Military Review

Industrial revolution of Moscow Rus

18

For some reason, it is customary to imagine the era of the first Romanovs, Mikhail Fedorovich, Alexei Mikhailovich, Fedor Alekseevich, a kind of sleepy feudal kingdom. But upon objective examination, such an unsightly stereotype crumbles to dust. The first large enterprises of the manufacturing type began to emerge with us much earlier, in the XNUMXth century. This, for example, Cannon Yard, Printing Yard, Armory Chamber, cable yards in Kholmogory and Vologda. In the Urals, the Stroganovs turned in full swing.


But Russia reached its peak of business activity in the 17th century. And we note the difference with Western countries: in Spain and France, trade and crafts were considered “vile” occupations, for nobles they were forbidden. In Holland and England, these activities were crushed by large merchants and financiers. In Russia, business was engaged in all sectors of society. Peasants, townspeople (townspeople), servicemen (noblemen, archers, Cossacks), boyars, clergy. The Swede Kilburger wrote that Russians “love commerce from the most distinguished to the simplest.”

Of considerable importance was the wise policy of the government, the promotion of trade, low duties, the easing of customs barriers. As a result, at the end of the XVI - the first half of the XVII century. a single all-Russian market has emerged with a product specialization of various areas that are strongly associated with each other. So, Moscow supplied products of furriers, cloths, gunsmiths, goldsmiths, Moscow region - vegetables and meat, oil came from the Middle Volga region, fish - from the North, from Astrakhan and Rostov, products of blacksmiths - from Serpukhov, Tula, Tikhvin, Galich, Ustyuzhna , skin - from Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Suzdal, Kazan, Murom. On wooden products specialized in the Upper Volga region, on stone construction - artels from Pskov and Novgorod, on carpentry work - artels from the North. Weaving manufacture developed in Moscow and Yaroslavl, Pskov delivered production from flax and hemp, Vyazma - sledge, Reshma - matting. Furs came from Siberia, viticulture, winemaking, horticulture and melon-growing products from Astrakhan.

The largest center of trade was, of course, the capital. Kilburger wrote: “More trading shops are located in the city of Moscow than in Amsterdam or at least in a different whole principality.” There were extensive permanent markets in China Town, White City, and Earthen City. There were markets in all other cities, and there were 923 in Russia. The fair trade flourished. In the XVI century. a fair was active in the town of Kholopiem on the Upper Volga, and in 1620-s it moved to the city of Makaryev, and the famous Makarievsky fair arose, its turnover reached 80 thousand rubles. (for comparison, the cow cost 1 - 2 rubles, sheep - 10 cop.) Very significant fairs were Arkhangelsk, Tikhvin, Svenskaya (near Bryansk). Tikhvin, for example, led trade with 45 cities. A winter Irbit fair was organized in Verkhoturye, connected with Makaryevskaya, and up to a thousand merchants gathered for it. In the summer, the Siberians went to the Yamyshevskiy Fair.

Pavel Aleppsky reported, not without envy, that “the trade of Muscovites is despotic, this is trade of well-fed people” - there were also many bazaars in the Ottoman Empire, from where he came. But there for the small traders to sell at least something meant to secure a piece of bread. The Russians didn’t face a problem like that, and “they say little as francs” - they don’t like the price, so go your way. But foreigners also noted the highest integrity of the Russians. Olearius mentions how a fisherman on the Volga overpaid for 5 cents by mistake. He counted and returned the excess. The Germans struck by this behavior offered him to surrender to himself, but he refused unearned money and took it only after repeated requests.

