped and even thrown back, the British Prime Minister wrote a panicky letter to the Russian leader, Stalin, which requires immediate help. Here is the text of this letter:
Very heavy battles are going on in the West, and large decisions may be required from the High Command at any time. You yourself know from your own experience how disturbing the situation is when you have to defend a very wide front after a temporary loss of initiative. General Eisenhower is very desirable and necessary to know in general terms what you intend to do, as this, of course, will affect all his and our most important decisions. According to the message, our emissary is the chief marshal aviation Tedder was in Cairo last night, being weather bound. His trip was dragged out through no fault of yours. If he has not yet arrived at you, I will be grateful if you can tell me if we can count on a major Russian offensive on the Vistula front or elsewhere during January and at any other moments about which you may wish to mention. I will not pass on this highly confidential information to anyone except Field Marshal Brook and General Eisenhower, and only if it is kept in the strictest confidence. I consider the matter urgent.

If you translate from a diplomatic language into an ordinary one: save, Stalin, we will be beaten! This is another mystery. What "beat" if the Germans have already rejected the original lines? Yes, of course, the American offensive, scheduled for January, had to be postponed for spring. So what? We should be happy that the Nazis squandered their forces in senseless attacks!
And further. Churchill slept and saw how not to let the Russians into Germany. And now he literally implores them, without delay, to begin advancing westward! This is to what degree should Sir Winston Churchill have been frightened ?! It seems that the slowdown in the advance of the Allies deep into Germany was interpreted as a deadly threat. I wonder why? After all, Churchill was not a fool or an alarmist.

Nevertheless, the Anglo-Americans spend the next two months in terrible nervous tension. Subsequently, they will hide it carefully, but the truth will still break through to the surface in their memoirs. For example, Eisenhower, after the war, would call the last war winter "the most disturbing time." What was so disturbing to the marshal, if the war was actually won? It was only in March 1945 of the year that the Ruhr operation began, during which the Allies occupied West Germany, surrounding 300 thousands of Germans. The commander of the German troops in the area, Field Marshal Model shot himself (the only one of all German generals, by the way). Only after that did Churchill and Roosevelt more or less calmed down.

Atomic finale

But back to the group "Alsos". In the spring of 1945, it became noticeably more active. In the course of the Ruhr operation, scientists and intelligence officers moved forward almost after the advance guard of the advancing troops, gathering a valuable harvest. In March-April, many scientists involved in German nuclear research fall into their hands. The decisive finding was made in mid-April - on the 12 number of the mission members write that they stumbled "on a real gold mine" and now they "will learn about the project mainly". By May, Heisenberg, Gan, Ozenberg, Dibner, and many other prominent German physicists were in the hands of Americans. Nevertheless, the Alsos group continued to actively search in the already defeated Germany ... until the end of May.

But at the end of May, something incomprehensible happens. Searches are almost interrupted. Rather, they continue, but with much less intensity. If earlier they were engaged in by world-famous scientists, now they have no trace lab technicians. And major scientists in a crowd pack things and depart for America. Why?

To answer this question, let's see how events have developed further. At the end of June, Americans are conducting atomic bomb tests - allegedly the first in the world. And in early August, they drop two on Japanese cities. After that, the finished atomic bombs at the Yankees end, and for quite a long time.

Strange situation, isn't it? To begin with, there is only a month between the tests and the combat use of the new super-weapon. Dear readers, this does not happen. To make an atomic bomb is much more difficult than an ordinary projectile or rocket. For a month it is simply impossible. Then, probably, the Americans did three prototypes at once? Also unlikely. Making a nuclear bomb is a very expensive procedure. There is no point in doing three, if you are not sure that you are doing everything right. Otherwise, it would be possible to create three nuclear projects, build three scientific centers, and so on. Even the United States is not so rich as to be so wasteful.

However, well, suppose that the Americans actually built three prototypes at once. Why did they not immediately after successful tests launch nuclear bombs into mass production? After all, immediately after the defeat of Germany, the Americans were faced with a much more powerful and formidable opponent — the Russians. The Russians, of course, did not threaten the United States with war, but they prevented the Americans from becoming masters of the entire planet. And this, from the point of view of the Yankees, is an absolutely unacceptable crime.

Nevertheless, the new atomic bombs in the States appeared ... What do you think when? Autumn 1945 th? In the summer of 1946? Not! Only in 1947, the first nuclear ammunition began to arrive in American arsenals! You will not find this date anywhere, but no one will undertake to refute it. The data that I managed to extract are completely secret. However, they are fully confirmed by facts known to us about the subsequent build-up of a nuclear arsenal. And most importantly - the results of tests in the deserts of Texas, which took place at the end of 1946 year.

Yes, dear reader, it was at the end of 1946, and not a month earlier. Data about this was obtained by Russian intelligence and came to me in a very difficult way, which probably does not make sense to disclose on these pages, so as not to substitute the people who helped me. On the eve of the new year, 1947, on the table, the Soviet leader Stalin laid down a very curious report, which I will bring here literally.

According to Agent Felix, a series of nuclear explosions took place in November-December this year in the El Paso, Texas region. At the same time, prototypes of nuclear bombs similar to those dropped on the Japanese islands last year were tested. Within a month and a half at least four bombs were tested, and the tests of three failed. This series of bombs was created in preparation for the large-scale industrial production of nuclear weapons. Most likely, the start of this release should be expected no earlier than the middle of 1947 of the year.

The Russian agent fully confirmed my data. But maybe all this is misinformation from the American special services? Hardly. In those years, the Yankees tried to convince their opponents that they were the strongest in the world, and would not diminish their military potential. Most likely, we are dealing with a carefully hidden truth.

What happens? In 1945, the Americans dropped three bombs - and everything went well. The following tests are the same bombs! - one and a half years later, and not too successfully. Serial production begins another six months later, and we don’t know, and never will know, how much the atomic bombs that appeared in the US military stores corresponded to their terrible purpose, that is, how high-quality they were.

Such a picture can be drawn only in one case, namely: if the first three atomic bombs - the very same forty-fifth year - were not built by the Americans themselves, but received from someone. Speaking directly - from the Germans. Indirectly, this hypothesis is confirmed by the reaction of German scientists to the bombing of Japanese cities, which we know from the book of David Irving.

“Poor Professor Gan!”

In August 1945, ten leading German nuclear physicists, the ten main actors of the Nazi atomic project, were held captive in the United States. Of them, they pulled out all possible information (I wonder why, if you believe the American version, that the Yankees were far ahead of the Germans in atomic research). Accordingly, scientists were kept in such a comfortable prison. It was in this prison and radio.

At six o'clock on August sixth, Otto Gahn and Karl Wirtz were at the radio. It was then in the next issue News they heard that the first atomic bomb was dropped on Japan. The first reaction of the colleagues to whom they brought this information was unequivocal: this cannot be true. Heisenberg believed that the Americans could not create their own nuclear weapons (and, as we know now, was right). “Did the Americans mention the word uranium in connection with their new bomb?” he asked Ghana. The latter answered in the negative. “Then it has nothing to do with the atom,” snapped Heisenberg. An outstanding physicist believed that the Yankees simply used some sort of high-explosive explosives.
However, the nine o'clock news release dispelled all doubts. Obviously, until that time, the Germans simply did not assume that the Americans managed to seize several German atomic bombs. However, now the situation has cleared up, and scientists have begun to torment the torments of conscience. Yes Yes exactly! Dr. Erich Bagge wrote in his diary:
Now this bomb was used against Japan. They report that even after a few hours, the bombed city is hidden by a cloud of smoke and dust. It is about the death of 300 thousands of people. Poor Professor Gan!

Moreover, that evening, scientists were very worried about how “poor Gan” would commit suicide. Two physicists were on duty at his bed till late to prevent him from laying hands on himself, and went into their rooms only after they found out that their colleague had finally fallen asleep to deep sleep. Gan himself subsequently described his impressions:
For a while I had the thought of having to dump all uranium reserves into the sea in order to avoid a similar catastrophe in the future. Although I felt personally responsible for what happened, I wondered if I, or anyone else, had the right to deprive humanity of all the fruits that a new discovery could bring? And now this terrible bomb worked!

I wonder if the Americans are telling the truth, and they themselves have really created the bomb that fell on Hiroshima, why should the Germans feel “personal responsibility” for what happened? Of course, each of them contributed to nuclear research, but on the same basis one could lay some of the blame on thousands of scientists, including Newton and Archimedes! After all, their discoveries ultimately led to the creation of nuclear weapons!

