The penultimate truth
There are not many things in the world that are considered indisputable. Well, that the sun rises in the east and sets in the west, I think you know. And that the moon revolves around the earth too. And about the fact that the Americans were the first to create an atomic bomb, ahead of both the Germans and the Russians.
I thought so, until about four years ago I was in the hands of one old journal. He left my beliefs about the sun and the moon alone, but he shook my faith in the American leadership quite seriously. It was a plump volume in German - a filing of the journal "Theoretical Physics" for 1938 a year. I don’t remember why I went there, but quite unexpectedly I stumbled upon an article by Professor Otto Gan.
The name was well known to me. It was Gahn, the famous German physicist and radiochemist, who in the year 1938, together with another prominent scientist, Fritz Strausmann, discovered the division of the uranium nucleus, actually starting the work on creating nuclear weapons. At first I simply ran the article with a glance diagonally, but then completely unexpected phrases forced me to become more attentive. And ultimately, even to forget about what I initially picked up this magazine.
The Ghana article was devoted to a review of nuclear power in different countries of the world. Strictly speaking, there was nothing special to observe: everywhere except Germany, nuclear research was in the pen. They did not see much point. “This abstract matter has nothing to do with state needs,” said British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, about the same time, when he was asked to support British nuclear research with budget money. “Let these scholars bespectacled themselves look for money, the state is full of other problems!” - most world leaders thought so in 30. Except, of course, the Nazis, who just financed the nuclear program.
But by no means the Chamberlain passage, carefully quoted by Hahn, caught my attention. England in general is not too interested in the author of these lines. Much more interesting was what Gan wrote about the state of nuclear research in the United States of America. And he literally wrote the following:
If we talk about a country in which the processes of nuclear fission receive the least attention, then one should undoubtedly call the United States. Of course, now I do not consider Brazil or the Vatican. However, among developed countries, even Italy and Communist Russia are significantly ahead of the United States. The problems of theoretical physics across the ocean are given little attention, priority is given to applied developments that can give immediate profit. Therefore, I can say with confidence that within the next decade North Americans will not be able to do anything essential for the development of atomic physics.
At first I just laughed. Wow, how wrong was my compatriot! And only then he thought: no matter how cool, Otto Gan was not a simpleton or an amateur. He was well informed about the state of atomic research, especially since before the outbreak of World War II this topic was freely discussed in scientific circles.
Maybe the Americans misinformed the whole world? But for what purpose? Atomic weapons in 30-e still no one thought. Moreover, most scientists considered its creation impossible in principle. That is why, before 1939, all the new achievements in atomic physics were instantly recognized by the whole world - they were published quite openly in scientific journals. Nobody hid the fruits of their labor, on the contrary, there was open rivalry between various groups of scientists (almost exclusively Germans) —who will advance faster?
Maybe scientists in the States ahead of the whole world and therefore kept their achievements in secret? Not a bad guess. To confirm or deny it, we will have to consider history the creation of the American atomic bomb, at least as it appears in official publications. We are all accustomed to take it for granted as a matter of course. However, upon closer inspection, it contains so many oddities and inconsistencies that it is simply amazing.
From the world on a thread - States bomb
Thousand nine hundred forty second year began for the English not bad. The German invasion of their small island, which seemed inevitable, now, as if by magic, retreated into the misty distance. Last summer, Hitler made a major mistake in his life — he attacked Russia. This was the beginning of the end. The Russians not only survived against the hopes of the Berlin strategists and the pessimistic predictions of many observers, but also gave the Wehrmacht good luck in the teeth in the frosty winter. And in December, the big and powerful United States came to the aid of the British, who have now become an official ally. In general, the reason for joy was more than enough.
Only a few dignitaries who owned the information received by British intelligence were not happy. At the end of 1941, the British learned that the Germans were developing their atomic research at a frantic pace. The ultimate goal of this process became clear - a nuclear bomb. English nuclear scientists were competent enough to imagine the threat of a new weapon.
At the same time, the British did not build illusions about their capabilities. All the resources of the country were aimed at elementary survival. Although the Germans and the Japanese were fed up with the war with the Russians and Americans, from time to time they found it possible to poke their fist at the dilapidated building of the British Empire. From each such butting rubbing construction was unsteady and creaked, threatening to collapse. Rommel's three divisions shackled almost the entire combat-worthy British army in North Africa. Admiral Doenitz's submarines, like predatory sharks, snooping around the Atlantic, threatened to interrupt the vital supply chain from overseas. Britain simply did not have the resources to enter the nuclear race with the Germans. The lag was so big, and in the very near future it threatened to become hopeless.
