For some reason, it is customary to imagine the era of the first Romanovs, Mikhail Fedorovich, Alexei Mikhailovich, Fedor Alekseevich, a kind of sleepy feudal kingdom. But upon objective examination, such an unsightly stereotype crumbles to dust. The first large enterprises of the manufacturing type began to emerge with us much earlier, in the XNUMXth century. This, for example, Cannon Yard, Printing Yard, Armory Chamber, cable yards in Kholmogory and Vologda. In the Urals, the Stroganovs turned in full swing.
But Russia reached its peak of business activity in the 17th century. And we note the difference with Western countries: in Spain and France, trade and crafts were considered “vile” occupations, for nobles they were forbidden. In Holland and England, these activities were crushed by large merchants and financiers. In Russia, business was engaged in all sectors of society. Peasants, townspeople (townspeople), servicemen (noblemen, archers, Cossacks), boyars, clergy. The Swede Kilburger wrote that Russians “love commerce from the most distinguished to the simplest.”
Of considerable importance was the wise policy of the government, the promotion of trade, low duties, the easing of customs barriers. As a result, at the end of the XVI - the first half of the XVII century. a single all-Russian market has emerged with a product specialization of various areas that are strongly associated with each other. So, Moscow supplied products of furriers, cloths, gunsmiths, goldsmiths, Moscow region - vegetables and meat, oil came from the Middle Volga region, fish - from the North, from Astrakhan and Rostov, products of blacksmiths - from Serpukhov, Tula, Tikhvin, Galich, Ustyuzhna , skin - from Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Suzdal, Kazan, Murom. On wooden products specialized in the Upper Volga region, on stone construction - artels from Pskov and Novgorod, on carpentry work - artels from the North. Weaving manufacture developed in Moscow and Yaroslavl, Pskov delivered production from flax and hemp, Vyazma - sledge, Reshma - matting. Furs came from Siberia, viticulture, winemaking, horticulture and melon-growing products from Astrakhan.
The largest center of trade was, of course, the capital. Kilburger wrote: “More trading shops are located in the city of Moscow than in Amsterdam or at least in a different whole principality.” There were extensive permanent markets in China Town, White City, and Earthen City. There were markets in all other cities, and there were 923 in Russia. The fair trade flourished. In the XVI century. a fair was active in the town of Kholopiem on the Upper Volga, and in 1620-s it moved to the city of Makaryev, and the famous Makarievsky fair arose, its turnover reached 80 thousand rubles. (for comparison, the cow cost 1 - 2 rubles, sheep - 10 cop.) Very significant fairs were Arkhangelsk, Tikhvin, Svenskaya (near Bryansk). Tikhvin, for example, led trade with 45 cities. A winter Irbit fair was organized in Verkhoturye, connected with Makaryevskaya, and up to a thousand merchants gathered for it. In the summer, the Siberians went to the Yamyshevskiy Fair.
Pavel Aleppsky reported, not without envy, that “the trade of Muscovites is despotic, this is trade of well-fed people” - there were also many bazaars in the Ottoman Empire, from where he came. But there for the small traders to sell at least something meant to secure a piece of bread. The Russians didn’t face a problem like that, and “they say little as francs” - they don’t like the price, so go your way. But foreigners also noted the highest integrity of the Russians. Olearius mentions how a fisherman on the Volga overpaid for 5 cents by mistake. He counted and returned the excess. The Germans struck by this behavior offered him to surrender to himself, but he refused unearned money and took it only after repeated requests.
Entrepreneurial structures in Russia were very peculiar. The first place was occupied by “guests” - large merchants and industrialists who had a turnover of at least 20 thousand rubles. in year. But the “guest” was not the name of the estate, but a rite that was personally complained by the king. The person who received it was incorporated into the very top of the state structure. It was believed that since he managed to make a big fortune and manage it, he is a valuable specialist, and his experience must be used. All the guests were close to the king, were given the right to directly access to him, along with the boyars they were allowed to buy fiefdoms (ie, to alienate the land in hereditary ownership). Guests are exempt from taxes. They acted as economic advisers, financial and trading agents of the government. Through them, the treasury conducted foreign trade, entrusted them with directing the collection of customs and tavern duties, transferred construction contracts, supplies for the army, state monopoly trade — fur, wine, and salt. Pole Nemoevsky called the guests: “The peasants, who, like the boyars, belong to every management”.