The mental anguish of German scientists gains meaning only in one case. Namely, if they themselves created the bomb that destroyed hundreds of thousands of Japanese. Otherwise, why should they worry about what the Americans did?

However, so far all my conclusions were nothing more than a hypothesis, confirmed only by circumstantial evidence. And what if I'm wrong and the Americans really managed the impossible? To answer this question, it was necessary to thoroughly study the German atomic program. And this is not as easy as it seems.
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  1. Dejavu
    Dejavu 16 July 2013 08: 32
    Kennedy was killed by the CIA, flight to the moon - poppycock, skyscrapers flopped themselves, they stole the nuclear bomb from the Fritz and put it to the Japanese ... Does the American historical pie have anything to rot?

    Although maybe Kennedy was really killed by an admirer of Marx from the USSR, the foil wall flew to the moon on an ancillary aggregate, the skyscrapers themselves turned to dust together with steel structures from hot kerosene, and the Nuclear bomb was bombarded from testing to military use for a couple of years, gnawing among themselves stupid americos and other angles.

    what I'm in thought, gentlemen.
    1. ShturmKGB
      ShturmKGB 16 July 2013 09: 28
      The matter is really dark, and we will not know the truth soon ... unless comrades like Snowden will not merge secret information ...
      1. Geisenberg
        Geisenberg 16 July 2013 23: 25
        The matter is really dark, and we will not know the truth soon ... unless comrades like Snowden will not merge secret information ...

        Original version. Based on the data presented, the conclusions are clear. It always seemed strange to me why the bomb exploded in 1945 and went into production after several years, it is now clear that after 2 years.
        1. Su24
          Su24 22 July 2013 13: 42
          It was only in 1947 that the first nuclear munitions began to arrive in American arsenals! You will not find this date anywhere, but no one will undertake to refute it. The data that I managed to get is completely secret. However, they are fully confirmed by the facts known to us about the subsequent buildup of the nuclear arsenal. And most importantly - the results of tests in the deserts of Texas, which took place at the end of 1946.

          Yes, dear reader, it was at the end of 1946, and not a month earlier. The data about this was obtained by Russian intelligence and came to me in a very difficult way, which probably does not make sense to disclose on these pages

          Yeah, yeah, I believe it's true! Secret data! And FSUs for testing at Attol Bikini in 46, FSUs that there was a fourth bomb that they wanted to drop on Tokyo. The main thing is how the conclusions look "good" for people who are not versed in the subject of War, here you have conspiracies and non-obvious "interesting" answers.
    2. tixon444
      tixon444 16 July 2013 09: 49
      Quote: dejavu
      I'm in thought, gentlemen

      No wonder Hitler waited until the very end for a "miracle weapon": FAU-2 + "baby" = kaput to London?
      1. LaGlobal
        LaGlobal 16 July 2013 11: 12
        Quote: tixon444
        No wonder Hitler waited until the very end for a "miracle weapon": FAU-2 + "baby" = kaput to London?

        Eh ... It’s a pity London isn’t!
        1. yurii p
          yurii p 16 July 2013 12: 14
          we would be the first to get it.
          1. Rider
            Rider 16 July 2013 14: 00
            Quote: yurii p
            we would be the first to


            not to get to Moscow.

            and to strike at the troops with ONE bomb is stupidity.
          2. Volkhov
            Volkhov 16 July 2013 14: 26
            And it got - in the summer of 42 5 atomic shells in Sevastopol (they were made for Gibraltar, but Franco did not let the troops through Spain and the 800 mm gun arrived in Bakhchisarai.
            1. m262
              m262 17 July 2013 01: 24
              Rave ???
       28 July 2013 20: 12
                This is very much true. Used the so-called dirty bombs, rather artillery shells. Our soldiers had no idea about radiation and took radiation burns for the use of chemical weapons by the Germans. But at Stavka the situation was correctly assessed, and already in September 1942 the USSR atomic project began. By the way, without the presence of nuclear munitions, the desire of Germany to possess super-powerful guns and the FAA is illogical. These are special warhead carriers. For the same purpose, the Germans planned an attack with an A9 rocket in New York. It is hard to imagine the consequences of an atomic explosion in central Manhattan in 1944.
            2. Hug
              Hug 19 July 2013 00: 46
              Please justify! Details, arguments, facts. Otherwise - it's ...!
       28 July 2013 20: 17
                The Angles and Saxons have been secretive for almost 70 years about this, and you want facts and evidence. Only logic and common sense. Maybe Snowden knows, ask him.
    3. fedorovith
      fedorovith 16 July 2013 14: 14
      Looking at this disgrace for some reason, it becomes insulting for the Germans that they did not fuck the English
      1. matross
        matross 16 July 2013 17: 14
        Quote: fedorovith
        for some reason, it becomes insulting for the Germans that the English did not fuck

        Because you probably forgot who fought with whom and who whose ally was! It’s not worth it to so recklessly project today's realities on the events of 70 years ago! A nuclear strike on Britain or on allied forces in Europe would definitely delay the defeat of Germany and, accordingly, would lead to an increase in military losses of the USSR.
        1. nnz226
          nnz226 17 July 2013 23: 24
          And what would delay? You might think that the impudent Ssyks were eager, not taking into account the losses, to Berlin, in order to quickly defeat the Wehrmacht ?! They crawled slowly and began to bang their legs when it became clear that the Red Army would soon take Berlin, and the enti did not want such an ending to the war. Stagnation on the Western Front due to the destruction of London would not have led to the halt of our offensive operations, and so the Germans removed from the Western Front what they could and threw the advancing Red Army under the ice rink to somehow delay the finish of the Reich.
    4. Ulan
      Ulan 16 July 2013 18: 35
      I’m also in thought. There are so many doubts that my mother does not cry. Fly to the moon in the 69th? This is today a very difficult technical task, and then?
      By the way, few people know that the first living creature that flew around the moon was from the USSR. It was a turtle on the modification of the "Union". Naturally, the series was called "Moon" (I do not remember the number) But this is a turtle and not a crew of 3 people with a descent module.
      I read that the Americans did not have then an engine capable of bringing such a colossus to the moon.
      I can quite believe it if they buy rocket engines from Makeyevites today.
      I will not be surprised that the guesses of the author of the article have very real facts.
      Well, the fact that the story of the twin towers is generally fantastic is understandable for a long time. By the way, the remnants of the plane that supposedly landed in the Pentagon and made a tiny hole, didn’t seem to be found. Like the bodies of passengers who died in this case.
      My version is that the plane that was blown up in the air, due to resistance to terrorists from the passengers, was planned to get into the Pentagon and the Americans hastened to report it. But luck, the passengers resisted. I had to urgently invent something and slap something like a cruise missile or a small plane into the Pentagon.
      1. 28 July 2013 20: 22
        There were no planes other than crashing into skyscrapers. There were no heroic American citizens. They themselves blew up the Pentagon, possibly with cruise missiles.
  2. GHG
    GHG 16 July 2013 09: 13
    Guesses are partially justified and logical. But these are just theoretical calculations ... where are the facts?
    1. tixon444
      tixon444 16 July 2013 09: 58
      Quote: GES
      Guesses are partially justified and logical. But these are just theoretical calculations ... where are the facts?

      The facts fell on Japan on August 6 and 9.

      Alan E. Mayer
      "Bad luck"

      I woke up from a severe pain in my whole body. I opened my eyes and saw a nurse standing by my bed.
      “Mr. Fujima,” she said, “you are lucky; you managed to survive the bombing of Hiroshima two days ago.” But now you are in the hospital, nothing more threatens you.
      A little alive from weakness, I asked:
      - Where I am?
      “In Nagasaki,” she answered.
    2. velikoros-xnumx
      velikoros-xnumx 16 July 2013 10: 15
      In Sheremetyevo by Snowden wassat
      1. GHG
        GHG 16 July 2013 14: 30
        Snowy on anyone about this ... not by rumor or spirit. If he has information, then ... about current and recent operations. Even the archives are reliably protected ... not only for electronic hacking, but also for access categories. Any attempt will lead to the artist ... I remind you that you can hack only from the inside. Since the system of all standing archives does not have access from the outside. Few people dare to try to break this system while being and functioning in it.
    3. yurii p
      yurii p 16 July 2013 12: 13
      I don’t know how anyone, but I’ve read about German developments since the 80s, it’s not for nothing that the states exported all German scientists.
        SASCHAmIXEEW 16 July 2013 14: 36
        The Anglo-Saxons are always looking for a freebie, we have received at least some compensation for the losses from Germany, and these for a freebie ... They lost 300 thousand and we have ...
        1. Aleksey_K
          Aleksey_K 16 July 2013 22: 38
          You forgot that almost all the documentation on the atomic bomb Kurchatov received from the scouts. We are the same freeloaders. But it was necessary to do the production of bombs in the USSR ourselves. Here the spies could not help. Therefore, they lagged behind the freeloaders of the Americans.
          1. aviamed90
            aviamed90 16 July 2013 22: 46

            And what's wrong with that? The main thing is the result!