Entrepreneurial structures in Russia were very peculiar. The first place was occupied by “guests” - large merchants and industrialists who had a turnover of at least 20 thousand rubles. in year. But the “guest” was not the name of the estate, but a rite that was personally complained by the king. The person who received it was incorporated into the very top of the state structure. It was believed that since he managed to make a big fortune and manage it, he is a valuable specialist, and his experience must be used. All the guests were close to the king, were given the right to directly access to him, along with the boyars they were allowed to buy fiefdoms (ie, to alienate the land in hereditary ownership). Guests are exempt from taxes. They acted as economic advisers, financial and trading agents of the government. Through them, the treasury conducted foreign trade, entrusted them with directing the collection of customs and tavern duties, transferred construction contracts, supplies for the army, state monopoly trade — fur, wine, and salt. Pole Nemoevsky called the guests: “The peasants, who, like the boyars, belong to every management”.

Of these "peasants", the Stroganovs can be distinguished - for the tremendous financial assistance during the years of the Troubles, they were given the special title of "famous people." Guest Epiphanius Sveteshnikov led trade with Siberia, exploited salt pans in Usolye. Vasily Shorin led significant trade within Russia, with Persia, Central Asia, was the customs head in Arkhangelsk. In the salt fields, the wealthy and the guests of the Shustovy prospered, and in the domestic and foreign trade - Patokins, Filatievs. In the Siberian trade, the trade families of Bosekh, Revyakins, Balezins, Pankratyevs, and Usovs ran the trade. In Novgorod, they turned over the affairs of the Stoyanovs, in Pskov, Yemelyanov.

In the commercial and industrial hierarchy, the guests were followed by a sitting room and cloth hundreds. They numbered about 400 people. The drawing room, in the main, conducted trade with the East, cloth - with the West. The entrepreneurs who were in them also enjoyed significant privileges and tax privileges, occupied a prominent place in the financial and economic affairs of the state, and had their own self-government. They became elected heads and foremen at fairs, in urban and market structures. Well, the inhabitants of the black settlements and hundreds belonged to the lowest category of entrepreneurs (small shopkeepers and artisans who paid taxes, therefore “black”).

Peasants also traded with might and main. Thus, farms in Northern Dvina, specialized in beef cattle, each family fed up bulls and several calves per year to sell 2-5. In addition, local residents were engaged in the manufacture of charcoal, lime, and organized tar tar. In various localities in the peasant houses there were spinning wheels and weaving machines - fabrics made of wool, flax, and hemp were produced both for their own use and for the market. Many Astrakhans, as Oleariy writes, bred vineyards, having income from them up to 50 rubles. a year, they hunted at the neighboring salt lakes - salt was allowed to be collected by anyone when paying a tax to the treasury, 1 cop. with 2 pounds.

Large and developed farms were boyar fiefdoms, monasteries. For example, in 1641, 2 thousand tons of grain were stored in the bins of the Trinity-Sergius Monastery, the horse was in the stables, 401 had a barrel of beer from its own breweries in the stables, tens of tons of fish from its own breweries, 51 in the treasury were in thousand rubles. and the ships belonging to the monastery could be found both in the White Sea and on the coast of Norway. The adoption of the Customs Charter in 14 has had a very positive effect on the development of the Russian market. He canceled a number of various small and local fees from merchants, abolished all internal customs barriers. For all trade within the country, a single duty was set: 1653% for salt and 10% for all other goods. As a result, huge Russia has finally become “a single economic space.” By the way, it happened much earlier than in Western Europe, where numerous customs on the borders of cities, principalities, and provinces still operated. For example, in France, domestic customs tariffs amounted to 5% of the value of the goods.

As for international trade, our country was one of its largest centers long before any “cutting through windows to Europe”. Russian merchants were constantly and did business in Copenhagen, Stockholm, Riga, in the cities of Germany and Poland. Through Ryazan to the south and further along the Don every autumn, when it rains and there is a lot of water in the river, the merchants' caravans went to Azov, Cafu, Istanbul. They traveled through Astrakhan to Transcaucasia and Persia, and there was a permanent Russian trade colony in Shemakha.