Of these "peasants", the Stroganovs can be distinguished - for the tremendous financial assistance during the years of the Troubles, they were given the special title of "famous people." Guest Epiphanius Sveteshnikov led trade with Siberia, exploited salt pans in Usolye. Vasily Shorin led significant trade within Russia, with Persia, Central Asia, was the customs head in Arkhangelsk. In the salt fields, the wealthy and the guests of the Shustovy prospered, and in the domestic and foreign trade - Patokins, Filatievs. In the Siberian trade, the trade families of Bosekh, Revyakins, Balezins, Pankratyevs, and Usovs ran the trade. In Novgorod, they turned over the affairs of the Stoyanovs, in Pskov, Yemelyanov.
In the commercial and industrial hierarchy, the guests were followed by a sitting room and cloth hundreds. They numbered about 400 people. The drawing room, in the main, conducted trade with the East, cloth - with the West. The entrepreneurs who were in them also enjoyed significant privileges and tax privileges, occupied a prominent place in the financial and economic affairs of the state, and had their own self-government. They became elected heads and foremen at fairs, in urban and market structures. Well, the inhabitants of the black settlements and hundreds belonged to the lowest category of entrepreneurs (small shopkeepers and artisans who paid taxes, therefore “black”).
Peasants also traded with might and main. Thus, farms in Northern Dvina, specialized in beef cattle, each family fed up bulls and several calves per year to sell 2-5. In addition, local residents were engaged in the manufacture of charcoal, lime, and organized tar tar. In various localities in the peasant houses there were spinning wheels and weaving machines - fabrics made of wool, flax, and hemp were produced both for their own use and for the market. Many Astrakhans, as Oleariy writes, bred vineyards, having income from them up to 50 rubles. a year, they hunted at the neighboring salt lakes - salt was allowed to be collected by anyone when paying a tax to the treasury, 1 cop. with 2 pounds.
Large and developed farms were boyar fiefdoms, monasteries. For example, in 1641, 2 thousand tons of grain were stored in the bins of the Trinity-Sergius Monastery, the horse was in the stables, 401 had a barrel of beer from its own breweries in the stables, tens of tons of fish from its own breweries, 51 in the treasury were in thousand rubles. and the ships belonging to the monastery could be found both in the White Sea and on the coast of Norway. The adoption of the Customs Charter in 14 has had a very positive effect on the development of the Russian market. He canceled a number of various small and local fees from merchants, abolished all internal customs barriers. For all trade within the country, a single duty was set: 1653% for salt and 10% for all other goods. As a result, huge Russia has finally become “a single economic space.” By the way, it happened much earlier than in Western Europe, where numerous customs on the borders of cities, principalities, and provinces still operated. For example, in France, domestic customs tariffs amounted to 5% of the value of the goods.
As for international trade, our country was one of its largest centers long before any “cutting through windows to Europe”. Russian merchants were constantly and did business in Copenhagen, Stockholm, Riga, in the cities of Germany and Poland. Through Ryazan to the south and further along the Don every autumn, when it rains and there is a lot of water in the river, the merchants' caravans went to Azov, Cafu, Istanbul. They traveled through Astrakhan to Transcaucasia and Persia, and there was a permanent Russian trade colony in Shemakha.
And foreigners drove to us from everywhere with their goods. Pole Miechowski in the Treatise on Two Sarmatians reported that Russia was “rich in silver.” But she still had no silver mines, and Italian Kampenze specified that the country was “rich in coins mined more through the tutorship of sovereigns than through the mines ... A lot of money was brought there from all over Europe”. In the XVII century. the northern “gates” of Russia were Arkhangelsk, the western - Pskov and Novgorod, the southern - Astrakhan and Putivl, the eastern - Tobolsk. The German Ayrman in Moscow was surprised when describing the many "Persians, Tatars, Kyrgyz, Turks, Poles ... Livans, Swedes, Finns, Dutch, English, French, Italians, Spaniards, Portuguese, Germans from Hamburg, Lübeck, Denmark." “These nations all have their own special shops, which are open every day; miracles for miracles are visible there, so, because of their unaccustomed to their strange customs or national appearance, you often pay more attention to their personalities than to their wonderful goods.”