            In addition, do you think that the amers who row scientists around the world (starting with fascist Germany) under their roof are not freeloaders?

            Remember Sikorsky, finally! Remember how many of our scientists went west.

            So the amers clearly do not shine with the mind, since they are doing it!
          2. Gromily4
            Gromily4 17 July 2013 01: 04
            Think about it, well, he received this data, do you think he immediately transferred it to his projects? No matter how. A game of intelligence, you cannot trust an informant, even if it is a good informant.
            Kurchatov received this data, what are his further actions?
            1. As far as this data is true, well, it seems correct.
            2. Give your employees the same initial data so that they recount them.
            3. Check these calculations in fact.
            So, intelligence data was not immediately used in the projects, everything was checked and recounted. And since our calculations, then the bomb was created specifically by our experts, and not by what the scouts got. Yes, and only Kurchatov saw intelligence data, but his employees never saw them in their eyes.
    NOMADE 16 July 2013 09: 13
    Very article and interesting theory. The arguments are completely logical and reasoned. Very similar to the truth. I feel that sooner or later, all such "great" achievements will become known. The only question is when? Also, I wonder if the nuclear charges were almost ready, why did the Germans not use them in the operation at the Ardennes (figs with the brites, then it was dangerous for German bombers to fly to the island with the complete domination of allied aviation)? After all, this could (with certain skills and luck) radically change the history of the Second World War. as well as world history!
    Here in these moments, there are no connections ...
    1. Evgan
      Evgan 16 July 2013 10: 06
      Yes, the Germans did not have the technical ability to make an atomic bomb - they simply did not have enough materials. But all the calculations for this could well be ...
      1. Evgan
        Evgan 16 July 2013 11: 42
        Why are you negative? Do you think Hitler would stop at using atomic weapons if the bomb were in his hands?
        1. SASCHAmIXEEW
          SASCHAmIXEEW 16 July 2013 14: 41
          Yes, probably something was missing .. And to reset, I would have dropped it without hesitation !!!
        2. GHG
          GHG 16 July 2013 14: 41
          Well, what would it give him? Nuclear weapons in such quantities are not a panacea, but only a means of influence in this case only psychological ... really just zilch. Everyone understood that this weapon is high-tech and promising ... but only in case of mass use and mainly against industrial zones or large cities. Did Germany have the opportunity to exchange their weapons with success at least 50%? Probably not by then.
        3. Misantrop
          Misantrop 16 July 2013 16: 57
          Quote: EvgAn
          Would Hitler stop before using atomic weapons if the bomb were in his hands?
          After the explosion at the 4th Chernobyl NPP block in the USSR, a map of the radiation footprint was created. Pretty detailed. In the swamps of Belarus, a serious radiation spot was discovered at the same time, which drove the weather forecasters into a stupor - a cloud trace, having marked itself decently in the republic, went off to the side. And then it became even more interesting - the isotopic composition in this spot did not have ANYTHING in common with Chernobyl. They began to study it seriously, but the only thing that was then possible to establish was that the spot was the result of a nuclear explosion that happened (!) In the first half of the 40s ...
          1. abdrah
            abdrah 16 July 2013 18: 35
            The Ministry of Atomic Energy of 1978 issued a document for official use on tests at the Merlin aviation training ground (41st aviation training ground). 1958-63g tested low-power charges to study the effects of radiation and its effects on agriculture and humans. Merlin village and the whole village council of the same name were resettled at the same time. so there is no village council, only Merlinsky swamps and a landfill remain.
          2. GHG
            GHG 16 July 2013 20: 44
            Well, this already refers to the issue of testing. Here we live in the 21st century and we don’t know a damn thing. Why secret archives that are not dangerous for that (or current) time?
            As always, there are questions on the sea, and here are guesses and theories.
        4. AlexW
          AlexW 16 July 2013 18: 39
          Hitler had a lot of combat OB-not applied. Use a nuclear bomb in the Ardennes, against whom? by troops in the open field? - from a gun on sparrows .... No one would really understand anything. The Americans bombed Hiroshima, the Japanese General Staff took it quite calmly - one city more, one less. By this time, Tokyo and many other cities were almost completely destroyed by conventional and incendiary bombs. IMHO, Hitler had a problem in the means of delivering nuclear warheads to a worthy goal. Aviation was already almost destroyed, missiles were not ready.
 28 July 2013 20: 39
          The Reich was already breathing in the air and Hitler’s entourage merged him in full. And since it merged it with the Anglo-Saxons, the use of nuclear weapons against them was not real. The use of nuclear weapons against the Red Army in 1945, in my opinion, was also fraught. Then Comrade Stalin would not stop in Berlin, but would end the war in London. And the Nuremberg tribunal would take place in Moscow with all the consequences for the fighters against communism. The Red Army in 1945 surpassed in striking power everything that the Western world had in Europe and not the fact that in the event of an agreement between the Anglo-Saxons and the Germans, the USSR would not become an ally of Japan. At that time there were few atomic bombs - 4 or 5. They would not be able to stop our army in any situation, but Uncle Joe could be angry in earnest.
      2. Mikhail3
        Mikhail3 16 July 2013 11: 54
        They lacked materials because English intelligence was desperately hunting for them (materials). I read something about how the British struggled to prevent the Germans from getting heavy water and partially succeeded. The fact that Gan was the leader in research in this area, no one doubts in the world of physicists.
        According to the article. The biggest problem in creating nuclear warheads is the separation of isotopes. Centrifuges capable of this process are difficult to build now. The Americans are good when you need to organize the mass production of some kind of consumer goods, but always at an impasse when you need to create something special, on the verge of possible. The Germans ...
        In general, the likely picture is this. The Germans managed to divide enough uranium into three warheads. Most likely not even at the expense of some revolutionary decisions, but simply maximally using their best qualities - perseverance, fanatical accuracy and the highest technical culture. However, further work on separation became impossible for a simple and objective reason - centrifuges could no longer produce products.
        The Germans did not make any technical revolution, that is, there was no incredible suspension for centrifuges, the bases were simply embedded in some kind of rock mass. And he ... was trembling! The Allies didn’t help us much by military force, but they bombed Germany as if possessed! Moreover, all researchers note that it was not military targets that were bombed but over areas, for some reason trying to cover the whole country with a uniform bomb carpet. Strange, right? But when you consider that the separation process does not tolerate any vibration ...
        It remains only to assume that the best intelligence on the planet, and at that time it was undoubtedly British intelligence, was able to organize the appropriation of the accumulated uranium and send it to the United States (which is also quite logical - to drag this dirt to your own small island, but what a bang ... . and "younger brothers" then nirazu do not mind), then everything seems quite likely.
        1. Gromily4
          Gromily4 16 July 2013 12: 25
          Then there were no centrifuges still in the project, only gas diffusion technology that ate a huge amount of energy.
          1. Djozz
            Djozz 16 July 2013 16: 55
            The first centrifuges for the separation of isotopes appeared in the USSR.
            1. Dim Dim
              Dim Dim 16 July 2013 21: 50
              The first centrifuges in the USSR were made by German engineers.
              1. Gromily4
                Gromily4 16 July 2013 22: 44
                Not quite right. Read here.
                Roughly speaking, the principle of separation itself was probably known. It was only a practical implementation.
                The implementation of the Zippe-Steenbeck centrifuge was not suitable for serial production and industrial use. But really suitable centrifuge was created by Viktor Ivanovich Sergeyev.
                This question about gas sampling in the form of pitot tubes was purely technical and contained, in fact, a hint how to make the centrifuge design workable. But Dr. Steenbeck, who ate his teeth, as he believed, on this topic, was categorical: “They will slow down the flow, cause turbulence, and there will be no separation!” Years later, while working on his memoirs, he will regret it: “An idea worthy of coming from us!” But it didn’t occur to me ... ”