Industrial revolution of Moscow Rus

And foreigners drove to us from everywhere with their goods. Pole Miechowski in the Treatise on Two Sarmatians reported that Russia was “rich in silver.” But she still had no silver mines, and Italian Kampenze specified that the country was “rich in coins mined more through the tutorship of sovereigns than through the mines ... A lot of money was brought there from all over Europe”. In the XVII century. the northern “gates” of Russia were Arkhangelsk, the western - Pskov and Novgorod, the southern - Astrakhan and Putivl, the eastern - Tobolsk. The German Ayrman in Moscow was surprised when describing the many "Persians, Tatars, Kyrgyz, Turks, Poles ... Livans, Swedes, Finns, Dutch, English, French, Italians, Spaniards, Portuguese, Germans from Hamburg, Lübeck, Denmark." “These nations all have their own special shops, which are open every day; miracles for miracles are visible there, so, because of their unaccustomed to their strange customs or national appearance, you often pay more attention to their personalities than to their wonderful goods.”

Every year dozens of ships came to Arkhangelsk, carrying cloth, watches, mirrors, wines and knitwear. Safian, velvet, shawls, carpets, bezoar, turquoise, indigo, incense, oil, and, above all, raw silk were brought to Astrakhan from Iran. Tatars and legs in Astrakhan conducted a large trade in livestock, annually brought huge herds of horses to Moscow for sale - 10% of horses for Russian cavalry were taken as duty. From Mongolia, 1635 supplied Chinese tea. Bukhara merchants carried cotton fabrics, the best paper in the world produced in Samarkand, Chinese porcelain, and silk products. Indians traded through Central Asia, their representative offices appeared in Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, many of them settled in Astrakhan, where they were allowed to build an “Indian yard” with houses, shops and the Vishnu temple. Indian jewelery, incense and spices flowed into Russia.
International trade brought the country a triple benefit. First, it enriched the treasury. Import customs duty in border cities was 5%. In Arkhangelsk, there were cases when the annual income from duties reached 300 thousand rubles. (what was 6 tons of gold). Secondly, the domestic merchants developed and grew rich. Because it was forbidden to trade directly with each other, “over the head” of Russians, to foreigners. Only through the mediation of our entrepreneurs. And thirdly, the intersection in Russia of the flow of goods from all countries created a picture of almost fabulous abundance that amazed all foreign observers. Women from the common people allowed themselves to dress up in silk and velvet. Very expensive spices in Europe were available to commoners, they were added to baking, making gingerbread. Cech Tanner Akhal - they say, in Moscow “small faceted rubies are so cheap that they are sold for pounds - 20 of Moscow or German florins per pound”. The Austrian Geis noted about Russian wealth: “But in Germany, perhaps, they would not have believed it”. And the Frenchman Marzheret concluded: “There is no such wealth in Europe.”

Of course, Russia not only imported goods, but also produced a lot. Exported wax - 20-50 thousand pounds per year, tar, tar, potash, furs, grain. Fat was also exported - 40-100 thousand pounds, honey, hemp, flax, hemp, salt, calamus, rhubarb, walrus bone, blubber (seal fat), fish glue, mica, river pearls. Caviar was then exported “mainly to Italy, where it is considered a delicacy” (Burch). Thousands of leathers per year, sold yuft, felt, bags, jewelry, weapons, horse zbrui, wood carvers, were sold abroad to 100.
Considering the Russian economy of the 17th century, modern researchers (OA Platonov and others) showed that, in terms of its construction principles, it was very different from Western models. It was dominated by the “community type” of the organization. Its key links were rural and craft communities, artels, self-governing urban ends, settlements, streets, hundreds. Even Herzen, a Westernizer, was forced to admit that the economic organization of Russian communities was the complete opposite of the Malthus principle - “the strongest survive.” In the community there was a place for everyone at the common table. And what place - more or less honorable, more or less satisfying, depended on the personal qualities of the person. It was not lagging behind someone (or ahead of someone), but simply its own original model, a national stereotype of relationships.

