Military Review

Floating batteries "Do not touch me!" And "Marat"

44



During the Great Patriotic War, the USSR Navy consisted of thousands of the most diverse ships — battleships, cruisers, destroyers, boats, submarines, and numerous auxiliary vessels. However, today we decided to talk about the most, perhaps, unusual warships that were part of the Soviet fleet - floating batteries "Do not touch me!" and Marat.

"Kings of the seas" for the Soviet fleet

During the first half of the twentieth century. "Dreadnoughts" were a symbol of the power of the leading fleets of the world. Each major naval power built for its navy the most powerful ships with strong armament and the most perfect protection. It was not for nothing that such ships were called "kings of the seas", because they could protect the interests of the country only by their existence. In the middle of 30's. a new race of naval armaments began in the world and the USSR did not stand aside. In our country at the end of 30's. began large-scale construction of a huge navy, called the “great sea and ocean”, but its construction ceased in June 1941.

The basis of the power of the Soviet fleet was to be made up by huge superlinkors, which were superior in their combat capabilities to ships of foreign fleets. In the USSR, two projects were created in parallel - type “A” (project 23, displacement 35000 t with 406-mm artillery) and “B” (project 25, displacement 26000 t with 305-mm artillery). It was planned to build 20 battleships: four large and four small for the Pacific Fleet, two large for the Northern Fleet, four small battleships for the Black Sea Fleet, six more small battleships were supposed to replenish the composition of the Baltic Fleet. The process of creating large ships was controlled personally by I.V. Stalin. The development took into account advanced foreign experience, primarily Italian, German and American. In 1937, project “B” was recognized as “sabotage” and the Soviet shipbuilding industry concentrated on preparing for the serial construction of 23 project battleships. It was supposed to be a modern warship - the total displacement exceeded 67000 t, its greatest length was 269,4 m, the greatest width was 38,9 m, the draft was 10,5 m, the power of the power plant was more than 231000 hp, the cruising speed was about 29 knots, the cruising range 7000 miles (with 14,5 knots. In terms of armament (9X406-mm, 12x152-mm, 12x100-mm guns and 32x37-mm anti-aircraft gun) he outperformed all his colleagues, with the exception of the American Montana and the Japanese Yamato. The battleship had a powerful reservation and mine protection system. His crew were 1784 sailor. Before the start of the war, four battleships were laid: “Soviet Union” in Leningrad (plant number XXUMX), Soviet Ukraine in Nikolaev (plant number XXUMX), construction of Soviet Russia and Soviet Belorussia began in Molotovsk (plant No. XXUMX) ". But not one of them was commissioned ...

Creating a floating battery №3

In the exposition of the Museum of the Black Sea Fleet in Sevastopol, the whole hall is devoted to the heroic 250-day defense of the city against the German troops in 1941-1942. The sailors of the Black Sea Fleet and the inhabitants of the city made many feats defending the Sevastopol frontiers. Museum visitors are told about them numerous exhibits, photographs and wartime relics. There is among them a small photograph, which speaks little to ordinary visitors. It is signed as follows - Lieutenant-Captain S.A. Moshensky, commander of the floating battery No. XXUMX. What he became famous for is that the floating battery number 3, which feats her crew performed was not specified. Unfortunately, there is no more information about this ship in the museum exposition.

As already noted, at the end of 30's. At the shipyards of the USSR, large-scale construction of battleships of the “Soviet Union” type was launched. This was preceded by colossal research and development work carried out by Soviet designers and engineers. They paid special attention to the development of weapons and ship protection systems. Many experiments were conducted on the Black Sea to determine the optimal PMZ system (mine protection - according to the terminology of the time). At the first stage, 24 explosions of large-scale compartments (on the scale of 1: 5) were carried out with a PMZ of seven different types. According to the results of the experiments, it was concluded that the Italian and American protection systems are the most effective. In 1938, in Sevastopol, the second stage of experiments took place. As before, they were produced on large-scale compartments, 27 explosions were carried out. But this time for the experiments a huge full-scale compartment was built, on which the construction of the PMZ system of the 23 battleship was fully reproduced. It was rectangular in shape, its dimensions were impressive - the length of 50 m, width of 30 m, depth of the board 15 m. According to the results of these experiments, the commission determined that the maximum explosion power for the PMZ was 750 kg. After the end of the tests, the experimental compartment was used as a target for shooting practice, and then it was laid up in one of the Sevastopol bays.

That was how the Soviet Union battleship should look like. Figure A. Zaikin


After the beginning of the war, the compartment became interested in the captain 2 of the rank of GA. Butakov. He proposed the command of the Black Sea Fleet to use it to create a floating artillery battery. According to his plan, the “square” was planned to be armed and set at anchor in the region of the Belbek valley a few miles from Sevastopol. He was supposed to strengthen the air defense of the main base of the fleet and secure the approaches to it from the sea. According to intelligence data, a German landing party was expected to land in the Crimea, and the floating battery should have prevented this. Commander BSF F.S. October supported report G.A. Butakova, Commissar of the Navy N.G. Kuznetsov endorsed this idea. In July, 1941 on the "square" (as the compartment was called in the documents), work began on installing general ship systems and installing weapons. The project was led by engineer L.I. Ivitsky. Inside equipped living spaces, galley, radio room, warehouses and cellars. On the deck of the former compartment, they installed a conning tower, range finders and two searchlights. From the arsenal, 2x130-mm guns were delivered, which were supplied with “diving” projectiles designed to combat submarines. They were supplemented with 4x76,2-mm anti-aircraft guns, 3x37-mm anti-aircraft guns, 3x12,7-mm anti-aircraft guns. The crew of floating batteries were 130 people, 50 of them were called up from the reserve, the rest were recruited from all ships of the Black Sea Fleet. The workers attached a davit to the board of the “square”, but there were no boats. But the workers found in the warehouses of the plant a huge Admiralty anchor and transferred it to the battery. Old-timers claimed that he was from the battleship "Empress Maria." 3 August 1941. A naval flag was hoisted on a separate floating battery No.3. By the order of the Commander of the Black Sea Fleet from 4 of August she was incorporated into the Guard of the Water District of the Main Base. The crew of floating battery headed by Senior Lieutenant S.Ya. Moshensky began to serve.

Battle Path "Do not touch me!"