                Subsequently, all the improvements and treatment of childhood diseases were made by Soviet scientists. Something like that.
          2. Mikhail3
            Mikhail3 16 July 2013 19: 57
            You are right, esteemed sources request But this does not cancel my conclusions - the diffuse technology also does not tolerate vibration, and it’s even more gentle to the bombing, the interruption in the supply of energy affects very, very badly.
            1. Tektor
              Tektor 16 July 2013 23: 57
              I read somewhere in one article that the Germans learned to enrich uranium with some kind of subthreshold explosion. They did not need a reactor, but only an island where they obtained weapons-grade uranium in this way. By the "Black Sun" method. In addition, the Americans dropped a uranium bomb on Hiroshima on August 6, which exploded and confirmed the achievements of German physicists. But plutonium was an absolute innovation, and therefore its design was tested on the Bikini. Moreover, changes were made to the design, which eventually worked, based on the arguments of Schlicke and his fuses ...
      3. anomalocaris
        anomalocaris 16 July 2013 15: 56
        Everything can be ... But what happened to be in reality, we hardly ever know. Secrets of such importance never surfaced anywhere.
    2. alicante11
      alicante11 16 July 2013 12: 00
      It’s also interesting if the nuclear charges were practically ready, why the Germans didn’t use them in the Ardennes operation (figs with shaving, then it was dangerous to fly to the island with German bombers under the complete domination of the Allied aviation)

      But these bombs wouldn’t solve anything. To destroy allies is to give the Red Army a chance to create the YSSSR. Drop 2-3 bombs on the Red Army? So she and several dozens of Amer’s bombs were not afraid afterwards. Only a tactical advantage that was no longer developed. Someone could well pass vigorous loaves for the opportunity to comfortably meet old age in the USA.
      1. Evgan
        Evgan 16 July 2013 13: 13
        Then there was no point in conducting the Ardennes operation (which, according to the author, was carried out to save the German nuclear project). Inconsistency.
        1. alicante11
          alicante11 16 July 2013 16: 12
          Yes, not to save the project, but in order to delay the Allies in their offensive and concentrate forces against the Red Army. Incidentally, the Germans succeeded in this.
      2. 28 July 2013 21: 14
        There is a version that nuclear weapons were used by the Germans at the Kursk Bulge. Actually, the plan to attack the enemy, who for several months strengthened the defense and even had a numerical superiority, does not stand up to criticism. It just sounds like idiocy - it's like going to full-length machine guns. The Germans were not idiots and were well aware that the direction of their attacks had been revealed by our intelligence. And yet they hit where they were expected. In my opinion, they were counting on some new weapon, which, in their opinion, was supposed to stun the enemy, and then habitually surround and destroy him, thereby leveling the front line and wresting the strategic initiative from our army. A nuclear explosion did not have to look the way we imagine it today. Firstly, our grandfathers did not know what we know about nuclear weapons and could have mistaken the explosion of a projectile with SBS for high-yield explosives, if they were lucky and someone survived. Second, tactical nuclear weapons may have been used. Also, as I know from scratch, German tanks by this time were equipped with equipment to create excess pressure inside, which could help protect the crew from radiation dust. The German infantry, according to our command, behaved "cowardly" at the Kursk Bulge, advancing exclusively behind the tanks and immediately retreating if the tanks were retreating. Maybe it's not cowardice, this was not previously noted. In general, the Germans miscalculated, as usual. They had an uncomfortable enemy.
  4. kotvov
    kotvov 16 July 2013 09: 37
    Yes, I do not agree.
  5. sevtrash
    sevtrash 16 July 2013 10: 03
    He took a set of facts and twisted under his fried fact. Resunoid.
  6. Evgan
    Evgan 16 July 2013 10: 05
    Definitely, this version has a right to exist. Moreover, the fact that the Americans did not construct the atomic bomb themselves, I think, is not in doubt by anyone. But the fact that they were able to organize the construction of the atomic bomb (not only on their own, but also by the forces of the Germans, British, Canadians, etc.) is also not in doubt. However, in the USSR the atomic bomb was also made not only by Soviet scientists - remember the successes of our intelligence in this area and the help of the same German scientists who worked after the war in Sukhumi
    1. Gromily4
      Gromily4 16 July 2013 10: 15
      This is not to say that intelligence data was so crucial. They were not used directly in the development, but they helped not to make the mistakes that the Americans made when creating the bomb. That is, intelligence information just slightly accelerated the creation of atomic weapons, but were not its basis. We created the bomb ourselves.
  7. tixon444
    tixon444 16 July 2013 10: 12
    Exactly 70 years ago (in October 1942), the Minister of Arms of the Third Reich Albert Speer made a sensational statement: “We are on the verge of victory. The war against the Bolsheviks will be won with the help of the “wunderwaffe” - a unique weapon. Subsequently, the Goebbels Propaganda Ministry repeatedly informed the Germans: they say that the "wunderwaffe" is on the way and is about to "deliver a mortal blow." April 29, 1945 (!) Berlin Radio reported: “In the coming hours, the“ miracle weapon ”will incinerate the enemies of the Reich. The Fuhrer himself authorized it. ” True, Adolf Hitler committed suicide in a day: giving historians a reason to break spears in disputes - did Germany really develop powerful weapons that could change the course of the war, or is this just Goebbels’s propaganda ploy?
  8. Kars
    Kars 16 July 2013 10: 32
    If someone is interested in the topic and he has not read this book, I highly recommend
    Leslie Groves - Military Leader of the Mannhethenn Memorial Project
    ..Now you can talk about this .. in great detail about the Alsos Mission and about the choice of the object for the strike. Everything that is described in this article there is described quite routinely. And not hiding.

    Groves and Oppenheimer
  9. andsavichev2012
    andsavichev2012 16 July 2013 10: 33
    Statue in the spirit of RenTV, co-author I think A. Chapman
    1. Soup227
      Soup227 16 July 2013 12: 36
      this is not an article but an excerpt from the book. The version is of course interesting, and books by the way, too. By the way, the author dedicated some son of pineapple from Ananerbe and the book to his father. maybe I am
  10. dmb
    dmb 16 July 2013 10: 37
    The article is written in a very good language, there is even a big plus for the translator. Everything is very logical in German, even the transfer of secret information to the German by the Russians. (In the era of democracy, we do not transfer this). There is only one "but" that replaces all other logical constructions; the Germans did not use ready-made vigorous bombs. Has humanism awakened in the Fuehrer? Did the Gestapa not know that the bombs had been created? Or did she know and did not report to the Fuehrer? As comrade. Zheglov: "This argument will outweigh all the others."
    1. ben gun
      ben gun 16 July 2013 11: 54
      I agree that what has not been applied is a weighty argument. It’s interesting if you dig into Google’s maps, or where else can you find traces of German tests? funnels then you can look out for a lie?
      And on the other hand. They tried to apply, but Hitler didn’t know and went on the result of unsuccessful application to poison.
      1. 28 July 2013 21: 18
        There are such traces on the island of Rugen.
    2. Shadowcat
      Shadowcat 16 July 2013 12: 02
      But there is also a check - "Uranium mining is a dirty, ignoble, expensive and painstaking thing";)
    3. Mikhail3
      Mikhail3 16 July 2013 12: 06
      Not outweigh. In many sources I met the same strange mention. About some kind of superstack, which was always dragged from place to place in the second half of 44, the beginning of 45go. And in any way the Germans could not cling to some place. Either the allies will cover them with bombs, then they will organize our breakthrough ... and for some reason not every place was suitable for them. It seems that they just didn’t have time, because in addition to uranium, we still need the most accurate refinement of complex mechanics.
    4. Soup227
      Soup227 16 July 2013 12: 40
      By the way, the author in the book cites the place where Germany all the same experienced a bomb - swamps of Belarus
      1. Dim Dim
        Dim Dim 16 July 2013 21: 57
        But they did not try to ask the Belarusians, because it is difficult to blow up such a device unnoticed in Europe. The fungus from far away will be seen, and even more so in the frontline, intelligence also works.
        1. Misantrop
          Misantrop 16 July 2013 22: 27
          Quote: DimDim
          The fungus from far away will be seen, and even more so in the frontline, intelligence also works.
          A mushroom is formed in any explosion of sufficient power, and is not at all an exclusive sign of a nuclear explosion. Again, intelligence is cool. Did reconnaissance dosimeters with radiometers THEN with you? Or even existed in a compact form? Or could someone then list the signs of a nuclear explosion, as well as its damaging factors? A few years before Hiroshima. It is now that modern scholars have found out that descriptions of nuclear explosions are present in the ancient Indian epos, and before that they had read it for centuries without realizing it. Just because they did not know what exactly to look for ...
    5. arkady149
      arkady149 16 July 2013 13: 42
      However, the Germans did not use sarin and herd either.
  11. omsbon
    omsbon 16 July 2013 10: 48
    The main thing is that our grandfathers ruined the Nazis and did not give them the opportunity to use the atomic bomb. Then the country, straining its last strength, was able to create its own bomb and thereby deprived the amers of "atomic autocracy!"
  12. fzr1000
    fzr1000 16 July 2013 11: 18
    Yesterday it was possible on the Internet or personally to look at the "Red October" in Moscow. I looked on the net - very interesting. This can be done via the link. A lot of world-famous scientists give lectures on physics.