Craft communities had some similarities with European workshops. They had their own elected self-government, internal rules were in effect, there were holidays, patronal churches, and quality control was exercised. But there were noticeable differences between the Russian communities and the western workshops. The French industrialist Frebe wrote: “Workshops in Russia do not suppress talents and do not interfere in their work.” There was no petty regulation of the number of manufactured goods, prices, applied technologies and tools. Translation of sub-places and pupils into masters or acceptance of new masters into an organization was much easier than in the West. If you have sufficient skills and facilities, please. But it would be more legitimate to compare many artisan hundreds and settlements not with workshops - they were a “scattered type” manufactory. They sold products for resale to large merchants, centrally supplied them for state needs or for export.

Mihalon Lytvyn admitted that “Muscovites are excellent economic managers”. Our ancestors were already familiar with the incorporation - many enterprises, like saltworks, fisheries, etc., were “obshchem on shares” with the distribution of costs and profits for each “share”. Traders perfectly knew how to use credit. Olearius described how wholesalers bought thalers brought by the English on 4 cloth for an elbow - but in debt. And then resold shopkeepers on 3 - 3,5 thaler - but in cash. And by the time the debt was returned, 3 had time - 4 had time to put money into circulation, more than covering the initial loss with profit.

Contractual relations were widely practiced. Let's say, we were reached by the “Contract Record” of the construction team of 26 craftsmen: “I entrusted each other with circular responsibility, and we gave ourselves this record of Borovsky district of the Paphnutiev monastery to Archimandrite Theophanes and the kelar of the old man Pafnothy with brothers in the story that we made a switch. and bricklayers, in the Pafnutiev monastery to make a stone bell tower ”. All details were discussed. The cost of work - 100 rub., Even the issuance before the start of construction of “a bucket of wine in advance”. The possibility of collecting a penalty was also stipulated: “If we don’t do it with the strongest skill ... or learn to drink and bastard, or for some bad walk ... take them, Archimandrite Theophanes and Kelaru elder Pafnotia, by this record for the 200 penalty of a ruble of money."

Existed in the community and domestic insurance. Juan Persian informed that in Murom leatherworkers tanning of leathers is carried out “in a thousand and one houses”, where “a thousand and one skins” are laid, and if they sopreyut for someone, their colleagues give him one skin each and thousand. The numbers, of course, the traveler “rounded” to heighten the effect, but they give an idea of ​​the significant scale of production, and the order of mutual assistance.

In the XVII century. The processes of the industrial revolution in Russia have unfolded very rapidly. In addition to the large manufacturing enterprises that have arisen before, new and new are being built, and the old ones are being expanded and modernized. So, in Moscow the Cannon Yard was reconstructed, there were 2 large workshops in it, there was a semblance of a “design office”, its own training ground. Foreigners called it "a foundry, where they pour a lot of guns and bells." The Golden, Silver, and Armory chambers were expanded. State-owned garment manufactories appear - the Tsarskaya and Tsaritsyna workshops of the chamber, the silk manufactory - the Velvet Yard, the Upper Printing House, Khamovnaya hut, two “powder mills”, the Grenade Yard.

These enterprises were state-owned, their employees were “state employees”, and Oleariy wrote, not without surprise: “In Moscow, it was decided that, on the orders of the Grand Duke, every month all tsarist officials and artisans receive their salaries on time; some even bring it to the house. ” It is worth emphasizing that the sovereign considered it his duty to care for the welfare of his workers. For example, the master of the trunk and lock business Afanasy Vyatkin filed a petition to the king, pointing out his many years of impeccable experience and complaining that he was ruined as a result of a fire and could not provide a dowry to his daughters. The king granted him a dowry of 20 rubles - without return.

In 1620-xNXX-x in Russia there are brick factories - state-owned, private, monastic. So, the needs of Moscow were provided by the plant in the village of Kalitnikovo near the Spaso-Andronikov monastery. So large centers of folk crafts appear, such as Palekh, Khokhloma, Kholui, the center of ceramic production in Gzhel. Numerous shipyards, dyeing and whitewashing workshops, distilleries, tanneries, potash, cloth, weaving, salt-making enterprises are organized. Active development of minerals has developed. There were iron, lead, tin mines. Uglich, Yaroslavl and Ustyug mined saltpeter, Vyatka sulfur.