On August 9, the tugboats transferred the floating battery to Belbeks Bay. From the threat of attacks from the sea, it was fenced off with several rows of anti-submarine networks, from the coast it was covered with coastal batteries. The anchor of the "Empress Maria" firmly held the "square" in place. On the ship immediately began numerous shooting exercises, crew training to fight for survivability and various exercises. In the summer of 1941, the Luftwaffe raids on Sevastopol were infrequent. Basically, the German aircraft engaged in the exploration of military facilities and the production of magnetic mines. Only occasionally bombed ships in the port. Several times the floating battery was attacked by German aircraft, but their attacks were successfully reflected. The batteries covered the ships that entered Sevastopol with fire. The situation radically changed at the end of October 1941 after the Wehrmacht broke through to the Crimea. German troops began to storm the Sevastopol. Started 250-day defense of the city. The Germans captured all the Crimean airfields and now the flight time of their bombers to Sevastopol was just 10-15 minutes. The raids on the city and the port have become daily. The main forces of the fleet went to the Caucasus. At the end of October, two 130-mm guns, which were urgently needed for the land front, were dismantled from the “square”. Also removed the entire ammunition "stotridtsatok", except for "diving" shells, and calculations of guns. As a result, the crew of the ship was reduced to 111 people.

“Don't touch me!” Battling with German planes. Fig. A. Lubyanova


In early November, there were severe storms on the Black Sea. Their strength was such that a huge anchor could not hold the floating battery in place. The waves began to bring it closer to the shore, which was now occupied by German troops. It was decided to change the parking area of ​​the "square". On November 11, tugboats transferred the floating battery to Cossack Bay and drowned it in the shallows, now she was not afraid of storms. A new combat mission that the command set for the crew was the defense of a military airfield at Cape Khersones. He remained the last Soviet airfield in the Crimea. All was based on his field aviation Sevastopol defense region. The raids on the Chersonesus airfield became more frequent. On the afternoon of November 29, 1941, anti-aircraft gunners of the floating battery managed to win their first victory. They shot down a Bf-109. On December 17, the Germans launched a new assault on Sevastopol. Throughout the day, the batteries had to repel air raids. In this case, the Ju-88 was shot down. From that day on, the anti-aircraft gunner’s combat score began to grow - when defending the airfield, they shot down 22 German aircraft. The winter assault was successfully repelled, but raids on the city continued. The Germans did not forget about the airfield. They tried to interfere with the actions of Soviet aviation, and the stories of our pilots constantly mentioned the help of the floating battery: "The floating battery put the curtain ..." Do not touch me! " cut off the German ... ". On January 14, 1942, anti-aircraft gunners shot down another Ju-88; on March 3, non-111.19 on March XNUMX, writer Leonid Sobolev visited batteries. He spent the whole day on the “square”, talked with the commander and crew. He wrote about this in the essay “Do not touch me!”. In March, the battery commander, Senior Lieutenant S. Ya, Moshensky was awarded the Order of the Red Banner, he became a lieutenant commander, and other crew members received awards for the downed planes.

In May 1942, the raids on the city intensified, the Germans began preparations for a new assault and sought to neutralize the Soviet pilots. In this, they were hampered by the accurate fire of the floating batteries No. XXUMX, which the Black Sea sailors began to call “Don't touch me!”. 3 May anti-aircraft gunners managed to shoot down two Me-27 at once.

Floating battery №3 "Do not touch me!" In Cossack Bay, spring 1942 g. The picture was taken from a Soviet aircraft


Commander of the floating battery №3 captain-lieutenant S.Ya. Moshensky


The Germans launched a new assault on the city and concentrated a large number of aircraft on the Crimean airfields. They had multiple superiority in aviation, but the Soviet aviators were able to strike at the enemy and this was due to the merit of the floating battery crew. On June 9, three Ju-88 replenished his combat score, June Jun-BN-12 Ju-109,13 88. The battery interfered with the actions of enemy aviation and the German command decided to do away with it. 14 June "square" attacked 23 Ju-87, 76 bombs were dropped, but they failed to achieve direct hits. From close breaks of the aerial bombs, the searchlight failed, fragments cut off the davit, three sailors were injured. Reflecting this raid, the sailors shot down two Ju-87. In the afternoon, the attacks continued; the German battery opened fire on the "square". New raids followed. By this time, the defenders of Sevastopol experienced great difficulties due to lack of ammunition. In the period between the assaults, the CPM command was unable to create sufficient stocks of ammunition in the warehouses and now the shells had to be saved. From the mainland, ammunition was now delivered on ships, but they were still sorely lacking. The Germans created huge stocks of ammunition, shells and cartridges, they did not spare. Their aircraft dominated the sky of Sevastopol. 19 June on "Do not touch me!" Was made another raid. It was the 450 th attack of German aviation on the battery, the crew of which was now at the guns day and night. Her fate was solved due to the lack of ammunition for guns. German pilots managed to break through to the battery. In 20.20, one of the bombs hit the port side of the "square", the second one exploded right at the side. The force of the explosion swept away all life on deck. Calculations of anti-aircraft guns and machine guns turned out to be killed and wounded, a fire started in the stern cellar, the fire was approaching the “diving” projectiles, but it was succeeded in extinguishing it. The commander of the battery and 28 crew members died. 27 sailors were injured, the boats immediately delivered them to the shore. By evening, the crew managed to put into operation an 37-mm machine gun and two DShK machine guns, but there was no ammunition for them on the ship. 27 June 1942. The floating battery crew was disbanded. The sailors were sent to fight in land positions, the wounded were taken to the mainland ships of the Black Sea Fleet, rushing into Sevastopol. After the fall of the city, German soldiers examined with interest the huge “Do not touch me!” Hull, standing in the shallows off the shore of the Cossack Bay.

The hull of the floating battery in the shallows in Cossack Bay, July 1942


The battleship Marat from the Leningrad Sea Canal fires German troops, September 16, 1941. I. Dementieva


A few words must be said about the commander of the floating battery "Do not touch me!" Captain-Lieutenant Sergey Yakovlevich Moshensky. He was born in Zaporozhye. He worked at the factory as an electrician, he graduated from the work school. In 1936, he was called to serve in the navy. Komsomol members with completed secondary education were sent to biennial courses for commanders. Upon their completion, he was promoted to lieutenant and was sent to serve as commander of the first GK tower on the battleship Paris Commune. Before the war, S.Ya. Moshensky graduated from Leningrad one-year advanced training courses for naval commanders in the specialty of the commander of an air defense battery. He was married, the family was waiting for the first child. After the start of the war, the pregnant spouse was evacuated from Sevastopol. Ten months commanded by S.Ya. A fraud floating battery, every day he risked his life for the freedom of the motherland. He died on it, never seeing his daughter, who was born in the evacuation. He was buried in Kamyshovaya Bay, but the exact burial place, unfortunately, is unknown.