    One of the creators of the nuclear bomb will give a lecture in Moscow on July 15 at 20.00

    Lecture by Nobel laureate Roy Glauber, who was a Harvard sophomore in the early 1940s and participated in the Manhattan Project. He will talk about his role in nuclear research accompanying this event, and about the difficult choices made then by scientists.

    The Manhattan Project is the codename for the US nuclear weapons program that created three atomic bombs: the Trinity plutonium (detonated in the first nuclear test), the Uranium Kid (dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945) and the plutonium "Fat Man" (dropped on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945).

    The Manhattan Project launched on September 17, 1943. Scientists from the United States of America, Great Britain, Germany and Canada worked there.

    Roy Glauber quit his studies at Harvard to participate in the program, but after two years of work he left the research - even before the start of nuclear weapons tests - and continued his education.

    In 1963, Glauber achieved widespread recognition by publishing the Quantum Theory of Optical Coherence. In this work, he described the behavior and dual nature of light particles, explaining the fundamental differences between hot light sources and lasers. Thus, he laid the foundation for modern optics.

    Roy Glauber received the Nobel Prize in Physics (2005) for his contribution to quantum optics. For scientific achievements in this field, he was also awarded the Albert Michelson Medal, the Max Born Prize and a number of other prestigious international distinctions.

    After the war, at the personal invitation of “the father of the atomic bomb,” Robert Oppenheimer, Glauber worked at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton. At various times, he taught at universities in France and the Netherlands, and also participated in the activities of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).
    1. fzr1000
      fzr1000 16 July 2013 11: 35
      Roy Glauber.
  13. Nitup
    Nitup 16 July 2013 11: 24
    The atomic bomb was created by scientists from the UK. To create it, they were sent to the United States, because it is easier to threaten the USSR with the atomic bomb from the United States than from England, since the United States was far from Soviet troops. The purpose of atomic bombing in Japan is to frighten the USSR so that Stalin ratifies the Breton-Woods agreement and fits into the world dollar system. By the way, Stalin signed this agreement in 1944, but after taking Berlin and winning the Second World War in 1945, he refused to ratify it. That is, he circled the Anglo-Saxons around his finger. In the following years, while we did not have our own atomic bomb, the USSR did nothing special, but already in 1950 Stalin decided to create an alternative to the golden dollar ruble system. What could bury the West with its typewriter. For which, most likely, Stalin was poisoned. After the advent of Khrushchev, the USSR began to trade for dollars and has already lost its most important advantage over the West. By the way, we fully entered the current dollar system in 1990, when the Central Bank became virtually independent of the state.
  14. Iraclius
    Iraclius 16 July 2013 11: 40
    Nevertheless, new atomic bombs appeared in the States ... What do you think when? In the fall of 1945? In the summer of 1946? Not! Only in 1947, the first nuclear weapons began to arrive in American arsenals! You will not find this date anywhere, but no one will undertake to refute it. The data that I managed to get is completely secret.

    I did not read further. Again, there is one conspiracy thesis and only the author has access to top-secret archives.
    Glory to the Almighty that Martians are still not involved in the matter.
  15. Letterksi
    Letterksi 16 July 2013 11: 41
    The timing of the amer bomb creation is really alarming. In addition, the two bombs dropped on Japan are completely different and look like test lab samples. It is hardly possible to make two different samples in such a short time. Anyone who is familiar with the process of developing something knows perfectly well what to do two different things, and not one, is tantamount to failure, when the priority is only time periods. If amers created something themselves, then, probably, it would be two identical samples, and not different. The difference is in favor of the article.

    In addition, we all know American ways - to provoke, do things, and then convince everyone that everyone around is to blame, except for themselves.