And then the British went the only way that promised at least some benefit. They decided to turn to the Americans, who had the necessary resources and could throw money right and left. The British were ready to share their achievements in order to speed up the process of creating a common atomic bomb.
I must say that the Americans were initially skeptical about such a gift. The military department didn’t understand why it was worth it to spend money on some unconvincing project. What is there still a new weapon? Here are carrier groups and armada of heavy bombers - yes, that is power. A nuclear bomb, which scientists themselves imagine very vaguely, is just an abstraction, grandmother's fairy tales. We had to British Prime Minister Winston Churchill directly contact the American President Franklin Delano Roosevelt with a request, literally begging, not to reject the English gift. Roosevelt summoned scholars, understood the matter, and gave the go-ahead.
Typically, the creators of the canonical legend about the American bomb use this episode to emphasize the wisdom of Roosevelt. Look, what an astute president! We will look at it with slightly different eyes: in what kind of a pen they were atomic research at the Yankees, if they so long and stubbornly refused to cooperate with the British! So, Gan was absolutely right in his assessment of the American nuclear industry - they did not represent anything solid.
It was only in September 1942 of the year that a decision was made to start work on the atomic bomb. The organizational period took some more time, and the real thing moved from a dead center only with the advent of the new, 1943 year. From the army, the work was led by General Leslie Groves (later he would write memoirs in which he would detail the official version of what was happening), the real leader was Professor Robert Oppenheimer. I will tell about it in detail a little later, but for now we will admire another curious detail - how the team of scientists who began work on the bomb was formed.
As a matter of fact, when Oppenheimer was offered to recruit specialists, his choice was extremely small. Good nuclear physicists in the States could be counted on the fingers of a crippled hand. Therefore, the professor made a wise decision - to recruit people whom he knows personally and whom he can trust, regardless of what field of physics they were engaged in before. So it turned out that the lion’s share of the seats was taken by the staff of Columbia University from Manhattan District (by the way, that’s why the project was named Manhattan). But these forces were not enough. British scientists had to be involved in the work, literally devastating British research centers, and even specialists from Canada. In general, the Manhattan project turned into a kind of Tower of Babel, with the only difference that all its participants spoke at least one language. However, this did not save from the usual in the scientific community welds and squabbles, arising from the rivalry of different scientific groups. Echoes of these tensions can be found on the pages of the Groves book, and they look very funny: the general, on the one hand, wants to convince the reader that everything was decorous and decent, and on the other - to boast how dexterously he managed to reconcile the quarreled scientific luminaries.
And now they are trying to convince us that in this friendly atmosphere of a large terrarium, the Americans managed to create an atomic bomb in two and a half years. But the Germans, who cheerfully and amicably pored over their nuclear project for five years, did not succeed. Miracles, and only.
However, even if there were no squabbles, such record periods would still be suspicious. The fact is that in the process of research it is necessary to go through certain stages, which are practically impossible to reduce. Americans themselves explain their success with gigantic financing - in the end, more than two billion dollars were spent on the Manhattan project! However, no matter how you feed a pregnant woman, she still will not be able to give birth to a full-term baby earlier than after nine months. The same is with the atomic project: it is impossible to accelerate, for example, the process of enriching uranium.
The Germans worked five years with full effort. Of course, they had mistakes and miscalculations, which took precious time. But who said that the Americans had no mistakes and miscalculations? There were, and a lot. One of these mistakes was the involvement of the famous physicist Niels Bohr.
Unknown operation Skorzeny
British intelligence agencies love to boast of one of their operations. It is about saving the great Danish scientist Niels Bohr from Nazi Germany.
The official legend says that after the start of the Second World War, the eminent physicist lived quietly and calmly in Denmark, leading a rather secluded way of life. The Nazis offered him cooperation many times, but Bor invariably refused. By 1943, the Germans still decided to arrest him. But warned in time, Niels Bohr managed to escape to Sweden, from where the British took him out to the heavy bomber's bomb bay. By the end of the year, the physicist was in America and began to work zealously for the benefit of the Manhattan project.