History battleship "Marat" After Tsushima in our country began the revival of the Navy. The most powerful ships of the Russian Imperial fleet were four battleships of the type “Sevastopol” - “Gangut”, “Poltava”, “Sevastopol” and “Petropavlovsk”. The Bolsheviks managed to preserve three of them, it was they who formed the basis of the power of the resurgent worker-peasant fleet. By the beginning of the war, the Marat and the October Revolution in the Baltic and the Paris Commune on the Black Sea were part of the Soviet Navy. Another battleship, Frunze (former Poltava), was never rebuilt after a small fire in 1919. The Navy’s leadership repeatedly suggested restoring it as a battleship, battlecruiser, monitor, floating battery and even an aircraft carrier. In 20-s. Dozens of similar projects were developed, but none of them, unfortunately, have been implemented. Mechanisms with "Frunze" were used as spare parts for the repair of the remaining battleships. Petropavlovsk in March 1921 was renamed Marat. In 1928-1931 he went through upgrades. The battleship was the flagship of the MSBM. His biography was not without his state of emergency - 7 August 1933 due to a protracted shot a fire occurred in the Ns2 tower, 68 seamen died. 25 July 1935 g. "Marat" rammed the submarine "B-3" on the exercises. The most notable event in his peaceful life was a visit to England in May 1937. The battleship took part in a naval parade on the Spithead raid in honor of the coronation of King George V. Soviet sailors proved themselves from this show from the best side. Both battleships were part of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet squadron. The ship took part in the Soviet-Finnish war 1939-1940. He fired at the Finnish coastal batteries. In May, the 1941 was mounted on the battleship in the winding of the Physics and Technology Institute - the Marat became the first Soviet ship to receive protection from magnetic mines. Captain 2 of rank PK commanded them. Ivanov.

The explosion of "Marat" in Kronstadt 23 September 1941 g. A column of smoke rose to a height of about a kilometer. The picture was taken from a German aircraft.


"Marat", standing at the Ust-Slingshot pier at the end of September 1941. A frame of German aerial photography. The arrow shows the location of the explosion. A rescue vessel stands at the side, fuel oil still flows out of damaged tanks.


The beginning of the war the ship met in Kronstadt. On that day, the anti-aircraft gunners opened fire on a reconnaissance aircraft. Over the summer and autumn, the 653 sailor from the “Marat” left to fight the marines. In the summer of 1941, the German offensive developed rapidly, and already on September 9, a battleship located in the Leningrad sea channel, began to fire at German units that were on the nearest approaches to Leningrad. Every day, the sailors of the Marat helped the soldiers of the 8 and 42 armies to defend their positions. With their fire, they restrained the enemy and did not allow Wehrmacht units to launch an assault on the “cradle of the revolution”. During these days, the battleship released an 953 305-mm projectile. It was the fire of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet that prevented the enemy from successfully completing the offensive and seizing the city. The German command issued an order to destroy the battleship, which is frustrating with its shelling plans for an offensive. Aviation and artillery were used against him. September 16 1941. Marat received ten 150-mm shells and four direct hits of 250-kg bombs. 24 killed, 54 wounded sailor. A number of auxiliary mechanisms were damaged on the battleship, the fourth GK tower was damaged, the stern group 76-mm anti-aircraft guns and the nasal battery 37-mm anti-aircraft guns ceased to operate. These hits significantly weakened the capabilities of the ship’s air defense and played a fatal role in the history of Marat.

The battleship was sent for repairs to Kronstadt, and on September 18 it began to berth Ust-Rogatka. He did not stop firing at the enemy, 89 305-mm projectiles were fired. German aircraft continued to follow the ship, a new plan was developed to destroy the battleship. The 1000-kg PC-1000 armor-piercing bombs were delivered to the airfield in Tirkovo from Germany. The Soviet command had no reserves for strengthening the air defense base, since everything was thrown on the defense of Leningrad. Here's how the situation was described by one of the sailors: “The enemy flies cheekily, and we only have anti-aircraft guns, and it doesn’t matter if they shoot. A total of six fighters. No more. All naval aviation works in the interests of the front near Leningrad. ” Now the main target of the Luftwaffe attacks are ships in Kronstadt. The 21, 22 and 23 of September on Kronstadt were held a series of massed raids. The anti-aircraft gunners of the battleship Marat and the few Kronstadt air defense forces could not repel the simultaneous attack of several Ju-87 groups. In 11.44 23 September, the battleship attacked the "pieces." The first 1000-kg bomb fell near the left side of the battleship. A huge ship got roll to starboard. At that moment, an 1000-kg armor-piercing bomb hit the nose of the Marat. She pierced the armor, exploded inside the ship and caused the detonation of the ammunition of the first GK tower. There was a huge explosion. The flame absorbed the superstructure of the battleship, it was torn off from the hull and thrown to the pier. The explosive fragments scattered throughout the Middle Harbor of Kronstadt. A pillar of smoke enveloped the Ust-Slingshot wharf, he climbed up to vystota about a kilometer. Killed 326 sailors, incl. commander and commissioner of the ship. The case of "Marat" sat on the ground harbor. He was severely destroyed and ceased to exist as a warship. This is how one of the eyewitnesses described this catastrophe: it crashes into the water and crashes into the water ... Just below the mast, the gun turret also slowly rose, its three 12-inch guns break off and fly into the water too. The bay seems to be boiling from the mass of red-hot steel thrown into it ... ”.

After the explosion, the nose of the Marat looked like that from the top of the second smoke. pipes. In the foreground is the roof of the second tower. The trunks of the guns of the first turret of the main caliber, lying on the remnants of the nose, are clearly visible.


Floating battery "Petropavlovsk" in Kronstadt, 1943 g. Its body for camouflage is painted under brevvater. Additional 37-mm anti-aircraft guns mounted aft and lined with cotton bales are clearly visible.


Concrete slabs removed from the Kronstadt embankments were laid on the deck of "Petropavlovsk" as an additional protection against the fire of German large-caliber batteries.