    A good article that leads to the next world-wide American nonsense
    1. alex-cn
      alex-cn 16 July 2013 15: 23
      crazy money was allocated for this project, they could work on two schemes, therefore they dropped two bombs to determine the best option
  16. Shadowcat
    Shadowcat 16 July 2013 12: 03
    In general, history is a science of conjecture, logical incidents, and, in general, the darkest science built on speculation and speculation. :)
  17. Black
    Black 16 July 2013 12: 12
    I read the article, read the discussions ...
    "+" deserve those who are for the Germans, "-" put those who are for LosAlamos. laughing
    The article is really in the spirit of the search for sensations.
    Especially did not like the insinuations against N. Bohr.
    Bohr is a pure theoretical physicist. He would "get under the feet" of developers, practitioners, by definition, just like Einstein, Fabrikant and others.
  18. andsavichev2012
    andsavichev2012 16 July 2013 12: 13
    Comrades! turn on the brain !!!
    Luizych said at the end of 41: "We do not need a bomb, which we do for 3-4 years in order to destroy one enemy city, we need tanks and planes." (Quote, not literal). After that, the Germans stopped working on nuclear weapons.
    The bombing of the Japanese did not yield any military result!
    Only in the second half of the 50s the USA created a nuclear arsenal sufficient for an effective strike on the USSR.
    The Angles monitored the Germans throughout the war, because guessed which city would be destroyed first.
    The Germans did not work on nuclear weapons; there were no funds either. abilities. Neither the Angles nor the Americans nor ours found any enrichment plant. Even the uranium deposit in the Tatras (the only one available to them) was NOT DEVELOPED
    Found current modern bullshit. I read a brochure from one: the Germans rejected Einstein, because he was a Jew and created a different nuclear weapon, based on the Aryan quantum mechanics of M. Planck. Moreover, they created a tactical (300-500 kg) nuclear weapons and successfully used it, but all the materials are in secret archives fellow laughing
  19. knn54
    knn54 16 July 2013 12: 33
    A PLUTONIA bomb was tested in New Mexico, and the Uranium bomb was dropped on the Hiroshima Yankees.
    There is a report of the intelligence department of the 9th US Air Force dated August 19, 1945: "Research, survey, development and practical use of the German atomic bomb." It contains the testimony of the German pilot Hans Zinsser, who took part in the tests in early October 1944. From the Henkel 111 bomber, he observed an explosion that had all the signs of a nuclear one: a bright flash, a clearly visible shock wave that spread about 9 kilometers in diameter, a mushroom-shaped explosion cloud standing at an altitude of about 7 thousand meters, a strong electromagnetic disturbance that disrupted radio communications.
    On December 28, 1944, a report was prepared within the framework of the Manhattan Project, which stated that, while maintaining the current rate of supply of weapons-grade uranium, the Americans would have 10 kilograms of uranium by February 7, and 15 kilograms by May 1 (1945). And to create a bomb, about 50 kilograms are needed - how did they manage to double its amount from May to August 1945
    -What is it? In 1945, the Americans dropped three bombs - and all was successful. The following tests are the same bombs! - pass a year and a half later, and not too successfully.
    To start a nuclear chain reaction, plutonium must be combined into a single CRITICAL mass. This is done using conventional explosives, which should provide a process no more than 300 μs. Otherwise, the chain reaction will not work ...
    JUST the Americans were able to use the infrared fuse of Dr. Schlicke, and it is ACCEPTED that this is the merit of the "Manhattan Project" employee of the Nobel Prize laureate (later) Luis Alvarez ...
    PS According to some reports, the bombs were delivered to the Czech Republic, but there was no FURTHER order directly from Hitler. It seems that Alsos and took them out, perhaps, together with SS Obergruppenführer Hans Kammler. It is not in vain that the Americans entered the areas that the Soviet troops should occupy ... But the train could (and should have) fell into the hands of the USSR. And everything could be different.
    PPS A special group that included future academicians Khariton, Artsimovich ... and commanded by the first deputy commissar of the NKVD Ivan Serov, dozens of physicists and 200 tons of metallic oxide (?) Of uranium were removed, which, according to Kurchatov, reduced the work on the atomic bomb by 1. ..1,5 years.
    1. andsavichev2012
      andsavichev2012 16 July 2013 13: 18
      In fact, two bombs were dropped, one on Hiroshima, the other on Nagasaka. One is plutonium, the other is uranium, One was called Kid (undercover nickname), the second was Fatty.
      And the Americans broke into the Czech Republic for beer, however, therefore, General Serov steered the process of collecting Czech and German beer from Moscow, and then went to the Potsdam, they found beer there. And then he returned to Moscow, with a lot of beer, however drinks
    2. Dim Dim
      Dim Dim 16 July 2013 22: 51
      Germany, up to 43 years of work on any projects that could not be completed in 6 months, did not finance. The nuclear project did not fall into this category. In the future, funding and support took place under the auspices of several departments, each of which intensely pulled the blanket in its direction. It was this mistake that the USA did not commit, which gave them a significant head start. And in Germany, 3 groups of scientists worked in parallel, constantly pulling strategic materials from each other. The uranium ore, which at that time was industrially mined only in the African colonies, was taken by the Angles from under their noses back in 1940. And the only heavy water production that the Germans had hoped for was located in Norway, its Angles were destroyed using aircraft. So the Germans in 44-45 were really far from creating a bomb. And many of the facts cited in this article have a completely different explanation. The operation in the ardenes could well have been successful if the weather hadn’t. It was thought and started, as at the beginning of the war with England and France, with a powerful tank strike to dismember the enemy and throw it into the sea. But unexpectedly early, good weather set in and immediately the overwhelming superiority of the Americans in the air affected. Cherchel's requests for help, it is an English tradition, why fight yourself when you can ask others. Recall the war with Napoleon or the First World War. The Saxons have always found the opportunity to ask Russia for help, especially when it gets hot. And also they fought against us in the Crimea, capturing to their side all those who were able to persuade or bribe France and Turkey, and even part of Italy. Regarding Leipzig, the author also has slightly inaccurate information. There was no atomic explosion there, it was just that the Anglo-Americans, by joint efforts, did everything possible so that nothing was left worthless in the Sovetsky zone of occupation. Therefore, thousands of heavy bombers at the end of the war were dropped on German cities, including Leipzig, but not on military facilities, the volume of bombs significantly exceeding TNT equivalent than the atomic bombs dropped on Japan. Thus, they already showed Europe the basics of their concept of democracy. Apparently it was the number of victims among the civilian population that made us think of an atomic explosion.
  20. Apologet insane
    Apologet insane 16 July 2013 12: 54
    A beautiful fairy-tale in the style of films on REN-TV. Not a single authoritative source is indicated ... Oh, what am I talking about? In general, sources, besides the author’s inventions, are not indicated. And the bourgeois phobia is nice =)
    1. tixon444
      tixon444 16 July 2013 13: 41
      The author - Hans-Ulrich von Kranz (aka Etienne Kasset) - is just a pseudonym, a non-existent character. It is found only in the Russian-speaking Internet, it is associated with the publishing house "Vector", replete with various "opening eyes" mystical literature in the series "Labyrinths of Truth".
  21. Next
    Next 16 July 2013 13: 26
    This article is from the category of those that only lead the reader to speculation and thought. It seems to me that I can never find truth here. We can thank God that these bombs, being (which is permissible) German or American, did not fall on the territory of the USSR. we must pay tribute to the military thought of the Wehrmacht constructors and gunsmiths; they pushed military affairs for decades to come.
  22. shpuntik
    shpuntik 16 July 2013 13: 50
    Oh! Churchill would look good in Kolyma! How did Joseph let him go? Maybe it would be better to send Hitler to England? How?
    Stop the troops for a month, on the border with Germany, give the troops a rest, a bathhouse, quarters with the Poles, and not help Churchill. In fact, this "Winston" was no better than Hitler.
    The article is a big plus. The fact that the "allies" took advantage of the fruits of our victory is understandable to the bug. I agree with the author of the article completely. hi
  23. 094711601
    094711601 16 July 2013 14: 22
    Thanks to the author! The article is a big plus!
  24. alex-cn
    alex-cn 16 July 2013 15: 16
    I am an ignoramus in nuclear physics, but in all sources previously known to me, it was written that the Germans went along some kind of dead-end path associated with the use of "heavy water", and even the allies managed to cover its reserves in the 44th.
    That is why the article is clearly interesting and similar to reality. bold plus
  25. alex-cn
    alex-cn 16 July 2013 15: 19
    I apologize, but the reactor, although inferior, collected the Manhattan project, there are photos and reports, they interestingly finished it, or they also stole it. but becoming an interesting fat plus itself makes you think.
    1. KazaK Bo
      KazaK Bo 16 July 2013 16: 51
      Quote: alex-cn
      I apologize, but the reactor, although inferior, collected the Manhattan project, there are photos and reports

      You are absolutely right. But!!! To create a theory ... to launch a nuclear reactor and prepare a bomb ... this ... well, a very big difference. There are a lot of reactors in the world, they have 25-30 countries, and only a few can do nuclear weapons.
      1. alex-cn
        alex-cn 16 July 2013 17: 33
        the reactor is half the bomb, now they are being built wherever it gets, but only builders and developers are only 5-6, but they don’t really give the bomb, they’re squeezing the Koreans and Iranians. just we will not discuss, for the cause, or not ...
  26. Sirjey
    Sirjey 16 July 2013 15: 25
    God forbid this rubbish will fall even on another city in the world ...
    1. alex-cn
      alex-cn 16 July 2013 17: 34
      OH, AGREE
    2. ISO
      ISO 23 July 2013 15: 27
      It’s almost no worse than ordinary explosives ... The inhabitants of Dresden were almost more comfortable than the Japanese in Hiroshima and Nagasaka. Based on your logic, then 1000 strong car bugatti hellish invention of Satan
  27. Yuri Y.
    Yuri Y. 16 July 2013 16: 09
    Quote: Apologet Insane
    A beautiful fairy-tale in the style of films on REN-TV. Not a single authoritative source is indicated ... Oh, what am I talking about? In general, sources, besides the author’s inventions, are not indicated. And the bourgeois phobia is nice =)

    Any essence speaks about itself with the help of logic, like some facts arranged in a row. Sources may not be, with such a feed, even
    in the most classified archives of the Manhattan project.
  28. Ruslan_F38
    Ruslan_F38 16 July 2013 16: 13
    America is a country of thieves, falsities and deceit - they have nothing of their own, even the French have stolen a hamburger, but now it turns out about the atomic bomb - nothing surprising! Although sorry, there is, Hollywood is a country of illusions and dreams, they live like that - unnaturally!
  29. batareykin
    batareykin 16 July 2013 16: 23
    and WHAT bombed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki?
  30. KazaK Bo
    KazaK Bo 16 July 2013 16: 45
    Interesting article. But the information is far from new ... even earlier (3-4 years ago in Russian) Farrell JOSEPH's book "The Black Sun of the Third Reich. The Battle for the Weapon of Retribution." In it, FARRELL J. is no longer on analytical reasoning, as the author of this article does), but on a documentary basis proves that Germany was the first to create a nuclear bomb, with documents he proves that aMers not only stole from the Germans blanks for new weapons (enriched uranium, special fuses , devices for crimping uranium inserts, etc.) but also theoretical ideas, calculations and design developments. It was these German blanks, but already collected in a bomb, which were thrown over Japan. And also in the book you will find where ... when ... in what place were the components of the bomb produced, small charges were tested ...
    The Germans summed up (and thank God !!!) a Hitler’s decree banning the allocation of funds for the development of new types of weapons if these weapons are not ready in 6 months. But the palm, for the most part, in the creation of this devilish weapon of mass destruction must nevertheless be given to German science. The author of our article is right here.
  31. Alf
    Alf 16 July 2013 16: 49
    Quote: GES
    Well, what would it give him? Nuclear weapons in such quantities are not a panacea, but only a means of influence in this case only psychological ... really just zilch. Everyone understood that this weapon is high-tech and promising ... but only in case of mass use and mainly against industrial zones or large cities. Did Germany have the opportunity to exchange their weapons with success at least 50%? Probably not by then.

