Currently, the main directions in the development of combined non-lethal funds for law enforcement agencies is the creation of many variants of combinations of various non-lethal factors.
The priority is given to the implementation of new approaches to the development of non-lethal kinetic agents, including the provision of a combined effect of the kinetic factor simultaneously with other non-lethal factors, since the combined effect of several factors allows you to multiply the total effect. Such combined non-lethal means include:
- pneumatically fired spheres filled with irritants, low-grants or marking substances, with a range of action not exceeding the 4 meter;
- special shots for grenade launchers of caliber 40 mm, as well as shots providing simultaneous exposure to light, sound and flying spherical elastic elements, for equipping of which it is possible to use various light-sound (noise) compositions causing temporary loss of human capability (with effective range to 100 meters);
- 40-mm shots to grenade launchers made of foamed rubber and containing tear-irritating irritants such as CS, CN or OC;
- shots of shock-irritating action, the thrown part of which is made in the form of a rubber ring with cavities for tear-irritating substances (after a shot and hit the target, the existing membrane collapses and an irritant cloud forms);
- thin-walled rubber bullets filled with irritant;
- Special grenades to the four-barreled mortar 66 mm, which are equipped with smoke-generating, irritating or noise-noise compounds, as well as spherical elements of non-penetrating kinetic action in the number of 450 pieces, the initial speed of which is 50 – 60 m / s, and the effective range reaches 10 meters ( grenades are fired simultaneously at a distance from 50 to 100 meters);
- stun guns that combine the kinetic action with the influence of an electric pulse. They are projectiles with an electrical conductor, fired from a gas throwing device, attached to the offender with the help of an adhesive substance and generating electrical impulses;
- water cannons (wearable or transportable), with the possibility of adding irritants to the stream of water, which should provide simultaneous kinetic and irritant effects.
The special means of non-lethal action, combining mechanical, chemical and electroshock effects, are used remotely operated networks that can be impregnated with an irritant or can generate electrical impulses.
To ensure simultaneous marking and irritation, non-lethal kinetic agents containing irritants add UV paint.
Combined tools with a deafening-blinding effect have also been created, the duration of exposure of which to an object is determined by the distance from the epicenter of the explosion: the effect of disorientation using such devices can last from several seconds to several minutes depending on the charge characteristics, and the maximum blinding time can reach 20 ... 30 seconds, and the maximum time for hearing loss is 4 – 6 hours. These light and sound distracting and psychophysiological tools used for carrying out operations to free hostages, law enforcement operations and to curb riots can be made in the form of cluster devices, grenades, shots and stationary installations.
The means of the combined light and sound action, approved for use by the units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, include:
- hand-held light-sounding grenades of the Russian-made type “Zarya” and “Torch”, some of which are intended for use only in open areas, and others - for use in confined spaces of vehicle salons or in confined spaces (the distance from the point of falling of the grenade to the nearest person must be at least 2,5 m), and the use of these grenades is prohibited in places where gas leakage is possible, explosives and flammable materials can be stored;
- 26-mm special shot of light and sound action, fired from a flare gun of the type SPN / SP-81;
- special devices like “Dwarf” and “Cloud” for shooting cassette elements of light-sound and combined (6 light-sound and 6 smoke cassette elements) actions at a distance of up to 90 m, and these devices are used only in open areas and are prohibited for use in places where gas leakage is possible; explosive and flammable substances and materials are stored;
- stationary operational-technical means of light-sound action "Flame", the initiation of which is performed using an electric igniter, and this product can be used only under the condition that the distance from the point of response to the nearest person is at least 2,5 meter.
Stationary grenade of light-sound impact "Flame"
The use of special means providing combined simultaneous or sequential exposure in special operations by law enforcement officers demonstrates their high efficiency in ousting criminals from the occupied territory, from buildings and other engineering objects and structures. When carrying out a number of counter-terrorist operations, these special means are used by internal troops along with military weapons. In these cases, they are used as an aid in creating favorable conditions for the use of conventional weapons.
Today, the most popular special means of combined exposure are light-sound manual and stationary grenades, as well as grenade-launcher shots, which combine several types of impact at once, including:
- light-sound and shock-shock;
- light-sound and marking;
- light-sound and annoying;
- shock-shock and marking;
- annoying and shock-shock.
The following special ammunition specimens are currently in service with the law enforcement agencies of the Russian Federation:
Manual light and sound grenades
Light and sound grenades are designed to temporarily suppress the psycho-legal stability of the offender by creating a sudden acoustic impact up to 172 dB (sound over 172 dB can cause hemorrhage, 190 dB and above — perforation of eardrums) and flash up to 60 million kJ. They are used when carrying out special operations to capture criminals, in suppressing riots, in an alarm system, etc. All grenades are fireproof and shatterproof. The safe distance when throwing - to 2 meters.