The legend is beautiful and romantic, only it is sewn with white threads and does not withstand any checks. There is no more credibility in it than in the tales of Charles Perrault. Firstly, because the Nazis look like complete idiots in it, and they have never been like that. Think hard! In 1940, the Germans occupy Denmark. They know that a Nobel laureate lives in the country, who can be of great help in working on the atomic bomb. That same atomic bomb, which is vital for the victory of Germany. And what do they do? For three years, they occasionally visit the scientist, knock politely on the door and quietly ask: “Herr Bohr, do you not want to work for the benefit of the Fuhrer and the Reich? You do not want? Well, okay, we'll come back later. ” No, this was not the style of work of the German special services! Logically, they were supposed to arrest Bora not in 1943, but in 1940 year. If it works out - to make (to force, not to beg!) To work for them, if not - at least, to make sure that he cannot work for the enemy: put him in a concentration camp or destroy him. And they leave him quietly walking around, under the noses of the British.
Three years later, legend says, the Germans finally come to the conclusion that they are supposed to arrest the scientist. But then someone (it was someone, because I did not find anywhere else an indication of who did it) warns Bohr about imminent danger. Who could it be? The Gestapo habits did not shout at every corner about upcoming arrests. People were taken quietly, unexpectedly, at night. So, the mysterious patron of Bohr is one of a fairly high-ranking officials.
For now let us leave this mysterious rescuing angel alone and continue to analyze the wanderings of Niels Bohr. So, the scientist fled to Sweden. What do you think, how? On a fishing boat, dodging the boats of the German coast guard in the fog? On a raft made of planks? No matter how wrong! Bor with the greatest possible comfort sailed to Sweden on the most ordinary private steamer, which officially entered the port of Copenhagen.
For now we will not puzzle over the question of how the Germans released the scientist, if they were going to arrest him. Think better about this. The flight of a world-famous physicist is a very serious emergency. On this occasion, inevitably, an investigation should have been conducted — the heads of those who had missed the physicist, as well as the mysterious patron, would have flown. However, no trace of such an investigation could be found. Maybe because he was not there.
Indeed, how much value did Niels Bohr have for developing an atomic bomb?
Born in 1885 and becoming a Nobel Prize winner in 1922, Bohr addressed the problems of nuclear physics only in the 30 years. At that time he was already a major, accomplished scholar with fully formed views. Such people rarely succeed in areas where innovative approach and innovative thinking is needed — namely, that area was nuclear physics. For several years, Bohr did not manage to make any significant contribution to atomic research. However, as the ancients said, the first half of life a person works in the name, the second - the name in person. In Niels Bohr, this second half has already begun. Being engaged in nuclear physics, he automatically began to be considered a major expert in this field, regardless of his real achievements. But in Germany, where such world-famous nuclear scientists as Gan and Heisenberg worked, the Danish scientist knew the real value. That is why he was not particularly actively trying to attract to work. It will work out - well, we can hear for the whole world that Nils Bohr himself works for us. It will not work - not bad either, it will not be confused with its authority.
By the way, in the United States Bor was pretty much confused under his feet. The fact is that the outstanding physicist did not believe at all in the possibility of creating a nuclear bomb. At the same time, his authority forced him to reckon with his opinion. If you believe the memories of Groves, the scientists who worked within the framework of the Manhattan project treated Bor as an elder. Now imagine that you are doing some difficult work without any confidence in the ultimate success. And here someone who you consider to be a great specialist comes up to you and says that you shouldn’t even spend time on your work. Is it easier to work? I do not think.
In addition, Bor was a staunch pacifist. In the year 1945, when the States already had an atomic bomb, he categorically protested against its use. Accordingly, his work was treated coolly. Therefore, I urge you to think again: what did Bohr bring in more — movement or stagnation in the development of the question?
A strange picture is taking shape, isn't it? It became a little clearer after I learned one interesting detail, which seemed to have nothing to do with either Niels Bohr or the atomic bomb. This is the "main saboteur of the Third Reich" Otto Skorzeny.
It is believed that Skorzeny’s elevation began after he released from prison the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini from 1943. Placed in a mountain prison by his former comrades-in-arms, Mussolini could not seem to hope for release. But Skorzeny on the direct instructions of Hitler has developed a daring plan: to land troops on gliders and then fly off on a small airplane. Everything turned out as well as possible: Mussolini at large, Skorzeny in honor.