    It would give a lot. If the use of FAU-1 and, especially, FAU-2, the Anglers howled so much (it’s enough to count the number of fighters and bombers who hunted for missiles and their places of base), then dumping at least one nuclear charge on London would lead to a major POLITICAL cataclysm. That is, alozych could already specifically speak with London regarding the conclusion of a peace treaty with the ensuing consequences for us.
    About the means of delivery. The Germans could very well get London vigorous with the baton with the help of a single bomb-bomber, not rockets, which they often flew to where they, and not the creators, wanted. I explain, in 43, the Germans went to Britain with a low-altitude flight profile. For 120 raids, the Angles raised fighters to intercept 52 times, i.e. A single Yu-000 could easily pass on a shaver to London (and London, I dare to recall, on the COAST.) The Germans had enough suicide bombers. So the threat of a successful use of nuclear weapons in Britain was real. Well, if the fully thinking Yusovtsy without hesitation hit Japan, Hitler would have used it without hesitation.
    1. anomalocaris
      anomalocaris 16 July 2013 17: 11
      The use of nuclear weapons before the summer of 1943 could well lead to the consequences you described. After - it would only lead to the complete destruction of Germany as a country and Germans as a nation.
    2. GHG
      GHG 16 July 2013 19: 15
      That would have given nothing. The Germans would have been jammed anyway. By that time, Britain was already on the sidelines and was not a strong player. Hitler was looking for another way more acceptable for him. By the way, they didn’t raise fighters to intercept 52000 times, and 52000 sorties ... these are different things.
  32. Alf
    Alf 16 July 2013 16: 54
    Quote: alex-cn
    I am an ignoramus in nuclear physics, but in all sources previously known to me, it was written that the Germans went along some kind of dead-end path associated with the use of "heavy water", and even the allies managed to cover its reserves in the 44th.

    And who told you that the Germans went along a dead end with heavy water? They could very well (and most likely did) slip this misinformation to the Allies and develop a normal graphite bomb. One story with Norsk-Hydro is worth what, Hans-Ulrich von Krantz painted it very intelligibly.
    1. Black
      Black 16 July 2013 17: 11
      Quote: Alf
      They could very well (and most likely did so) slip this misinformation to the Allies and develop a normal graphite bomb.

      Graphite bomb? Are you confusing anything? Actually, the graphite bomb is a verse not at all from this song.
      Graphite reactor yes.
  33. Alf
    Alf 16 July 2013 16: 59
    Quote: Apologet Insane
    A beautiful fairy-tale in the style of films on REN-TV. Not a single authoritative source is indicated ... Oh, what am I talking about? In general, sources, besides the author’s inventions, are not indicated.

    What sources do you need? Even in reconnaissance, the wording is used when reporting - Agent X reported and, in general, very often the name of the informant is known only to the person who recruited him and this is normal practice.
    1. Djozz
      Djozz 16 July 2013 17: 44
      This storyteller said that the French shot those who collaborated with the Germans. Tady had to slap a third of France. An example, so as not to be unfounded: Edith Piaf (Sparrow) gave concerts for the Germans, Coco Chanel was the mistress of the SS General. Here is such a song.
  34. dickest
    dickest 16 July 2013 17: 01
    A very interesting hypothesis. Here is just a question: "Why did the Germans themselves not use ready-made bombs?" reduces the hypothesis to "no". If the author answered this question, then the hypothesis would have a chance to get out of the category of "hypotheses".
  35. tomich
    tomich 16 July 2013 17: 06
    article certainly plus
  36. Djozz
    Djozz 16 July 2013 17: 08
    Hitler forbade to fund scientific research if they do not give a positive result for a year. The Ministry of Posts funded the German nuclear program at its own risk. Before enriching weapons-grade uranium up to 60%, the diffusion method was used, which required a large amount of energy, at that time the German energy complex did not have the necessary capacities. In the USSR, in the manufacture of weapons-grade uranium in the late 40s, entire sectors of the drug were disconnected from power supply. households. The article is similar to the REN broadcast, cheap sensation.
  37. Alf
    Alf 16 July 2013 17: 41
    Quote: Chen
    Graphite bomb? Are you confusing anything? Actually, the graphite bomb is a verse not at all from this song.
    Graphite reactor yes.

    I mean using graphite instead of heavy water.
    1. Misantrop
      Misantrop 16 July 2013 18: 32
      Quote: Alf
      use of graphite instead of heavy water
      Neither graphite nor deuterium is needed in a nuclear bomb request
  38. Alf
    Alf 16 July 2013 17: 48
    Quote: anomalocaris
    The use of nuclear weapons before the summer of 1943 could well lead to the consequences you described. After - it would only lead to the complete destruction of Germany as a country and Germans as a nation.

    Rather, you are wrong. Churchill slept and saw how not to let the Red Army into Europe. Until the age of 43, Britain itself hung in the balance and offered Churchill a truce with Hitler, they would have immediately asked for it from work, but in the 44th and, especially, the 45th year, this could have gone from churchill, even then it had begun in the anti-Hitler coalition serious discord and it began from the west.
    1. anomalocaris
      anomalocaris 16 July 2013 18: 18
      At 44, and especially at 45, Churchill didn’t give a ride like that. Several nuclear bombs could not stop the accelerated Red Army in principle (the Germans could accumulate uranium by no more than 3-4 charges of very small power). On the contrary, society, after using such weapons, simply would not understand the negotiations with the Nazis, and Churchill would resign faster than his own screech.
      So it’s not rolling.
      1. Djozz
        Djozz 16 July 2013 18: 42
        So he flew out at 45m, because. allowed the US dollar to penetrate the British colonies, Roosevelt insisted on this in exchange for military assistance. Which was the end of the English Empire.
  39. Alf
    Alf 16 July 2013 17: 50
    Quote: dickest
    A very interesting hypothesis. Here is just a question: "Why did the Germans themselves not use ready-made bombs?" reduces the hypothesis to "no". If the author answered this question, then the hypothesis would have a chance to get out of the category of "hypotheses".

    For fun, read Krantz, there is a mention of the defeat of the Allied convoy in February 45th.
  40. AlexW
    AlexW 16 July 2013 18: 06
    Article plus. We were suspiciously persistently instilled in the idea that Hitler was not interested in nuclear research and Germany could not create an atomic bomb. At the same time, the Allies stubbornly destroyed everything in Europe that was somehow related to a nuclear bomb. "Attack on Vemork" - two operations conducted in 1942 and 1943, undertaken by Norwegian and British saboteurs during World War II. The purpose of the operations was to destroy a heavy water production plant that could be used by the Germans in their own nuclear project to produce nuclear weapons. A massive bombing raid targeted a similar plant in Italy. Nevertheless, by February 1942, the first German reactor had been built. Then several reactors worked, and they were mobile. The German scientists had all the conditions to implement the "Uranium project" in the planned 2 years. At the same time, von Braun was working on a carrier, an intercontinental missile. Presumably, the warhead was not planned from an ordinary explosive, otherwise it made no sense. Considering the progress of German scientists in Hitler's Germany in almost all areas (and we and the Americans are still mastering it), it is possible that the facts stated in the article took place ...
  41. anomalocaris
    anomalocaris 16 July 2013 18: 10
    Quote: Misantrop
    In fact, the critical mass of uranium-235 with an enrichment of 26-29% is about 45 kg ... Let us recall the first person killed in the Manhattan project when a manual drive to reduce the uranium hemispheres jammed.

    The uranium enrichment rate you have given is only suitable for use in a reactor. In general, the reactor can run on fuel with an enrichment of 15%. For a bomb, a degree of enrichment of at least 96% is necessary, but in this case, the launch of a chain reaction leading to a nuclear explosion is very unlikely. Therefore, uranium with enrichment of at least 98% is considered weapons-grade.
    In fact, the concept of critical mass is not as simple as it seems to you. The mass of fissile material in which a self-sustaining chain reaction is triggered depends on so many factors. Well, okay, if this is interesting to you, you will find where to read it. So, for metallic uranium 235, with a degree of enrichment of 99,5% and with a spherical shape of the charge, it is 19,5 kg. But there will be no nuclear explosion. A very quick heating and dispersal of matter in space will simply happen, which then happened in the laboratory.
    Quote: Misantrop
    The implosive scheme used in those charges has a very interesting name among the pros - the "beggar scheme". It is based on the use of the plutonium-239 phase transition and is almost an order of magnitude simpler than other implosive schemes. But it only allows you to create a charge of a strictly defined power. Exactly 20 Kt. And in general, how did they initially COULD KNOW that it was urgent to produce EXACTLY plutonium-239 (which does not occur in nature) in order to collect fissile material for TWO warheads by the summer of 45?