Every year dozens of ships came to Arkhangelsk, carrying cloth, watches, mirrors, wines and knitwear. Safian, velvet, shawls, carpets, bezoar, turquoise, indigo, incense, oil, and, above all, raw silk were brought to Astrakhan from Iran. Tatars and legs in Astrakhan conducted a large trade in livestock, annually brought huge herds of horses to Moscow for sale - 10% of horses for Russian cavalry were taken as duty. From Mongolia, 1635 supplied Chinese tea. Bukhara merchants carried cotton fabrics, the best paper in the world produced in Samarkand, Chinese porcelain, and silk products. Indians traded through Central Asia, their representative offices appeared in Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, many of them settled in Astrakhan, where they were allowed to build an “Indian yard” with houses, shops and the Vishnu temple. Indian jewelery, incense and spices flowed into Russia.
International trade brought the country a triple benefit. First, it enriched the treasury. Import customs duty in border cities was 5%. In Arkhangelsk, there were cases when the annual income from duties reached 300 thousand rubles. (what was 6 tons of gold). Secondly, the domestic merchants developed and grew rich. Because it was forbidden to trade directly with each other, “over the head” of Russians, to foreigners. Only through the mediation of our entrepreneurs. And thirdly, the intersection in Russia of the flow of goods from all countries created a picture of almost fabulous abundance that amazed all foreign observers. Women from the common people allowed themselves to dress up in silk and velvet. Very expensive spices in Europe were available to commoners, they were added to baking, making gingerbread. Cech Tanner Akhal - they say, in Moscow “small faceted rubies are so cheap that they are sold for pounds - 20 of Moscow or German florins per pound”. The Austrian Geis noted about Russian wealth: “But in Germany, perhaps, they would not have believed it”. And the Frenchman Marzheret concluded: “There is no such wealth in Europe.”
Of course, Russia not only imported goods, but also produced a lot. Exported wax - 20-50 thousand pounds per year, tar, tar, potash, furs, grain. Fat was also exported - 40-100 thousand pounds, honey, hemp, flax, hemp, salt, calamus, rhubarb, walrus bone, blubber (seal fat), fish glue, mica, river pearls. Caviar was then exported “mainly to Italy, where it is considered a delicacy” (Burch). Thousands of leathers per year, sold yuft, felt, bags, jewelry, weapons, horse zbrui, wood carvers, were sold abroad to 100.
Considering the Russian economy of the 17th century, modern researchers (OA Platonov and others) showed that, in terms of its construction principles, it was very different from Western models. It was dominated by the “community type” of the organization. Its key links were rural and craft communities, artels, self-governing urban ends, settlements, streets, hundreds. Even Herzen, a Westernizer, was forced to admit that the economic organization of Russian communities was the complete opposite of the Malthus principle - “the strongest survive.” In the community there was a place for everyone at the common table. And what place - more or less honorable, more or less satisfying, depended on the personal qualities of the person. It was not lagging behind someone (or ahead of someone), but simply its own original model, a national stereotype of relationships.
Craft communities had some similarities with European workshops. They had their own elected self-government, internal rules were in effect, there were holidays, patronal churches, and quality control was exercised. But there were noticeable differences between the Russian communities and the western workshops. The French industrialist Frebe wrote: “Workshops in Russia do not suppress talents and do not interfere in their work.” There was no petty regulation of the number of manufactured goods, prices, applied technologies and tools. Translation of sub-places and pupils into masters or acceptance of new masters into an organization was much easier than in the West. If you have sufficient skills and facilities, please. But it would be more legitimate to compare many artisan hundreds and settlements not with workshops - they were a “scattered type” manufactory. They sold products for resale to large merchants, centrally supplied them for state needs or for export.