At least that's what the majority thinks. Only a few well-informed historians know that cause and effect are confused here. Skorzeny was entrusted with an extremely difficult and responsible business precisely because Hitler trusted him. That is, the rise of the "king of special operations" began before the story of the rescue of Mussolini. However, very shortly - for a couple of months. Skorzeny was promoted to the rank and position precisely when Niels Bohr fled to England. The reasons for the increase I could not find anywhere else.
So, we have three facts. Firstly, the Germans did not prevent Niels Bohr from leaving for Britain. Secondly, Bohr brought the Americans more harm than good. Third, immediately after the scientist was in England, Skorzeny was promoted. And what if these are details of a single mosaic? I decided to try to reconstruct the events.
Having captured Denmark, the Germans were well aware that Niels Bohr was unlikely to assist in the creation of the atomic bomb. Moreover, it will be more likely to interfere. Therefore, he was left quietly to live in Denmark, under the very nose of the British. Maybe even then the Germans hoped that the British would kidnap the scientist. However, for three years, the British did not dare to do anything.
At the end of 1942, vague rumors about the start of a large-scale project to create an American atomic bomb began to reach the Germans. Even taking into account the secrecy of the project, it was absolutely impossible to keep an awl in the bag: the instantaneous disappearance of hundreds of scientists from different countries, one way or another connected with nuclear research, was to push any mentally normal person to similar conclusions. The Nazis were confident that they were far ahead of the Yankees (and this was true), but this did not stop the enemy from doing nasty things. And at the beginning of 1943, one of the most secret operations of the German special services is carried out.
On the threshold of the house of Niels Bohr, a well-wisher appears who informs him that they want to arrest him and throw him in a concentration camp, and offer his help. The scientist agrees - he has no other way out, to be behind barbed wire is not the best prospect. At the same time, the British, it seems, slip the linden about the complete indispensability and uniqueness of Bohr in the nuclear research case. The British peck - and what can they do if the prey itself goes into their hands, that is, in Sweden? And for complete heroism they take Bor out of there in the womb of the bomber, although they could comfortably send him on the ship.
And then the Nobel laureate appears at the epicenter of the Manhattan project, producing the effect of an exploding bomb. That is, if the Germans managed to bomb a research center at Los Alamos, the effect would be about the same. The work has slowed down, moreover, quite significantly. Apparently, the Americans did not immediately realize how they were cheated, and when they did, it was already too late.
And you still believe that the Yankees themselves designed the atomic bomb?
Personally, I finally refused to believe in these bikes after I had studied in detail the activities of the Alsos group. This operation of the American special services was kept secret for many years - until its main participants left for the best world. And only then came to the light information - however, fragmentary and scattered - about how the Americans were hunting for German atomic secrets.
True, if you thoroughly work on this information and compare it with some well-known facts, the picture turned out to be very convincing. But I will not get ahead. So, the group "Alsos" was formed in 1944 year, in anticipation of the landing of the Anglo-Americans in Normandy. Half of the members of the group are professional intelligence officers, half are nuclear scientists. At the same time, in order to form "Alsos", the Manhattan project was mercilessly robbed - in fact, the best specialists were taken from there. The mission of the mission was to collect information about the German nuclear program. The question is, how desperate the Americans were in the success of their undertaking, if they made the main bet on the theft of the atomic bomb from the Germans?
Desperate cool if you remember the little-known letter of one of the atomic scientists to his colleague. It was written 4 February 1944 of the year and read:
It seems we got involved in a bad job. The project is not moving forward one iota. Our leaders, in my opinion, do not believe in the success of the whole undertaking. Yes, and we do not believe. If it were not for the huge money that we pay here, I think many would have long been engaged in something more useful.
This letter was brought in due time as evidence of American talents: here, they say, what we have done, in a year and a little we have drawn out a hopeless project! Then in the USA they realized that not only fools live around, and they hurried to forget a piece of paper. With great difficulty I managed to dig up this document in an old scientific journal.