Attracted and foreign experts. In 1635, the Dukhaninsky glass factory, built by the Italians, began operations. In 1637, the “iron” plant in Tula, founded by Dutch merchants Marcelis and Vinius, was commissioned. The enterprise turned out to be very profitable both for the owners and for the state - according to the terms of the contract, part of the production was deducted to the treasury. And the same entrepreneurs received licenses for the organization of new metallurgical plants. They began to grow like mushrooms - near Vologda, Kostroma, Kashira, on the Vahe, Sheksna, in the Maloyaroslavetsky district, Olonets region, near Voronezh. With the help of foreigners, a watch factory was built in Moscow.

However, it is not worth exaggerating the contribution of foreigners to the development of the country. It was the usual at all times the process of “brain drain”. But the policies of the then kings ensured that he was not going in the current direction, but in the opposite direction. Russia used the process of capital flight - just the Dutch in the XVII century. they were very widely engaged in this, taking money from taxation at home and investing it in production in other countries. But the tsarist government first tried to respect the national interests. And if the Italians took to build a glass factory, then Russian craftsmen were allocated to help them, mastered the technology - and soon, along with the Dukhaninsky factory, the Izmailovsky factory appeared, producing, according to foreigners, “fairly clean glass”. The first paper factory was built on Pakhra by the Germans, and then the second paper factory spun off from it in the same way, the Russian, on Yauza.

Strangers were held “in check”, they were not allowed to prey to the detriment of Russia and its citizens. The permissions to Marcelis and Vinius for the construction of factories stipulated that “no one could repair the cravings and offenses and no one was taken from anyone,” and the workers were allowed to hire only “out of kindness and not in bondage”. And the licenses were not given forever, but for 10-15 years with the possibility of subsequent revision. In 1662, when the timeframe for these permits came out, half of the metallurgical plants built by companions were “written to the sovereign.” Gained a profit - and be happy. And for further profits left you the other half - and also be happy. You are not the boss of your land.
Despite repeated requests, entreaties, sending embassies, neither the Dutch, nor the British, nor the French, nor the Danes, nor the Swedes ever received the right to transit trade with the East through the territory of Russia. And in 1667 on the initiative of the Chancellor A.L. Ordin-Nashchokina was adopted by the Novotorgovy Charter and supplemented by its Charter of trade, which introduced tough protectionist measures to protect domestic merchants and entrepreneurs from foreign competitors.

And, of course, just domestic entrepreneurs played a leading role in the industrial revolution of the XVII century. If in the XVI century. the Stroganovs operated 27 salt saltworks, then in the XVII century. - more than 200, the annual salt extraction amounted to 7 million pounds, providing half of the needs of the country. Their possessions in Vychegda Salt became an important economic and cultural center, there were their own schools for training specialists in salt production, technical instructions were developed. There was also the production of iron, trade in furs, developed construction and artistic craft. Guest Sveteshnikov owned large leather factories in Nizhny Novgorod, Emelyanov - workshops on the manufacture of linen fabrics in Pskov.

But in Russia, as already noted, not only the merchant class was engaged in entrepreneurship. These cases are not shied away and the highest know. For example, Prince Pozharsky was a co-owner of several salt works, he also owned a “village” Kholuy with icon painters' workshops and artistic murals. Ordin-Nashchokin in his Pskov estates engaged in the production of potash, the export of wood. Boyar Morozov in the suburban village of Pavlovsk built a metallurgical plant that used advanced "water-making" equipment. In his other estates, he organized potash and distilleries. The owners of large enterprises were the boyars Miloslavsky, Odoevsky.