Combat path of floating battery "Marat"

Immediately after the explosion at the “Marat”, the crew began a struggle for survivability, the “Maratovs” managed to prevent the flooding of the rest of the ship’s compartments. They came to the aid of sailors from other ships. The explosion interrupted the body of the battleship in the area of ​​45-57 frames, the body got about 10000 tons of water, the surface part of the body in the area of ​​the superstructure was destroyed, the bow tower of the Civil Code, the foremast with chopper, superstructure and the first chimney ceased to exist. Many ship life support systems are out of order. The body of the battleship lay on the ground, but because of the shallow depths in the harbor it did not sink, the board continued to protrude from the water on the 3 m. The Marat seamen managed to land the ship on an even keel and soon began work to restore its combat capability. They were assisted by rescue ships "Signal" and "Meteorit", EPRON divers. Here's how the situation on the ship was described by one of the sailors: “When I went up to the battleship, the deck was already tidied up, everything was lying and standing in its place. And only going up to the second tower, I found myself on the edge of the abyss - the deck was cut off here ... There was simply no other ship. I was standing over a vertical wall. It seemed that you see the ship in the cut. And ahead is the sea ... ”.

The third and fourth towers of the Civil Code were not damaged during the explosion, the second tower of the Civil Code was in need of repair. It was decided to use the ship as a non-propelled floating battery. For this, it was necessary to raise the hull from the bottom of the harbor and restore the artillery boospobennost. The new captain of the ship became the captain of the 3 rank VP Vasiliev, the crew consisted of 357 people. 120-mm guns were removed from it, three batteries were formed and delivered to the land front. October 31 the third and fourth towers opened fire on German positions. The Germans fired on a ship that came to life with large-caliber artillery. They fired aimed fire at a fixed target. To protect the floating battery from being hit on the deck, granite slabs 32-45 cm thick were laid, and armored slabs were placed in the boiler room area. December 12 held the first exchange of fire with the enemy. By ship the German battery from the village of Carefree was released 30 280-mm shells. Three shells hit the floating battery, after which the German battery was crushed by Marat fire. 28 December 1941. The floating battery re-launched an artillery duel with an 280-mm railway artillery battery located at New Peterhof station. According to the "Marat" 52 projectile fired, four of them hit the ship. He received significant damage, but did not stop the fire and put down the battery. A German projectile sank the Aquarius auxiliary vessel standing at the side, providing heating for the floating battery. By 1 January 1942, the number of crew "Marat" has increased to 507 people. In January, the 1942 of the floating battery was fired eight times, 85 shells of 150-203-mm caliber were fired at it, but there were no hits. Aft Zx37-mm anti-aircraft guns on land installations were installed. To protect them from splinters, they were fenced with cotton bags. Later, several more anti-aircraft guns were installed on the ship. October 25 floating battery held another artillery duel with a German battery. According to the "Marat" 78 280-mm shells were fired, four of them hit the deck of the ship, but did not cause significant damage. Additional “booking” helped. Throughout the winter, spring and summer of 1942, work continued to restore the combat capability of the second tower. October 30 successfully passed its tests and it was commissioned. On this day, she fired 17 shells on German positions. On November 6, 29 280-mm projectiles were fired on the ship, only one hit the ship. The boiler was disabled, a number of mechanisms were damaged, two sailors were killed, six were wounded. Another artillery duel took place on December 30 1942.

Part of the foremast of the battleship, thrown away from the ship by an explosion force of several tens of meters. She was raised and placed on the wall of the Kronstadt harbor.


The floating battery "Petropavlovsk" at the berth Ust-Rogatka, 1943 G. The frame of the German aerial photography


31 May 1943. Marat was returned its original name Petropavlovsk. 2 December 1943 was an artillery duel with a German battery. She was the last, because our troops were preparing to lift the blockade of Leningrad. The guns of “Petropavlovsk” were attracted by the command to shelling German positions in January 1944 during the Krasnoselsko-Ropsha operation to completely lift the blockade of Leningrad. The last shots at the enemy of the floating battery gun Petropavlovsk were made in June 1944 during the Vyborg offensive operation, which ended the battle for Leningrad. Over the years of the Second World War, the ship conducted 264 live firing and fired an 1971 305-mm projectile at the enemy.

Memory

After the liberation of Sevastopol, the floating battery hull No. XXUMX continued to stand on the shallows in the Cossack Bay. At the end of 3's he was lifted and towed to Inkerman for disassembly. About the feat of the crew "Do not touch me!" Gradually began to forget. Only in the meager lines of the official chronicles of the war the unprecedented feat of its crew was recorded: “During the defense of Sevastopol, units and ships guarding the water area shot down an 40 enemy aircraft. Of these, the 54 aircraft was hit by a floating battery No. XXUMX. ” Only from the essay of the writer Leonid Sobolev “Don't touch me!”, The story “The Mysterious Island” by children's writer Oleg Orlov, several articles in newspapers and magazines, Soviet readers could learn about this unique ship. A major role in preserving the memory of the floating battery №22 was played by Moscow journalist Vladislav Shurygin. For many years he collected materials about the “Do not touch me!” Battle way, met with veterans, worked in archives. In 3, a meeting of floating battery veterans was organized in Sevastopol with its help. In 3, he wrote the book “Iron Island”, which told about the feat of the crew of the floating battery and its commander S.Ya. Scam. Thanks to these people, the feat of the sailors of the floating battery №1977 was not forgotten. Unfortunately, in Sevastopol there is not a monument or a memorial sign dedicated to the heroic deeds of the floating battery crew “Do not touch me!”.

The floating battery "Petropavlovsk" is firing at German positions during the Krasnoselsko-Ropsha operation, January 1944.


Marat was more fortunate. After the war, several projects were developed to restore the ship as a battleship (using the fate of the Frunze hull), but they were never implemented. "Petropavlovsk" was used as a training artillery ship. In 1947-1948 In the dock, work was carried out on the complete separation of the remnants of the bow from the hull. 28 November 1950 The former Marat was reclassified to a non-self-propelled training vessel and renamed the Volkhov. 4 September 1953 was excluded from the fleet lists. The body of the former battleship was cut into needles only at the beginning of the 60s. Veterans of "Marat" decided to perpetuate the memory of the ship. In 1991, they opened a memorial sign on the pier Ust-Rogatka. In the same year, they decided to create a museum dedicated to the battle path of the battleship. For him, managed to find a small room in the Nevsky Polytechnic Lyceum. The museum houses the diorama “Reflection of the September 1941 of the assault on Leningrad by the ships of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet squadron”, various photographs and exhibits. In 1997, they managed to publish a collection of "salvos from the Neva". It includes memoirs of veterans of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet squadron, including the sailors of the Marat. The museum continues its activities at the present time.