They did not spare money and effort to support the actions of the Alsos group. She was beautifully equipped with everything necessary. The head of the mission, Colonel Pash, had with him a document from US Secretary of Defense Henry Stimson, who obliged everyone to render all possible assistance to the group. Even Allied forces commander Dwight Eisenhower did not have such powers. By the way, about the commander in chief, he was obliged to take into account in the planning of military operations the interests of the Alsos mission, that is, to capture first of all those areas where there might be German atomic weapons.
In early August, 1944, or to be precise - on the 9, the Alsos group landed in Europe. Dr. Samuel Gaudsmith, one of the leading US nuclear scientists, was appointed scientific director of the mission. Before the war, he maintained close ties with German colleagues, and the Americans hoped that the "international solidarity" of scientists would be stronger than political interests.
The first results of “Alsos” was achieved after the fall of 1944, the Americans occupied Paris. Here Gaudsmith met with the famous French scientist Professor Joliot-Curie. Curie seemed genuinely pleased at the defeat of the Germans; however, as soon as it came to the German atomic program, he went into a deaf “unconscious”. The Frenchman insisted that he knew nothing, heard nothing, the Germans did not come close to the development of the atomic bomb, and in general their nuclear project was exclusively peaceful. It was clear that the professor was keeping something back. But there was no way to put pressure on him - for cooperation with the Germans in what was then France, they were shot regardless of scientific merit, and Curie was clearly most afraid of death. Therefore, Gaudsmith had to leave empty-handed. During his entire stay in Paris, vague, but threatening rumors constantly kept reaching him: there was an explosion of a “uranium bomb” in Leipzig, and strange flashes in the mountains in Bavaria were observed at night. Everything said that the Germans are not very close to the creation of atomic weapons, or they have already created them.
What happened next is still hidden by a veil of secrecy. They say that Pasha and Gaudsmith still managed to find some valuable information in Paris. At least since November, Eisenhower has constantly received demands to move forward, into Germany, at any cost. The initiators of these requirements - now it is clear! - ultimately, there were people associated with the atomic project who received information directly from the Alsos group. Eisenhower didn’t have a real opportunity to carry out the orders he received, but the demands from Washington were becoming more stringent. It is not known how this would have ended if the Germans had not made another unexpected move.
As a matter of fact, by the end of 1944, everyone believed that the war was lost to Germany. The only question is when the Nazis will be defeated. It seems that only Hitler and his inner circle adhered to another point of view. They sought to delay the last moment of the disaster.
This desire is completely understandable. Hitler was sure that after the war he would be declared a criminal and would be tried. And if you take time, you can achieve a quarrel between the Russians and the Americans and ultimately get away from the water, that is, out of the war. Not without a loss, of course, but without losing power.
Let's think: what was needed for this in a situation when Germany had all that remained? Naturally, spend them as economically as possible, keep flexible defense. And Hitler at the very end of the 44th throws his army into a very wasteful Ardennes offensive. What for? The troops are given completely unrealistic tasks - to break through to Amsterdam and throw Anglo-Americans into the sea. To Amsterdam Germanic tanks it was at that moment how to the moon on foot, especially since fuel splashed in their tanks less than half the way. Scare allies? But what could frighten well-fed and armed armies, behind which was the industrial power of the United States?
In general, so far no historian has been able to clearly explain why Hitler needed this offensive. Usually, everyone ends up arguing that the Fuhrer was an idiot. But in fact, Hitler was not an idiot, moreover, to the very end, he thought quite sensibly and realistically. Idiots can rather be called those historians who make hasty judgments without even trying to figure out something.
But look at the other side of the front. There are even more amazing things happening! And it’s not even the fact that the Germans managed to achieve the initial, albeit rather limited success. The fact is that the British and Americans were really scared! And the fright was completely inadequate to the threat. Indeed, from the very beginning it was clear that the Germans had little strength, that the offensive was local in nature ... But no, Eisenhower, Churchill, and Roosevelt just panic! In the 1945 year, 6 in January, when the Germans were already stopped and even thrown back, the British Prime Minister wrote a panicky letter to the Russian leader, Stalin, which requires immediate help. Here is the text of this letter:
Very heavy battles are going on in the West, and large decisions may be required from the High Command at any time. You yourself know from your own experience how disturbing the situation is when you have to defend a very wide front after a temporary loss of initiative. General Eisenhower is very desirable and necessary to know in general terms what you intend to do, as this, of course, will affect all his and our most important decisions. According to the message, our emissary is the chief marshal aviation Tedder was in Cairo last night, being weather bound. His trip was dragged out through no fault of yours. If he has not yet arrived at you, I will be grateful if you can tell me if we can count on a major Russian offensive on the Vistula front or elsewhere during January and at any other moments about which you may wish to mention. I will not pass on this highly confidential information to anyone except Field Marshal Brook and General Eisenhower, and only if it is kept in the strictest confidence. I consider the matter urgent.