The businessmen were the king himself and even the queen. The court doctor Collins described how “beautiful houses” were built in 7 versts from Moscow for the treatment of hemp and flax, “which are in great order, very extensive and will deliver work to all the poor in the state ... The Queen will manage the women in this establishment for their benefits and benefits. ” Altogether, under Mikhail Fedorovich and Alexey Mikhailovich, more than 60 “palace” manufactories were created. The sovereign's orders went with goods to Turkey and Persia, and by mutual agreement with Iran, agents of the king traded there duty-free, like agents of the shah in Russia.

The result of the industrial revolution was that by the middle of the XVII century, Russia exported not only furs, wax and honey. And also fabrics, canvas, ropes (only Kholmogorsky yard provided a quarter of British ships with ropes fleet) Guns also went for export. “Overseas at a free price” sold up to 800 guns per year!

At the same time, the active development of the Urals continued. There were built metallurgical plant Dalmatova monastery, Nitsynsky plant, Nevyansk plant (the same one that Peter later gave Demidov). In the past century, copper was a scarce raw material for Russia. It was looked for by its own and foreign “miners”, but it was not possible to find deposits suitable for development, and Russian merchants received orders to buy even copper scrap abroad. In the 17th century, copper ore was finally found near the Kama salt, a state-owned Pyskorsky plant was founded here, and later the Tumashev brothers' factory was deployed at its base.

Siberia was settled down and settled down. And here the businessmen and the device of settlements were most often occupied by “subloaders” of business-like peasants. They themselves chose places for villages, invited residents. They filed a petition to the district voivode, and he sent an official to dissociate the land. The government completely trusted the subordinates to manage the villages, received taxes from them, but did not interfere in their affairs.


One of these entrepreneurs was, for example, Erofei Khabarov. He was a farmer from Ustyug, he went to Mangazeya in 1628, wanting to get rich in the fur trade, but did not work out. However, Khabarov noted that other sectors of the economy are very profitable in Siberia - many goods were imported here and were expensive: bread, iron, salt, handicraft products. And he returned to Siberia, settled at the mouth of the river Kirengi, hired workers. In 1640, he already had 26 tithe of arable land, his own forge, mills, salt breweries, he was engaged in trade, carting, usury. And then, together with the Yakut governor, Frantsbekov organized an expedition to Amur, began to develop the “Daur land” and build towns there.

In Siberia, many entrepreneurs “got on their feet” and grew rich. Thus, the Yenisei merchant Ushakov held in his hands all the food supplies of Eastern Siberia. The peasant Gabriel Nikitin, the clerk of the Filatyev guests, made a fortune in the fur trade, separated from the owners and himself received the rank of guest. Tobolsk and Tara became centers of trade with Central Asia, Nerchinsk - with China, Selenginsk - with the Mongols. Ambassador Spafari wrote: "Mungals roam everywhere very much and trade with the Cossacks: they sell horses and camels and cattle, as well as all sorts of Chinese goods, and they buy sables and other Russian goods."

In the second half of the XVII century. Soap-making, candle-making, woodworking workshops, distilleries and breweries began to emerge in Siberia. In each city there were several hundred reservants. In Yeniseisk in 1670, researchers count 24 craft trades, in Tomsk - 50, in Tobolsk - 60. Already here began to organize large enterprises. For example, tanneries that process thousands of leathers or more per year. And on this basis the shoe industry has developed. In Siberia, bast shoes were not worn. Leather and boots were supplied to the external market - to Kazakhstan, Central Asia, Mongolia, China. Shipyards operated on all the rivers.

Large salt saltworks functioned in the Yenisei Territory, Yakutia, near Irkutsk and Selenginsk. Siberia began to provide itself with salt. And iron too. In Verkhotursk, Tobolsk, Tyumen, and Yenisei counties, “blacksmiths and bronze masters were noted to be crowded”. Conducted geological exploration. Already in the earliest orders to explorers, Moscow demanded to collect information about mineral deposits, flora and fauna. The order of the Ore Investigation sent inquiries about the geological riches of the region to the Siberian commanders. At the same time, detailed instructions were given on how to take samples, which were then sent to Moscow for the evaluation of specialists. Similarly, the Pharmaceutical Order demanded “under the sovereign's decree” information on local medicinal plants. Having received such instructions, the governors instructed “the hawks to click for many days” in the squares and bazaars, collecting information for the next requests of Moscow. Those who provide valuable information were entitled to remuneration from the government.