Floating batteries "Do not touch me!" And "Marat"
“Petropavlovsk” in Kronstadt, Navy Day, July 1944. The minesweeper “TSCH-69” stands at the side of the ship


Non-propelled training vessel "Volkhov" in Kronstadt, the beginning of the 50-ies.
Author:
Photos used:
from the collection of the author, collections AG Kuzenkova and A.V. Tameeva.
44 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Vadivak
    Vadivak 2 July 2013 08: 40 New
    +3
    Something similar happened in the imperial fleet, although the "Popovka" was equipped with a steam engine and was considered the battleship of the birch defense, but the essence is the same
    1. old man54
      old man54 2 July 2013 20: 58 New
      +1
      there is nothing in common even. There are not floating self-propelled artillery batteries, but here coastal defense battleshipself-propelled! sad
      What difference is not visible? sorry!
      1. Blackgrifon
        Blackgrifon 3 July 2013 17: 48 New
        0
        One thing is not clear - why was the battleship, far from the worst, retrained into a floating battery? "Petropavlovsk", of course, after its defeat by the Germans as a full-fledged combat unit of the fleet ceased to exist, but why change it?
        1. Alex
          Alex 7 September 2013 22: 42 New
          +2
          Quote: Blackgrifon
          One thing is not clear - why was the battleship, far from the worst, re-qualified into a floating battery?

          "Petropavlovsk" ("Marat"), like all its sister ships of the "Sevastopol" class, already at the moment of their descent into the water were by no means modern-built ships. There were many factors here: not the most successful project, and the duration of construction, and much more. What can we say about the forties: of all that we had, these three battleships (to finish building the fourth was not strong enough) were the most powerful. Well, plus "Tallinn" (former German "Lutzov"). Tinkering with it after the Second World War would be just stupidity. He gloriously went his own military path, honorably fulfilled his duty to protect Leningrad and was simply unsuitable for further service, even in a restored form. Battleships of the Soviet Union series could be a good alternative, but they were not destined to serve the Motherland either.
      2. The comment was deleted.
  2. Strashila
    Strashila 2 July 2013 09: 57 New
    +4
    At present, sea-based large-caliber artillery, all missiles and missiles are not much appreciated. But as life showed, when operating in Lebanon, when it was not possible to use the Air Force because of the strong counteraction to Syrian air defense, the Americans used the main caliber of battleships in all.
    1. govoruha-otrok
      govoruha-otrok 2 July 2013 10: 04 New
      +2
      they used large surface ships in the complete absence of counteraction.
    2. Blackgrifon
      Blackgrifon 3 July 2013 17: 53 New
      0
      Quote: Strashila
      At present, sea-based large-caliber artillery, all missiles and missiles are not much appreciated. But as life showed, when operating in Lebanon, when it was not possible to use the Air Force because of the strong counteraction to Syrian air defense, the Americans used the main caliber of battleships in all.


      When fighting a weak enemy, artillery can work wonders, but if the enemy has normal air defense and coastal defense, good air force, then the battleship can die very, very quickly. A striking example - LK "Rome" - at the end of the war, this newest warship was killed by one missile shell. Now artillery is more a weapon of self-defense, and not the main means of engaging the enemy for the linear forces of the fleet.
  3. govoruha-otrok
    govoruha-otrok 2 July 2013 10: 03 New
    +3
    Do not touch me, it turned out to be an effective tool with a minimum of costs. on the example of battleships, we see that the enormous costs and sacrifices did not pay off for the damage done to the Germans. how much cheaper it would be to use self-propelled guns instead of Marat’s guns, for example. Unfortunately, in addition to the Northern Fleet, which carried out the strategic task of ensuring the escort of convoys, our Black Sea Fleet and Baltic Fleet did not achieve much success. it is the result of miscalculations in construction and planning. nothing has changed, judging by the plans for the restoration of the Eagles.
    1. old man54
      old man54 2 July 2013 21: 00 New
      +1
      I agree with your comment, with the exception of remarks about the Eagles.
    2. Blackgrifon
      Blackgrifon 3 July 2013 17: 59 New
      +1
      Quote: govoruha-otrok
      how much cheaper it would be to use self-propelled guns instead of Marat’s guns,


      "Petropavlovsk" (aka "Marat") is a battleship, it was made a floating battery after the ship was actually destroyed by Nazi bombs.

      Quote: govoruha-otrok
      Our Black Sea Fleet and BF have not achieved much success. it is the result of miscalculations in construction and planning. nothing has changed, judging by the plans for the restoration of the Eagles.


      I agree - the mosquito fleet of these compounds worked very well, but the main forces of the fleet (battleships and cruisers) acted passively. A number of German memoirs indicate that in the case of more significant actions of the main combat units of the Soviet fleet, the Nazis would have to be tight.

      As for the Eagles and Atlantes, these ships, in the form in which our Navy are, are not able to solve the tasks of seizing supremacy at sea - there are very few of them, and they require modernization (at least).
  4. lilit.193
    lilit.193 2 July 2013 10: 51 New
    +7
    Thanks to the author! I know about the British artillery islands (about the fate of "Marat" too), but about the battery "Don't touch me" I learned for the first time. By the way, the original project of the floating battery ("artillery island") was proposed at one time (even before the war) by the famous inventor PI Grokhovsky. But it was not implemented.
    1. Thunderbolt
      Thunderbolt 2 July 2013 17: 05 New
      +4
      I just lost it, and so ... it is in some kind of "LJ": the Sevastopol anti-aircraft floating battery - "- the square of death" was given to her by the air raiders themselves (and believe me, it's really worth a lot). We provided air defense in a given square, performed the order and the losses of the enemy turned out to be unacceptable. ZY brought everyone to the root soldier
  5. jayich
    jayich 2 July 2013 12: 05 New
    +2
    Quote: govoruha-otrok
    Do not touch me, it turned out to be an effective tool with a minimum of costs. on the example of battleships, we see that the enormous costs and sacrifices did not pay off for the damage done to the Germans. how much cheaper it would be to use self-propelled guns instead of Marat’s guns, for example. Unfortunately, in addition to the Northern Fleet, which carried out the strategic task of ensuring the escort of convoys, our Black Sea Fleet and Baltic Fleet did not achieve much success. it is the result of miscalculations in construction and planning. nothing has changed, judging by the plans for the restoration of the Eagles.