The manual splinter-free grenade of light-sound impact “Dawn” (with separate storage of the safety-trigger mechanism (PPM) and the grenade itself) is intended for the psycho-physiological impact on offenders during operations to free hostages, suppress riots. Shooting from the nozzle or hand throw is possible. Shatterproof grenades of light and sound exposure Zarya and Zarya-M have a plastic spherical body filled with pyrotechnic composition based on detonating mercury and magnesium powder. The body consists of upper and lower hemispheres. The upper hemisphere has an outer tube with a fused fuse, closed with a corrugated rubber cap for sealing. A rubber case with spikes is put on the lower hemisphere, reducing the likelihood of destruction of the grenade body when it strikes an obstacle. Case diameter without cover - 56 mm. The Zarya grenade with a diameter of 64 mm, has a height (in unloaded condition with screwed-on PPM) - 130 mm and weight - 0,17 kg. The sound pressure level at a distance of 10 meters - no more than 172 dB. Light intensity is at least 30 000 000 kJ. The deceleration time is 3 – 4 seconds. Safe removal when throwing - from 5 meters.
Hand-shatterproof grenade of light and sound exposure "Zarya-2"
The stationary grenade of light-sound impact “Flame” is a stationary version of the Zarya grenade and, instead of a grater igniter, has an electric igniter and an increased bursting charge. It is designed to temporarily suppress the psycho-war resistance of an armed criminal by light and sound effects. It can be used during special operations to seize armed criminals, to free hostages and to curb riots, and can also be used in the security alarm system of the perimeters of protected objects. It is installed in advance at the place where the offender is likely to appear and is remotely activated. A grenade consists of a body filled with light and sound and an igniter. A rubber case with spikes is put on the upper hemisphere. The lower hemisphere has a flat circular support. Undermining grenades carried by wire. When an electric current of at least 0,5 A is applied to the contacts of the igniter, the light-sound composition is instantaneously activated. The effective range is –15 meters. Flame grenade with a diameter of 75 mm, has a height - 84 mm and weight - 0,2 kg. The sound pressure level at a distance of 15 meters - no more than 170 dB. Light intensity is at least 60 000 000 kJ. Safe removal - from 5 meters.
U-517M type safety trigger mechanism (left), Torch multi-element light-impact hand grenade “Torch” (center) and Torch-Salon light-sound manual single-element light-impact grenade (right)
Hand-held grenade multi-element light and sound effect "Torch" is intended for the psycho-physiological impact on offenders during special operations to capture armed criminals, to release hostages and to curb riots. Handheld light and sound grenade “Torch” is a cassette grenade with aperiodic actuation of light and sound elements (6 – 9 pieces) ejected to a distance of up to 15 m. The six-element grenade has a folder-like cylindrical body with 6 cells for elements and a fuse (fuse-elemental element drawing element). M), similar to the UZRGM fuse, with a safety lever, a check with a ring and a distance tube.
Hand grenade multi-element light-impact exposure "Torch"
Grenade multi-element light-impact effect "Vzlet-M" is intended for psychological impact on the enemy (criminal) by emitting light-sound elements 4, which provides temporary suppression of psycho-acoustic stability by acoustic and light-sound effect and reduces its combat ability. Operational means distracting action "Match" is intended to temporarily suppress the psycho-volatile stability of an armed criminal by sound effect. It can be used during special operations to seize armed criminals, for the release of hostages. Sound pressure level - no more than 130 dB.
Multi-element grenade light-impact effect "Vzlet-M"
Combined action hand grenades
The manual splinterless grenade of the light and sound impact of the GSZ provides for the temporary suppression of the psycho-war resistance of an armed criminal by acoustic (sound) and light exposure to overwhelm him, which reduces his combat ability, contributes to temporary disabling, and makes it possible to perform special operations with minimal risk to personnel and others. The GSZ grenade has somewhat lower brightness and overpressure, but has a cylindrical shape, which allows you to roll a grenade across the floor of a room, unlike the Zarya light-sound grenade, whose spherical shape only allows an accurate throw at the target. Warhead and igniter unit grenades are made in a single package. Grenade case material - polyfoam. Grenade GSZ has:
- the case of increased strength of a cylindrical shape;
- sleeve with retarding and light-sound pyrotechnic compositions;
- the igniter is of the fume-exhaust type;
- handle with lanyard.