Mihalon Lytvyn admitted that “Muscovites are excellent economic managers”. Our ancestors were already familiar with the incorporation - many enterprises, like saltworks, fisheries, etc., were “obshchem on shares” with the distribution of costs and profits for each “share”. Traders perfectly knew how to use credit. Olearius described how wholesalers bought thalers brought by the English on 4 cloth for an elbow - but in debt. And then resold shopkeepers on 3 - 3,5 thaler - but in cash. And by the time the debt was returned, 3 had time - 4 had time to put money into circulation, more than covering the initial loss with profit.
Contractual relations were widely practiced. Let's say, we were reached by the “Contract Record” of the construction team of 26 craftsmen: “I entrusted each other with circular responsibility, and we gave ourselves this record of Borovsky district of the Paphnutiev monastery to Archimandrite Theophanes and the kelar of the old man Pafnothy with brothers in the story that we made a switch. and bricklayers, in the Pafnutiev monastery to make a stone bell tower ”. All details were discussed. The cost of work - 100 rub., Even the issuance before the start of construction of “a bucket of wine in advance”. The possibility of collecting a penalty was also stipulated: “If we don’t do it with the strongest skill ... or learn to drink and bastard, or for some bad walk ... take them, Archimandrite Theophanes and Kelaru elder Pafnotia, by this record for the 200 penalty of a ruble of money."
Existed in the community and domestic insurance. Juan Persian informed that in Murom leatherworkers tanning of leathers is carried out “in a thousand and one houses”, where “a thousand and one skins” are laid, and if they sopreyut for someone, their colleagues give him one skin each and thousand. The numbers, of course, the traveler “rounded” to heighten the effect, but they give an idea of the significant scale of production, and the order of mutual assistance.
In the XVII century. The processes of the industrial revolution in Russia have unfolded very rapidly. In addition to the large manufacturing enterprises that have arisen before, new and new are being built, and the old ones are being expanded and modernized. So, in Moscow the Cannon Yard was reconstructed, there were 2 large workshops in it, there was a semblance of a “design office”, its own training ground. Foreigners called it "a foundry, where they pour a lot of guns and bells." The Golden, Silver, and Armory chambers were expanded. State-owned garment manufactories appear - the Tsarskaya and Tsaritsyna workshops of the chamber, the silk manufactory - the Velvet Yard, the Upper Printing House, Khamovnaya hut, two “powder mills”, the Grenade Yard.
These enterprises were state-owned, their employees were “state employees”, and Oleariy wrote, not without surprise: “In Moscow, it was decided that, on the orders of the Grand Duke, every month all tsarist officials and artisans receive their salaries on time; some even bring it to the house. ” It is worth emphasizing that the sovereign considered it his duty to care for the welfare of his workers. For example, the master of the trunk and lock business Afanasy Vyatkin filed a petition to the king, pointing out his many years of impeccable experience and complaining that he was ruined as a result of a fire and could not provide a dowry to his daughters. The king granted him a dowry of 20 rubles - without return.
In 1620-xNXX-x in Russia there are brick factories - state-owned, private, monastic. So, the needs of Moscow were provided by the plant in the village of Kalitnikovo near the Spaso-Andronikov monastery. So large centers of folk crafts appear, such as Palekh, Khokhloma, Kholui, the center of ceramic production in Gzhel. Numerous shipyards, dyeing and whitewashing workshops, distilleries, tanneries, potash, cloth, weaving, salt-making enterprises are organized. Active development of minerals has developed. There were iron, lead, tin mines. Uglich, Yaroslavl and Ustyug mined saltpeter, Vyatka sulfur.
Attracted and foreign experts. In 1635, the Dukhaninsky glass factory, built by the Italians, began operations. In 1637, the “iron” plant in Tula, founded by Dutch merchants Marcelis and Vinius, was commissioned. The enterprise turned out to be very profitable both for the owners and for the state - according to the terms of the contract, part of the production was deducted to the treasury. And the same entrepreneurs received licenses for the organization of new metallurgical plants. They began to grow like mushrooms - near Vologda, Kostroma, Kashira, on the Vahe, Sheksna, in the Maloyaroslavetsky district, Olonets region, near Voronezh. With the help of foreigners, a watch factory was built in Moscow.