    At first. The USSR was able to lay its battleships just before the war, before that the laying of such ships was not possible.
    Secondly, the fleet made a huge contribution to the defense of Leningrad and Sevastopol (Only one 35 battery gave a light to the fritz)
    Thirdly, almost all surface ships were inherited from the Republic of Ingushetia (with the exception of cruisers pr. 26 if I am not mistaken), the battleship Marat was laid down in 1911 and served in the Navy for half a century. These were the first Russian dreadnoughts if at least Borodino and Ishmael were completed in the Baltic, and Emperor Nicholas the first in the Black Sea Fleet using the units and assemblies of Empress Maria. We would have agreed with the French on the transfer of the USSR 3 battleships gone by the Whites during the Civil War. Then perhaps one of the dreadnought would have gone to the SF. But that did not happen....
    The fleet did everything that was possible of him in the Great Patriotic War and there is no need to belittle his merits ...
    Indeed, if there were no major naval battles, this does not mean that the fleet did not fulfill the tasks assigned to it, including the battleships about Marat written above about the rest, if you are interested in looking for information ..
    1. govoruha-otrok
      govoruha-otrok 2 July 2013 12: 40 New
      +3
      Let's not talk now about the heroism of our sailors, which is undeniable? And let's talk about dry numbers, about the purpose of ships, to sink ships, first of all, and only then the support of the ground forces in the coastal direction. Well, will you really deny that in comparison with the Allies and Germans (for various reasons) the number of military exits and the number of sunken ships are not comparable? The USSR was lucky that they did not have time to build new battleships, especially on the Black Sea Fleet and the Baltic Fleet.
      my thought is that a true assessment of the likely enemy and the nature of the database could avoid the loss of Sevastopol, for example.
      1. jayich
        jayich 2 July 2013 13: 41 New
        +3
        Unfortunately, the loss of Sevastopol was predetermined for that period of the war, it was necessary to reduce the front line as much as possible and concentrate on this line the maximum amount of forces and means to inflict maximum damage to the enemy and achieve a radical change. Those. Sevastopol was essentially surrendered as blasphemous to write it.
        It is necessary to consider the quantitative and qualitative composition of the fleets of the warring countries as well as the theater of operations in which they (fleets) were supposed to be used. The military doctrine of the USSR was strictly defensive, look at the naval staff during the war and it becomes clear that demanding something else is not real.
        The task of any fleet is not so much to sink enemy ships, but to provide freedom of maneuver and the necessary actions on sea lanes. The same Tirpitz by his very existence created many problems for the allies and he did not particularly have military campaigns. That is, I just have a slightly broader idea of ​​the tasks of the fleet, look at least at the same SUN (made by us) When and why the RRC "Moscow" went to the Mediterranean and what the 6th American fleet was doing at that time and how it affected the war in Syria and this is in our time i.e. The fleet is not only how much and what was drowned, but also a very good tactical and political instrument, and just after the Second World War, the Oceanic Fleet was being built in our country when the results of the war were summed up.
        And as far as river flotillas and feats of river monitors are concerned, I generally keep quiet since they have already fulfilled their task by 200%, and this is also a fleet.
        Just if they built the battleships pr.23 and cr. PR69, then the fleet might have performed other tasks. but if yes, if only.
        1. old man54
          old man54 2 July 2013 21: 25 New
          +5
          Quote: jayich
          Unfortunately, the loss of Sevastopol was predetermined for that period of the war, it was necessary to reduce the front line as much as possible and concentrate on this line the maximum amount of forces and means to inflict maximum damage to the enemy and achieve a radical change. Those. Sevastopol was essentially surrendered as blasphemous to write it.

          what are you saying ??? But I think that the surrender of Crimea, and Sevastopol as a consequence of this, was the biggest miscalculation of the command of the Red Army and of course the Supreme Commander-in-Chief personally then, with all my sympathy for him! It was necessary to anticipate such a development of events and to advance in advance Perekop into an impregnable fortified region, worse than he was in Civil! But the eternal mental illness of the Russian generals is a clear underestimation of the enemy !!! And if wisely, then Crimea and Sevastopol could be kept for a very long time, maybe they would not have surrendered it at all during the Second World War.
          1. Drosselmeyer
            Drosselmeyer 3 July 2013 00: 10 New
            0
            Well, about the impregnable fortifications of Perekop and Kerch, Manstein needs to be told. Talented still was a bastard. For many of the Red Army command, taking Perekop was a shock, because remembered what efforts had to be made in the civil war. The Kerch catastrophe does not give in to the mind at all. It was necessary to put the commander of the defense of Crimea Slashchev, but he was shot dead in the 20s.
            1. old man54
              old man54 3 July 2013 15: 13 New
              +1
              Quote: Drosselmeyer
              Well, about the impregnable fortifications of Perekop and Kerch, Manstein needs to be told. Talented still was a bastard.

              and they were there, layered stolen, at that time, on Perekop, by the type of Kursk at least ?? There was no horseradish, no moats. no bunkers. they managed to open the trench trenches and that’s it!
              For many of the Red Army command, taking Perekop was a shock, because remembered what efforts had to be made in the civil war

              I had to get ready, so there would be no shock! Otherwise, as always. Yes, and "Slashchev" is yours ... how old would he be in 1941?
              1. Drosselmeyer
                Drosselmeyer 3 July 2013 23: 37 New
                0
                Well, Slashchev would have been only 55 years old. As for the fortifications on Perekop, the command did not have to think about the mythical landings on the coast and scatter the troops. The war has been going on for months, how much more “it was necessary to prepare”?
    2. old man54
      old man54 2 July 2013 21: 05 New
      0
      Quote: jayich
      At first. The USSR was able to lay its battleships just before the war, before that the laying of such ships was not possible.

      But can I find out why? What prevented, in fact, the acre of its own backwardness in terms of shipbuilding and the economy as a whole?
      1. Blackgrifon
        Blackgrifon 3 July 2013 18: 02 New
        0
        Quote: old man54
        But can I find out why? What prevented, in fact, the acre of its own backwardness in terms of shipbuilding and the economy as a whole?


        You have already named the main reason. The second is the exclusively ground thinking of the country's military leadership and the position of the fleet subordinate to the army.
  6. omsbon
    omsbon 2 July 2013 12: 08 New
    +3
    It is a pity that the four laid down battleships of the "Soviet Union" type were not built by the beginning of the war.
    1. govoruha-otrok
      govoruha-otrok 2 July 2013 12: 42 New
      0
      but what would it be? Option bis have read? :-)
      1. Gato
        Gato 2 July 2013 16: 46 New
        0
        but what would it be?

        The same as with the "Marat" (as well as with the "Prince of Wales", "Ripals", the Italian battleships in Taranto, the American ones in Pearl Harbor, etc.)
        1. govoruha-otrok
          govoruha-otrok 2 July 2013 16: 48 New
          0
          No doubt!
    2. Pablo_K
      Pablo_K 2 July 2013 16: 40 New
      +1
      Quote: omsbon
      It is a pity that the four laid down battleships of the "Soviet Union" type were not built by the beginning of the war.