Handheld shatterproof grenade light-impact effects GSZ
To use the GSS grenade, you must hold the grenade by the body, turn and detach the handle, then abruptly pull the cord and throw (roll) the grenade into the target. When pulling out the cord, the capsule and retarding compositions are ignited, and after 3 – 4 seconds, the light-sound composition with a bright flash and a sharp sound is triggered. When triggered by the pressure of the resulting gases, the sleeve is knocked out without destroying the case. Grenade GSS with a diameter of 63 mm has a height - 156 mm and weight - 0,135 kg. The sound pressure level at a distance of 10 meters - no more than 155 dB. Light intensity is at least 20 000 000 kJ. Slowdown time - 4 seconds. Burning time - no more than 0,05 seconds. Effective radius of action - 10 meters.
Hand-held shatterproof grenades of the light-sound impact of the GSZ-T, GSZ-TSH are designed to provide psychophysiological (distracting and stunning) and mechanical immobilizing effects on offenders with a strong light flash, a sound pulse (GSZ-T) and non-damaging mechanical impact with rubber shrapnel (GSZ-TSH). in order to temporarily disable them. The number of throwing shrapnel elements - 44 pieces. Grenades GSZ-T, GSZ-TSH with a diameter of 55 mm, have a height - 156 mm and weight - 0,56 kg. Sound pressure level at a distance of 10 m - no more than 130 dB. Light intensity is at least 20 000 000 kJ. Slowdown time - 4 seconds. Burning time - no more than 0,05 seconds. Effective radius of action - 10 meters.
The hand-free shatterproof grenade of the light and sound effect “View” is intended to influence the offender through distracting and stunning light and sound effects and not damaging the mechanical impact by rubber grape-shot. The number of throwing shrapnel elements - 75 pieces. The diameter of the ball - 7,5 mm. Throwing rubber ratchet is carried out by light and sound charge.
Hand-shatterproof grenade of light and sound exposure "View"
The manual injection grenade “Injection-P” is designed to provide psychophysical effects on offenders or the enemy's living force during special operations or in suppressing riots and to temporarily disable them by instantly spraying a special tear-irritating effect in the air of a closed room. Grenade "Injection-P" is equipped with chloroacetophenone (CN) active substance and has a plastic cylindrical body with a diameter of 66 mm with a height of 137 mm and a mass of 0,135 g. The warhead of a grenade is driven by a regular remote-action fuse. The deceleration time is 3,3 – 4,3 seconds. The mass of special powder is 0,222 kg. The volume of a cloud with an unbearable concentration of an irritant substance in a grenade "Injection-P" is no more than 250 cube. The light-impact grenade "Injection-P" can be used at temperatures from –30 С ° to + 50 С °.
Instant smoke grenade (GRD) is designed to instantly create an unseen smoke screen in order to limit the visibility of objects in enclosed areas and in open terrain by forming a masking smoke cloud to protect against enemy aimed fire during assault and anti-terrorist operations in cities and towns. . The GRD grenade has a plastic cylindrical body with a diameter of 66 mm with a height of 137 mm and a mass of 0,135 g. The warhead of a grenade is driven by a regular distant-action fuse. The mass of special powder is 0,222 kg. Effective smoke volume no more than 250 cube. meters The range of visibility of the object in the effective amount of smoke - no more than 1 m. The formation of a smoke cloud - no more than 1 seconds. GRD light-acoustic grenades can be used at temperatures from –30 С ° to + 50 С °.
Instant smoke grenade (GRD)
The hand-held grenade of the combined light-sound and irritating action "Bustard" is intended to exert a psychophysical impact on the offenders or the living force of the enemy during special operations or in suppressing riots. With the explosion of this grenade, the light and sound charge has a deafening and chilling effect on the offenders or the adversary's living power, preventing it from taking countermeasures when the gas and smoke jet has expired. The light and sound charge of a grenade in an open area provides the power of light 20 000 000 kJ and the sound pressure level of at least 120 dB at a distance 5 meters from the point of incidence of the grenade. The grenade, when triggered, creates an irritating aerosol cloud with a volume of at least 50 cubic meters, and the gas release time does not exceed 10 seconds.
The 40-mm grenade launcher with a Nagar smoke grenade is designed for remote staging of a quick-built masking smoke screen in order to improve the conditions for anti-terrorist operations, cover the operational advancement teams, “blinded” snipers, etc. It has a psychological effect on the enemy, as the curtain in the form of a white cloud arises very quickly and in an unusual way. Shoots from 40-mm under-gun grenade launchers GP-25 “Koster” and GP-30 “Obuvka” installed on AKM and AK-74 Kalashnikov machine guns, as well as from 40-mm hand-held grenade launchers of РГ-6 type (6 Г-30). The 40-mm shot with the Nagar smoke grenade has a length of - 150 mm and a mass of grenades - 0,25 kg. The range of the air curtain is from 50 to 200 meters. Smoke generation time is - 1 – 2 seconds. Masking cloud capacity - 1 000 cube. meters The initial speed of the grenade is 76 m / s. The grenade “Nagar” can be used at temperatures from –30 С ° to + 50 С °.