However, it is not worth exaggerating the contribution of foreigners to the development of the country. It was the usual at all times the process of “brain drain”. But the policies of the then kings ensured that he was not going in the current direction, but in the opposite direction. Russia used the process of capital flight - just the Dutch in the XVII century. they were very widely engaged in this, taking money from taxation at home and investing it in production in other countries. But the tsarist government first tried to respect the national interests. And if the Italians took to build a glass factory, then Russian craftsmen were allocated to help them, mastered the technology - and soon, along with the Dukhaninsky factory, the Izmailovsky factory appeared, producing, according to foreigners, “fairly clean glass”. The first paper factory was built on Pakhra by the Germans, and then the second paper factory spun off from it in the same way, the Russian, on Yauza.
Strangers were held “in check”, they were not allowed to prey to the detriment of Russia and its citizens. The permissions to Marcelis and Vinius for the construction of factories stipulated that “no one could repair the cravings and offenses and no one was taken from anyone,” and the workers were allowed to hire only “out of kindness and not in bondage”. And the licenses were not given forever, but for 10-15 years with the possibility of subsequent revision. In 1662, when the timeframe for these permits came out, half of the metallurgical plants built by companions were “written to the sovereign.” Gained a profit - and be happy. And for further profits left you the other half - and also be happy. You are not the boss of your land.
Despite repeated requests, entreaties, sending embassies, neither the Dutch, nor the British, nor the French, nor the Danes, nor the Swedes ever received the right to transit trade with the East through the territory of Russia. And in 1667 on the initiative of the Chancellor A.L. Ordin-Nashchokina was adopted by the Novotorgovy Charter and supplemented by its Charter of trade, which introduced tough protectionist measures to protect domestic merchants and entrepreneurs from foreign competitors.
And, of course, just domestic entrepreneurs played a leading role in the industrial revolution of the XVII century. If in the XVI century. the Stroganovs operated 27 salt saltworks, then in the XVII century. - more than 200, the annual salt extraction amounted to 7 million pounds, providing half of the needs of the country. Their possessions in Vychegda Salt became an important economic and cultural center, there were their own schools for training specialists in salt production, technical instructions were developed. There was also the production of iron, trade in furs, developed construction and artistic craft. Guest Sveteshnikov owned large leather factories in Nizhny Novgorod, Emelyanov - workshops on the manufacture of linen fabrics in Pskov.
But in Russia, as already noted, not only the merchant class was engaged in entrepreneurship. These cases are not shied away and the highest know. For example, Prince Pozharsky was a co-owner of several salt works, he also owned a “village” Kholuy with icon painters' workshops and artistic murals. Ordin-Nashchokin in his Pskov estates engaged in the production of potash, the export of wood. Boyar Morozov in the suburban village of Pavlovsk built a metallurgical plant that used advanced "water-making" equipment. In his other estates, he organized potash and distilleries. The owners of large enterprises were the boyars Miloslavsky, Odoevsky.
The businessmen were the king himself and even the queen. The court doctor Collins described how “beautiful houses” were built in 7 versts from Moscow for the treatment of hemp and flax, “which are in great order, very extensive and will deliver work to all the poor in the state ... The Queen will manage the women in this establishment for their benefits and benefits. ” Altogether, under Mikhail Fedorovich and Alexey Mikhailovich, more than 60 “palace” manufactories were created. The sovereign's orders went with goods to Turkey and Persia, and by mutual agreement with Iran, agents of the king traded there duty-free, like agents of the shah in Russia.
The result of the industrial revolution was that by the middle of the XVII century, Russia exported not only furs, wax and honey. And also fabrics, canvas, ropes (only Kholmogorsky yard provided a quarter of British ships with ropes fleet) Guns also went for export. “Overseas at a free price” sold up to 800 guns per year!
At the same time, the active development of the Urals continued. There were built metallurgical plant Dalmatova monastery, Nitsynsky plant, Nevyansk plant (the same one that Peter later gave Demidov). In the past century, copper was a scarce raw material for Russia. It was looked for by its own and foreign “miners”, but it was not possible to find deposits suitable for development, and Russian merchants received orders to buy even copper scrap abroad. In the 17th century, copper ore was finally found near the Kama salt, a state-owned Pyskorsky plant was founded here, and later the Tumashev brothers' factory was deployed at its base.