If you translate from a diplomatic language into an ordinary one: save, Stalin, we will be beaten! This is another mystery. What "beat" if the Germans have already rejected the original lines? Yes, of course, the American offensive, scheduled for January, had to be postponed for spring. So what? We should be happy that the Nazis squandered their forces in senseless attacks!
And further. Churchill slept and saw how not to let the Russians into Germany. And now he literally implores them, without delay, to begin advancing westward! This is to what degree should Sir Winston Churchill have been frightened ?! It seems that the slowdown in the advance of the Allies deep into Germany was interpreted as a deadly threat. I wonder why? After all, Churchill was not a fool or an alarmist.
Nevertheless, the Anglo-Americans spend the next two months in terrible nervous tension. Subsequently, they will hide it carefully, but the truth will still break through to the surface in their memoirs. For example, Eisenhower, after the war, would call the last war winter "the most disturbing time." What was so disturbing to the marshal, if the war was actually won? It was only in March 1945 of the year that the Ruhr operation began, during which the Allies occupied West Germany, surrounding 300 thousands of Germans. The commander of the German troops in the area, Field Marshal Model shot himself (the only one of all German generals, by the way). Only after that did Churchill and Roosevelt more or less calmed down.
But back to the group "Alsos". In the spring of 1945, it became noticeably more active. In the course of the Ruhr operation, scientists and intelligence officers moved forward almost after the advance guard of the advancing troops, gathering a valuable harvest. In March-April, many scientists involved in German nuclear research fall into their hands. The decisive finding was made in mid-April - on the 12 number of the mission members write that they stumbled "on a real gold mine" and now they "will learn about the project mainly". By May, Heisenberg, Gan, Ozenberg, Dibner, and many other prominent German physicists were in the hands of Americans. Nevertheless, the Alsos group continued to actively search in the already defeated Germany ... until the end of May.
But at the end of May, something incomprehensible happens. Searches are almost interrupted. Rather, they continue, but with much less intensity. If earlier they were engaged in by world-famous scientists, now they have no trace lab technicians. And major scientists in a crowd pack things and depart for America. Why?
To answer this question, let's see how events have developed further. At the end of June, Americans are conducting atomic bomb tests - allegedly the first in the world. And in early August, they drop two on Japanese cities. After that, the finished atomic bombs at the Yankees end, and for quite a long time.
Strange situation, isn't it? To begin with, there is only a month between the tests and the combat use of the new super-weapon. Dear readers, this does not happen. To make an atomic bomb is much more difficult than an ordinary projectile or rocket. For a month it is simply impossible. Then, probably, the Americans did three prototypes at once? Also unlikely. Making a nuclear bomb is a very expensive procedure. There is no point in doing three, if you are not sure that you are doing everything right. Otherwise, it would be possible to create three nuclear projects, build three scientific centers, and so on. Even the United States is not so rich as to be so wasteful.
However, well, suppose that the Americans actually built three prototypes at once. Why did they not immediately after successful tests launch nuclear bombs into mass production? After all, immediately after the defeat of Germany, the Americans were faced with a much more powerful and formidable opponent — the Russians. The Russians, of course, did not threaten the United States with war, but they prevented the Americans from becoming masters of the entire planet. And this, from the point of view of the Yankees, is an absolutely unacceptable crime.
Nevertheless, the new atomic bombs in the States appeared ... What do you think when? Autumn 1945 th? In the summer of 1946? Not! Only in 1947, the first nuclear ammunition began to arrive in American arsenals! You will not find this date anywhere, but no one will undertake to refute it. The data that I managed to extract are completely secret. However, they are fully confirmed by facts known to us about the subsequent build-up of a nuclear arsenal. And most importantly - the results of tests in the deserts of Texas, which took place at the end of 1946 year.