The 40-mm grenade launcher with a light-sounding grenade, GSZ-40, is intended for the psychophysiological impact on the offender for the purpose of temporarily putting him out of action when firing at a distance of up to 400 m. Obuv installed on Kalashnikov AKM and AK-40 rifles, as well as from 25-mm hand-held grenade launchers of the type РГ-30 (74 Г-40). Grenade GSZ-6 has the following features:
- absence of damaging elements when triggered;
- highly sensitive contact mechanical instant fuse.
The 40-mm shot with the GZG-40 grenade has a length of - 107 mm and a mass of grenades - 0,25 kg. The sound pressure level at a distance of 10 meters - no more than 135 dB. Light intensity is at least 20 000 000 kJ. The initial speed of the grenade is 76 m / s. The GSZ-40 shot can be used at temperatures from –30 С ° to + 50 С °.
The 40-mm grenade launcher with the acoustic light-sound grenade of the SSS-40 “Pipe” is intended for the temporary suppression of the psycho-wolf stability of armed criminals or enemy manpower through non-lethal acoustic and light exposure. Shoots from 40-mm under-gun grenade launchers GP-25 “Koster” and GP-30 “Obuvka” installed on AKM and AK-74 Kalashnikov machine guns, as well as from 40-mm hand-held grenade launchers of РГ-6 type (6 Г-30). 40-mm shot with a grenade АЗЗ-40 has a length - 180 mm and a mass of grenades - 0,38 kg. The operating time of the acoustic pyroelement is at least 3 seconds. The range of operation - at least 100 meters. The light intensity when the light-sound element is triggered is at least 50 000 000 kJ. The shot of АЗЗ-40 can be used at temperatures from –30 С ° to + 50 С °.
40-mm grenade launcher with acoustic acoustic-grenade ASZ-40 "Pipe"
40-mm grenade shot cassette element VKE-40 is designed to temporarily neutralize offenders. The VKE-40 shot is used to create light and sound pulses and an aerosol cloud of an irritating substance in order to effectively psychophysically influence the offenders or the enemy's manpower during special operations, as well as in suppressing riots. VKE-40 shot has a cylindrical body. Shoots from 40-mm under-gun grenade launchers GP-25 “Koster” and GP-30 “Obuvka” installed on AKM and AK-74 Kalashnikov machine guns, as well as from 40-mm hand-held grenade launchers of РГ-6 type (6 Г-30). 40-mm shot with a grenade VKE-40 has a length - 170 mm and a mass of grenades - 0,17 kg. The number of cassette elements in the shot - 6 pieces, of which - 3 cassette light-sound element and 3 cassette element with an irritating substance. Area of effective exposure - 100 square. meters The luminous intensity of the light-sound elements is at least 20 000 000 kJ. The sound pressure level when the light-sound elements are activated at a distance of 10 meters from the response point is at least 135 dB. The formation of an aerosol cloud is no more than 3 seconds. The radius of the initial aerosol cloud is at least 0,7 meters. The shot of АЗЗ-40 can be used at temperatures from –30 С ° to + 50 С °.
The combined-action signal mine MSC-40 is intended for mining the area around the outer perimeter of the protected area and notifying the guard of the appearance of an intruder at the mine site, as well as temporarily suppressing the psycho-legal stability of offenders when overcoming local-area barriers. Mass of mine MSK-40 – 0,3 kg. The operating time of the lighting element is 3 seconds. The running time of the signal element is 3 seconds. Mine time - 25 seconds. Maximum light intensity - 20 000 000 kJ. Sound pressure level - at least 140 dB. Operation altitude - up to 30 meters.
The MSS-50 light and sound multiple-exposure signal mine is designed to mine the terrain around the outer perimeter of the protected area and notify the guard that an intruder has appeared at the mine site, as well as to temporarily neutralize offenders when a grenade is fired by suppressing the psychological and psychological stability of criminals while overcoming local zone barriers. Mass mines MSZ-50 – 0,3 kg. The number of emitted light-sound elements - 5 pieces. Maximum light intensity - 40 000 000 kJ. Sound pressure level - at least 160 dB. Operation altitude - up to 4 meters.