      Even if they were built, they would not have a serious impact on the course of the war.
      The Baltic Fleet was blocked back in 41, the main opponents of the Black Sea Fleet were aviation and ground forces, the battleship in the Northern Fleet would not be in the way, and there were only 9 destroyers at the beginning of the war (if not correct).
      Maybe it would be better to have built a dozen destroyers and fifty minesweepers before the war?
      Although in the late 30s when the construction of battleships began, no one knew what kind of war would be with whom.
      1. govoruha-otrok
        govoruha-otrok 2 July 2013 16: 42 New
        -1
        In part. Having managed to fight the Germans in Spain, one could assume. Or at least draw conclusions from the war of 1854
      2. old man54
        old man54 2 July 2013 21: 17 New
        +1
        Quote: Pablo_K
        The Baltic Fleet was blocked back in the 41 year, the main opponents of the Black Sea Fleet were aviation and ground forces, the battleship in the Northern Fleet would not be in the way,

        that’s precisely for the SF it was just in time, then the German destroyers would so brazenly not attack the convoys, almost in the direct line of sight of the Kola Fjord!
        1. Blackgrifon
          Blackgrifon 3 July 2013 18: 12 New
          0
          Quote: old man54
          that’s precisely for the SF it was just in time, then the German destroyers would so brazenly not attack the convoys, almost in the direct line of sight of the Kola Fjord!


          And what prevented the creation of the appropriate forces of our own destroyers and light cruisers with escort aircraft carriers before the war, instead of spending money and priceless resources on the construction of exclusively politically motivated battleships "Soviet Union"?
    3. Blackgrifon
      Blackgrifon 3 July 2013 18: 08 New
      0
      Quote: omsbon
      It is a pity that the four laid down battleships of the "Soviet Union" type were not built by the beginning of the war.


      You are wrong - by the beginning of WWII battleships as a class were already outdated. They could no longer ensure the conquest of dominance at sea. Their limit is the support of the landing. Admirals who thought otherwise dearly regretted their beliefs. Raid on Taranto, Pearl Harbor, Scapa Flow, Pacific Ocean, etc. confirmed that carrier-based aircraft, destroyers, and landing forces are becoming the main force of the fleet. The stake on the linear fleet only leads to economic and human losses. Until the Second World War, the USSR was developing its own aircraft carriers, they planned to rebuild the ditched "Poltava", but all these plans were not implemented. Well at least they managed to more or less restore the mosquito fleet before the war.
      1. Alex
        Alex 8 September 2013 10: 27 New
        +2
        Quote: Blackgrifon
        to the beginning of WWII battleships as a class are already outdated.

        Quite the contrary - by the beginning of WWII battleships reached their greatest prosperity.

        They could no longer secure the conquest of dominance at sea.

        True dominance in the Pacific Ocean was provided to the Americans by the latest battleships in interaction (interaction is the key word) with aircraft carriers.

        Taranto, Pearl Harbor, Scapa Flow, Pacific Ocean, etc. confirmed that deck aviation is becoming the main force of the fleet

        What's the use? Pearl Harbor began to recover the very next day (just like in a computer game); Tatanto became possible due to the dizziness of the whole Italian military leadership, which it demonstrated throughout the war.

        The reliance on the linear fleet leads only to economic and human losses.

        Any bet on war leads to economic and human losses. And if money can still be returned in case of victory, then people will never.

        By the way, amers until the end of the war and built aircraft carriers and battleships. Here is the overwhelming dominance of the Pacific.
  7. Firstvanguard
    Firstvanguard 2 July 2013 13: 21 New
    +1
    Thanks to the author hi
  8. govoruha-otrok
    govoruha-otrok 2 July 2013 13: 47 New
    +2
    And as far as river flotillas and feats of river monitors are concerned, I generally keep quiet since they have already fulfilled their task by 200%, and this is also a fleet.

    Well, what am I talking about? namely that they were preparing for the wrong war.

    The military doctrine of the USSR was strictly defensive; look at the naval staff for the period of the war
    I looked again. impressive. Especially the number of submarines is many times greater than that of Germany.
    1. Gato
      Gato 2 July 2013 16: 42 New
      +1
      Quote: govoruha-otrok
      Especially the number of submarines

      Yes, especially in the Baltic. And which the Germans managed to block. At least, these boats were never able to disrupt the supply of Swedish ore.
      1. govoruha-otrok
        govoruha-otrok 2 July 2013 16: 43 New
        +2
        They simply did not go to sea for a year, blocked not only by the Ministry of Health, but by anti-submarine networks. This is for those who are not in the subject)
  9. Pamir210
    Pamir210 2 July 2013 18: 36 New
    +1
    Quote: jayich
    and Emperor Nicholas I at the Black Sea Fleet using the units and assemblies of Empress Maria

    there was also a great option - not to hollow torpedoes at the "Empress Catherine the Great"
  10. Pamir210
    Pamir210 2 July 2013 18: 42 New
    +1
    Quote: Gato
    The same as with the "Marat" (as well as with the "Prince of Wales", "Ripals", Italian battleships in Taranto, American ones in Pearl Harbor

    the only difference being that the Yankees repaired and commissioned almost all (except Arizona and Oklahoma) pearl Harbor battleships.
    they also managed to take part in the war
    1. Blackgrifon
      Blackgrifon 3 July 2013 18: 13 New
      0
      Quote: Pamir210
      with the only difference being that the Yankees repaired and commissioned almost all (except Arizona and Oklahoma) pearl harbor battleships. they managed to take part in the war as well


      Exclusively for shelling the coastal defense of the enemy. The Yankees themselves then pondered the economic value of the restored battleships of Pearl Harbor.
      1. Pamir210
        Pamir210 3 July 2013 19: 53 New
        0
        it’s not their fault that they did not find goals.
        and what they did was done well.
  11. cobalt
    cobalt 2 July 2013 20: 27 New
    +5
    During World War II, at the mouth of the Thames, the British had such towers with air defense,
    there was something left of them. There was a locator on the central tower, and the rest were armed with 94 and 40 mm anti-aircraft guns and searchlights. There were 21 towers with 3 forts in total. The garrison was 120-160 people in the fort.
  12. datur
    datur 2 July 2013 21: 28 New
    0
    well, and your Americans .. don’t touch me, they handed over to the Japanese landing, allegedly due to the lack of fresh food! you see, canned dofig, but there are no fresh steaks! the yapes were stunned, they considered themselves suicide bombers less than the garrison) and there is a great victory, here it is, the strategy of the great and invincible superamericans, !!! laughing
    1. old man54
      old man54 2 July 2013 22: 48 New
      0
      Quote: datur
      well, and your Americans .. don’t touch me,, they handed over to the Japanese troops, supposedly due to the lack of fresh food!

      and what kind of forts, you can reference, did not hear about them. Thank you in advance.
    2. Blackgrifon
      Blackgrifon 3 July 2013 18: 14 New
      0
      Not really - their delivery was due to the lack of air defense.
      1. Alex
        Alex 8 September 2013 11: 08 New
        +2
        Quote: Blackgrifon
        Not really - their delivery was due to the lack of air defense.