Yes, dear reader, it was at the end of 1946, and not a month earlier. Data about this was obtained by Russian intelligence and came to me in a very difficult way, which probably does not make sense to disclose on these pages, so as not to substitute the people who helped me. On the eve of the new year, 1947, on the table, the Soviet leader Stalin laid down a very curious report, which I will bring here literally.
According to Agent Felix, a series of nuclear explosions took place in November-December this year in the El Paso, Texas region. At the same time, prototypes of nuclear bombs similar to those dropped on the Japanese islands last year were tested. Within a month and a half at least four bombs were tested, and the tests of three failed. This series of bombs was created in preparation for the large-scale industrial production of nuclear weapons. Most likely, the start of this release should be expected no earlier than the middle of 1947 of the year.
The Russian agent fully confirmed my data. But maybe all this is misinformation from the American special services? Hardly. In those years, the Yankees tried to convince their opponents that they were the strongest in the world, and would not diminish their military potential. Most likely, we are dealing with a carefully hidden truth.
What happens? In 1945, the Americans dropped three bombs - and everything went well. The following tests are the same bombs! - one and a half years later, and not too successfully. Serial production begins another six months later, and we don’t know, and never will know, how much the atomic bombs that appeared in the US military stores corresponded to their terrible purpose, that is, how high-quality they were.
Such a picture can be drawn only in one case, namely: if the first three atomic bombs - the very same forty-fifth year - were not built by the Americans themselves, but received from someone. Speaking directly - from the Germans. Indirectly, this hypothesis is confirmed by the reaction of German scientists to the bombing of Japanese cities, which we know from the book of David Irving.
“Poor Professor Gan!”
In August 1945, ten leading German nuclear physicists, the ten main actors of the Nazi atomic project, were held captive in the United States. Of them, they pulled out all possible information (I wonder why, if you believe the American version, that the Yankees were far ahead of the Germans in atomic research). Accordingly, scientists were kept in such a comfortable prison. It was in this prison and radio.
At six o'clock on August sixth, Otto Gahn and Karl Wirtz were at the radio. It was then in the next issue News they heard that the first atomic bomb was dropped on Japan. The first reaction of the colleagues to whom they brought this information was unequivocal: this cannot be true. Heisenberg believed that the Americans could not create their own nuclear weapons (and, as we know now, was right). “Did the Americans mention the word uranium in connection with their new bomb?” he asked Ghana. The latter answered in the negative. “Then it has nothing to do with the atom,” snapped Heisenberg. An outstanding physicist believed that the Yankees simply used some sort of high-explosive explosives.
However, the nine o'clock news release dispelled all doubts. Obviously, until that time, the Germans simply did not assume that the Americans managed to seize several German atomic bombs. However, now the situation has cleared up, and scientists have begun to torment the torments of conscience. Yes Yes exactly! Dr. Erich Bagge wrote in his diary:
Now this bomb was used against Japan. They report that even after a few hours, the bombed city is hidden by a cloud of smoke and dust. It is about the death of 300 thousands of people. Poor Professor Gan!
Moreover, that evening, scientists were very worried about how “poor Gan” would commit suicide. Two physicists were on duty at his bed till late to prevent him from laying hands on himself, and went into their rooms only after they found out that their colleague had finally fallen asleep to deep sleep. Gan himself subsequently described his impressions:
For a while I had the thought of having to dump all uranium reserves into the sea in order to avoid a similar catastrophe in the future. Although I felt personally responsible for what happened, I wondered if I, or anyone else, had the right to deprive humanity of all the fruits that a new discovery could bring? And now this terrible bomb worked!
I wonder if the Americans are telling the truth, and they themselves have really created the bomb that fell on Hiroshima, why should the Germans feel “personal responsibility” for what happened? Of course, each of them contributed to nuclear research, but on the same basis one could lay some of the blame on thousands of scientists, including Newton and Archimedes! After all, their discoveries ultimately led to the creation of nuclear weapons!
The mental anguish of German scientists gains meaning only in one case. Namely, if they themselves created the bomb that destroyed hundreds of thousands of Japanese. Otherwise, why should they worry about what the Americans did?
However, so far all my conclusions were nothing more than a hypothesis, confirmed only by circumstantial evidence. And what if I'm wrong and the Americans really managed the impossible? To answer this question, it was necessary to thoroughly study the German atomic program. And this is not as easy as it seems.