    Oh well. Is this a multi-lens cumulative charge circuit that compresses the plutonium sphere is simple? Aw, show me those beggars who can repeat it, even now it is very difficult. By the way, the limit of the implosive scheme is about megatons.
    But the cannon scheme is really simple, and really is a cannon. The American "Little Boy" used a piece of a 10-inch gun barrel. Here it really has a power limit of about 20 kT, extremely low efficiency and a very high percentage of the release of radioactive matter. Plus, such a bomb can only be built using uranium. Such a bomb can be made on the knee, BUT, subject to the availability of weapons-grade uranium. Such a bomb can, to some extent, be called a "beggar's bomb." Although the quote you quoted refers to chemical weapons.
    Quote: Misantrop
    In general, you begin to understand all these things

    A very correct thought, I strongly advise you to follow it.
    1. Misantrop
      Misantrop 16 July 2013 18: 43
      Quote: anomalocaris
      In general, the reactor can run on fuel with an enrichment of 15%
      Take an interest in the degree of fuel enrichment at BN-600 wink
      It's just that no one really understands anything about a nuclear chain reaction (although they do). An example is at least the effect of the so-called "local critical masses". Have you seen such a miracle? Sudden unreasonable self-start of deeply subcritical assembly ...
    2. Misantrop
      Misantrop 16 July 2013 19: 19
      Quote: anomalocaris
      In fact, the concept of critical mass is not as simple as it seems to you.
      It is very simple. Now I probably won’t be able to count how many times the assembly has been criticized. wink
      Quote: anomalocaris
      But there will be no nuclear explosion. It will just happen very fast heating and the spread of matter in space

      Write easier. What is required a degree of supercriticality, providing acceleration of the reaction on instant neutrons hi
  42. Vitaly Anisimov
    Vitaly Anisimov 16 July 2013 18: 32
    But who cares who and where when ..SSSR managed to create nuclear weapons and are very powerful and put into the flow! (in spite of the enormous loss of population, half of the country is almost in ruins .. And I think everyone knows that the USA had a real plan for a nuclear strike on the cities of the USSR .. that held them back .. then ??? God God saves Russia .. probably for our stamina and soul.
  43. fennekRUS
    fennekRUS 16 July 2013 18: 41
    Fictitious, but logical and not well similar to the truth. Thinking ...
  44. ivankursk46
    ivankursk46 16 July 2013 19: 31
    Ovchinnikov in "Hot Ash" talks about the creation of the atomic bomb
  45. crambol
    crambol 16 July 2013 20: 26
    The Russians, of course, did not threaten the United States with war, but they prevented the Americans from becoming masters of the entire planet. And this, from the point of view of the Yankees, is an absolutely unacceptable crime.

    Here is another very accurate observation of the author!
  46. asbaev
    asbaev 16 July 2013 20: 28
    Thanks to our nuclear scientists that they managed to make an answer, otherwise there would be no one to read.
  47. Grigorich 1962
    Grigorich 1962 16 July 2013 20: 30
    Russia always disturbs the States ... whether we want it or not .....
  48. Alf
    Alf 16 July 2013 21: 51
    Quote: Misantrop
    Quote: Alf
    using graphite instead of heavy water A graphite bomb does not need graphite or deuterium

    .Atomic bomb

    The atomic bomb consists of a metal shell, at the edges of which there is a highly radioactive isotope of uranium 235, and between these two uranium parts there is a partition made of graphite, which delays and reflects the neutron radiation of uranium. It is known that if one neutron gets into one atom of uranium, then the uranium atom collapses (decays) with the release of energy in the form of alpha, beta and gamma rays, as well as a large number of neutrons (235?). Thus, the released neutrons fall into neighboring uranium atoms, as a result, several uranium atoms decay, releasing (in total) several times more neutrons, which fall into even more atoms. An avalanche-like chain reaction occurs - an atomic explosion. Uranium is an unstable element. That is, a small number of neutrons decays independently in random order, so it is radioactive, that is, it constantly emits alpha, beta, gamma and neutron radiation. In nature, uranium occurs in the form of the isotope 238, which is much less radioactive, and also occurs in ore, and not in its pure form, therefore, in nature, atomic chain reactions with atomic explosions do not occur. At nuclear plants (stations) receive uranium 235. It is very radioactive. And if the mass of purified uranium 235 in one piece exceeds the critical mass, then due to self-irradiation a chain atomic reaction will begin - an atomic explosion. [Anonsend]
    Therefore, uranium 235 is stored in an amount less than the critical mass. The atomic bomb contains two pieces of uranium A and B, separated by a graphite baffle that absorbs neutron fluxes. For an atomic explosion to occur, it is not even necessary that the uranium be in one piece with a mass exceeding the critical, it is enough that two pieces, with a mass slightly less than the critical mass, are nearby and then the chain reaction will begin due to the fact that they are each other irradiated with a neutron flux. Piece A emits neutrons that fall into piece B, which, under the influence of these neutrons, begins to emit even more neutrons and they fall into piece A, and then it emits an even larger flux into B, and so on, a chain reaction occurs - an atomic explosion. In an atomic bomb, pieces of uranium are separated by a graphite baffle that prevents a chain reaction. And so, in order for an atomic explosion to occur, it is necessary that the graphite partition be removed. It is removed with the help of an explosion of a conventional explosive device, for example, TNT. After the destruction of the graphite septum, two pieces of uranium with a total mass above the critical mass begin to inter-irradiate and an uncontrolled nuclear chain reaction occurs - an atomic explosion.
    Take an interest in the device of a nuclear bomb.
    1. Misantrop
      Misantrop 16 July 2013 22: 13
      Quote: Alf
      In nature, uranium occurs in the form of the isotope 238, which is much less radioactive, and also occurs in ore, and not in its pure form, therefore, in nature, atomic chain reactions with atomic explosions do not occur. At nuclear plants (stations) receive 235 uranium.

      Masterpiece good And the Kovrov centrifuge plant does. To out natural separate uranium 235 isotope ... what
      Quote: Alf
      as well as a large number of neutrons (235?)
      The average neutron yield is 2,47 per fission. But these are high-energy neutrons, the so-called "fast" ones. For their more efficient use in a chain reaction, it is required to reduce the energy, i.e. "slow down". Water is used as a moderator or graphite... Simply because the "effective absorption cross section" (have you heard of this?) Of the uranium-235 nucleus in terms of thermal neutrons is MUCH higher. Your so-called "bomb":
      Quote: Alf
      for an atomic explosion to occur, the graphite partition must be removed. It is removed with the help of an explosion of a conventional explosive device, for example, TNT. After the destruction of the graphite septum, two pieces of uranium with a total mass above the critical mass begin to inter-irradiate and an uncontrolled nuclear chain reaction occurs - an atomic explosion.
      having between the uranium parts a plate of moderator, would lead to the fact that both segments would receive MUCH more efficient neutrons than from any other or AT ALL without any baffle. Those. would explode during the assembly process, at the time of attempt to install it wassat
      Quote: Alf
      Take an interest in the device of a nuclear bomb.
      May I not be interested in you? lol I’ve been living for a long time, I’m used to it already wink
  49. 573385
    573385 16 July 2013 22: 08
    I have no access to the archives, but here are my "few kopecks in this piggy bank". The Americans are still bad with weapons-grade uranium! This is confirmed by the "uranium scam of Adamov". By the way, the last uranium, "sold" by Adamov, the Americans received this year. According to the American \ reprinted "AIF" \ press, the allies received the required amount of uranium from the trophy / surrendered? \ submarine, which went with him to Japan. Could they capture a ready-made bomb? Of course not! Such products Hitler would have used immediately, he had enough fanatics. The Americans most likely had an almost ready-made plutonium "toy" - without a uranium "detonator" it would not explode. Hence the delay in serial production, the most famous "mines" of uranium - in Germany. To extract, purify, enrich ....
      NOBODY EXCEPT US 16 July 2013 22: 50
      Sorry, I wanted to put a plus .....
    2. Aleksey_K
      Aleksey_K 16 July 2013 23: 01
      My suggestion. The Germans-physicists, quite generally, are not Germans, but Jews. And I think that they managed to hide from the Hitler command about 99% readiness of three atomic bombs. But even the German physicists understood what kind of weapon they were making. In those days, Germany is a country of believers. It is one thing to make, another thing to apply. For the last case, blood pressure in the human soul is protected by 100%!
    3. Misantrop
      Misantrop 16 July 2013 23: 06
      Quote: 573385
      The Americans most likely had an almost finished plutonium "toy" -without a uranium "detonator" it will not explode.

      Why? belay
      And another question, where did the Americans get plutonium, if there was no uranium?
    NOBODY EXCEPT US 16 July 2013 22: 52
    I have not read such interesting fiction for a long time, Stanislav is resting ...