        Somehow, everything turns out weird: some fight according to textbooks, others fight as long as they see the enemy’s eyes and hold their arms. But for some reason, the descendants of the second allow the descendants of the first to take their rightful glory.
  13. old man54
    old man54 2 July 2013 21: 33 New
    -2
    The article is very interesting and informative, the author has a single "+" and many thanks for such a detailed story about these pages of the Second World War! I read about "Marat" and watched the film, knew in general its history, but about the battery "Keep me" I heard only a glimpse of the name and did not know at all what was what. I am very grateful to the author for the story! For some reason, I associate it with a French fort on the coast of the Bay of Biscay (we will take it as Boyard for transfers to the Central Television), or with Peter's still artillery forts in the Gulf of Finland. To our Slavic sailors - GLORY!!!
  14. The comment was deleted.
  15. Linkor200
    Linkor200 3 July 2013 00: 00 New
    +5
    The article is really interesting and quite true about "Don't touch me". I confirm this with good reason, and here's why. At the end of the 70s of the last century, I happened to work in Kharkov in one design institute. So, the honored architect of Ukraine, Anatoly Yakovlevich Moshensky, worked in the same department with me. As a child, I had a good book called "Hero Ships" (by the way, I still have it). It was from this book that I first learned about the "Don't touch me" battery. So, soon after meeting A.Ya. Moshensky and comparing the initials from the book, I asked him if he was a relative of the commander of a floating battery. And it turned out that they were siblings. Of course, we talked a lot about this. But over the years, much has been forgotten. But I well remember his words that the battery died precisely from a lack of ammunition. Now I want to touch on the section where the author of the article mentions battleships. He writes that battleships of the "Soviet Union" class were to become the most powerful, second only to some American and Japanese battleships. And then what about a series of projects of German battleships of the H / h / type. They were designed with 20-inch main caliber artillery. That is, more than 500 mm. But they repeated the sad fate of the Soviet giants - Germany, which had got involved in a war on several fronts, simply did not have enough strength and resources to put these projects into practice.
  16. jayich
    jayich 3 July 2013 09: 43 New
    +1
    The N-39s were planned with 406mm artillery and were laid down, but the rest of the projects and the destructive German grass H43 / 44 were already over 100 thousand tons and there wasn’t only detailed design of the project.
  17. nikk_k
    nikk_k 3 July 2013 15: 11 New
    0
    Russia has always had imperial ambitions and has always lacked the funds and qualified personnel to meet these ambitions. At the same time, she always prepared for the last war. Dreadnoughts of the "Petropavlovsk" type were built for squadron battle in wake formation, so characteristic of the sailing era, but in the armored battle there was practically only one such battle - Tsushima. It is quite possible that if the Petropavlovskys had come out against the Japanese fleet in 1905, they would have completely defeated it. After all, the main-caliber guns on them and the shells were many times more powerful than the guns and shells of 1905. But ... The "Petropavlovsk" buildings were made for 1905. When, before the First World War, a Petropavlovsk-type compartment was built into the old battleship and they began to shoot at it from new twelve-inch guns, they were horrified - new shells broke the new armor into the trash. It is strange that these tests were carried out when the ships had already been built and it was already too late to do something with them, and realizing that the Germans had no worse artillery (and they already had a larger caliber), it was decided to "Petropavlovski" do not release the open sea. Thus, practically retraining them into coastal defense battleships. It is good that the new battleships, which differed from the "Petropavlovsk" in larger sizes and larger (the most powerful in the history of Russia) cannons, were not built, because they would not have been able to cope with the German battleships either.
    The lack of qualifications of the Bolshevik leadership is visible in the very attempt to build an ocean-going armored fleet. In fact, during the entire Second World War, there were only two battles of the armored forces - first, the brave British in a night battle thanks to new technology - radars - defeated the Italian fleet in a night battle, and a little later - they sank the Bismarck.
    Because of the idea of ​​building battleships, very few submarines were built. Therefore, the effectiveness of the Soviet Navy was negligible in comparison with the actions of the same kriegsmarine.
    At present, the ocean surface fleet is nothing more than a political imperial means of aggression and does not pay off in any way. The construction of French-style helicopter carriers is only a means of sawing up a state-owned board. These boats are suitable only for the European theater of operations and directly indicate the aggressiveness of our leadership. It should not be forgotten that we have long been developed a much more effective landing means - ekranoplans.
    1. Pamir210
      Pamir210 3 July 2013 19: 57 New
      0
      Sevastopol dreadnoughts were built for battle in a mine-artillery position, and not for squadron combat in wake columns.
  18. jayich
    jayich 3 July 2013 23: 52 New
    0
    Dear nikk_k read "The Last Giants of the RIF" Vinogradov
    The Ishmaels were built a little for other tasks, and they were the classic battle cruisers.
    But the projects of 1914. , "Ruskobaltiysky Zavod" (my favorite), and the Kostenko project with 3x3 16 "/ 45 in 45 thousand tons were already full-fledged dreadnoughts and they had everything in order with their armor.
    There is an opinion that project 23 was developed on the basis of this particular battleship.
    And the first pancake is always lumpy, well, almost always. Battleships of the type of Petropavlovsk were the first and unfortunately the last battleships of Russia.
  19. Alex
    Alex 8 September 2013 11: 17 New
    +2
    Great article, thanks to the author. Like many visitors, I knew almost everything about "Marat", but I learned about "Don't touch me" for the first time. However, traditions in the navy are strong - I remember that this was the name of one of the first Russian battleships of the pre-dreadnought era and was also considered an armored floating battery.
  20. Vedzmin
    Vedzmin 14 March 2018 21: 48 New
    0
    Thanks for the good article!