Siberia was settled down and settled down. And here the businessmen and the device of settlements were most often occupied by “subloaders” of business-like peasants. They themselves chose places for villages, invited residents. They filed a petition to the district voivode, and he sent an official to dissociate the land. The government completely trusted the subordinates to manage the villages, received taxes from them, but did not interfere in their affairs.
One of these entrepreneurs was, for example, Erofei Khabarov. He was a farmer from Ustyug, he went to Mangazeya in 1628, wanting to get rich in the fur trade, but did not work out. However, Khabarov noted that other sectors of the economy are very profitable in Siberia - many goods were imported here and were expensive: bread, iron, salt, handicraft products. And he returned to Siberia, settled at the mouth of the river Kirengi, hired workers. In 1640, he already had 26 tithe of arable land, his own forge, mills, salt breweries, he was engaged in trade, carting, usury. And then, together with the Yakut governor, Frantsbekov organized an expedition to Amur, began to develop the “Daur land” and build towns there.
In Siberia, many entrepreneurs “got on their feet” and grew rich. Thus, the Yenisei merchant Ushakov held in his hands all the food supplies of Eastern Siberia. The peasant Gabriel Nikitin, the clerk of the Filatyev guests, made a fortune in the fur trade, separated from the owners and himself received the rank of guest. Tobolsk and Tara became centers of trade with Central Asia, Nerchinsk - with China, Selenginsk - with the Mongols. Ambassador Spafari wrote: "Mungals roam everywhere very much and trade with the Cossacks: they sell horses and camels and cattle, as well as all sorts of Chinese goods, and they buy sables and other Russian goods."
In the second half of the XVII century. Soap-making, candle-making, woodworking workshops, distilleries and breweries began to emerge in Siberia. In each city there were several hundred reservants. In Yeniseisk in 1670, researchers count 24 craft trades, in Tomsk - 50, in Tobolsk - 60. Already here began to organize large enterprises. For example, tanneries that process thousands of leathers or more per year. And on this basis the shoe industry has developed. In Siberia, bast shoes were not worn. Leather and boots were supplied to the external market - to Kazakhstan, Central Asia, Mongolia, China. Shipyards operated on all the rivers.
Large salt saltworks functioned in the Yenisei Territory, Yakutia, near Irkutsk and Selenginsk. Siberia began to provide itself with salt. And iron too. In Verkhotursk, Tobolsk, Tyumen, and Yenisei counties, “blacksmiths and bronze masters were noted to be crowded”. Conducted geological exploration. Already in the earliest orders to explorers, Moscow demanded to collect information about mineral deposits, flora and fauna. The order of the Ore Investigation sent inquiries about the geological riches of the region to the Siberian commanders. At the same time, detailed instructions were given on how to take samples, which were then sent to Moscow for the evaluation of specialists. Similarly, the Pharmaceutical Order demanded “under the sovereign's decree” information on local medicinal plants. Having received such instructions, the governors instructed “the hawks to click for many days” in the squares and bazaars, collecting information for the next requests of Moscow. Those who provide valuable information were entitled to remuneration from the government.
As a result, the development of mica began in Western Siberia, Yeniseisk, the Baikal region, it was exported to Moscow, exported to Europe. Rhinestones, carnelian, emeralds and other “color patterned stone” were “held” in Verkhotursk, Tobolsk, and Yakutsk counties. We found a “stone nazdak” near the Nevyansk prison, mineral dyes on Vitim, a building stone in Verkhoturye. Pearl fishing opened on the Sea of Okhotsk. Iron was found in the Yakutsk district, in the Baikal and Amur regions. Saltpeter - on Olekma. Have explored nonferrous metals, silver. Argun began lead smelting. Nerchinsk deposits were already developed.
True, in most cases, on the ground, future Siberian developments have only just laid the first test pits, made the first experimental smelting. But they have already been discovered, and so authoritative researchers of Siberia as S.V. Bakhrushin and S.A. Tokarev unequivocally established: “The research of the 18th century academicians was based on the previous searches and experience of the service people of the 17th century.” Thus, it’s not at all necessary to talk about the “lagging behind” of Moscow Russia from the West, about the absence of entrepreneurial spirit and initiative among our distant ancestors. The facts, as we see, testify to the opposite.