As a result, the development of mica began in Western Siberia, Yeniseisk, the Baikal region, it was exported to Moscow, exported to Europe. Rhinestones, carnelian, emeralds and other “color patterned stone” were “held” in Verkhotursk, Tobolsk, and Yakutsk counties. We found a “stone nazdak” near the Nevyansk prison, mineral dyes on Vitim, a building stone in Verkhoturye. Pearl fishing opened on the Sea of ​​Okhotsk. Iron was found in the Yakutsk district, in the Baikal and Amur regions. Saltpeter - on Olekma. Have explored nonferrous metals, silver. Argun began lead smelting. Nerchinsk deposits were already developed.

True, in most cases, on the ground, future Siberian developments have only just laid the first test pits, made the first experimental smelting. But they have already been discovered, and so authoritative researchers of Siberia as S.V. Bakhrushin and S.A. Tokarev unequivocally established: “The research of the 18th century academicians was based on the previous searches and experience of the service people of the 17th century.” Thus, it’s not at all necessary to talk about the “lagging behind” of Moscow Russia from the West, about the absence of entrepreneurial spirit and initiative among our distant ancestors. The facts, as we see, testify to the opposite.
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  1. Horde
    Horde 28 June 2013 08: 08
    0
    For some reason, it is customary to imagine the era of the first Romanovs, Mikhail Fedorovich, Alexei Mikhailovich, Fedor Alekseevich, a kind of sleepy feudal kingdom. But upon objective examination, such an unsightly stereotype crumbles to dust


    during the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich, Russia reached the peak of its power. After the Great Troubles, Mikhail Fedorovich and his son Alexei Mikhailovich were NOT Romanov, they belonged to the old Russian dynasty and therefore pursued a policy of strengthening the country, developing the economy and social life. Literally all foreign sources of those years ( memoirs, as well as the first European newspapers) note the country's unusually high industrial level, as well as developed trade relations. The influx of gold and silver into the country was simply disgrace ndentnym in Russia domes of churches Gold Wing that could not afford the other gosudarstva.No its gold mine in Russia was not the gold melted down from coins (gold efimok) .and a country undertook to reform Peter? What for? The answer is one. The West did not like such a subordinate state of affairs when Russia dictated the rules of the game, therefore, brought in its protégé Pyotr PERVOY ROMANOV, who destroyed the RUSSIAN STATE.
    1. Basileus
      Basileus 28 June 2013 08: 19
      0
      Two questions:
      1. What surname was Mikhail Fedorovich?
      2. What was the name of father Peter Alekseevich?
      1. Horde
        Horde 28 June 2013 16: 50
        -1
        Quote: Basileus
        . What was the name of father Peter Alekseevich?



        Friedrich Hohenzollern

        (1657-1713), father of Peter I, first king of Prussia



        Peter I (01.05.1672-28.01.1725)

        son from the marriage of Friedrich Hohenzollern and Sophia Alekseevna Charlotte
        Princess Sofya is the daughter of Alexei Mikhailovich according to TI SISTER to Peter, but in reality she is his MOTHER. This explains a lot of obscure facts.

        facts from the new book of the historian Alexander Kas "The collapse of the Empire of the Russian Tsars"
        http://istclub.ru/topic/438-%D0%B3%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%B0-%E2%84%961-%D0%BF%D0%
        BE%D1%81%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%BD%D1%8F%D1%8F-%D0%B4%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%81%D1%8
        2%D0%B8%D1%8F-%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%BC%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D1%85-%D0%B8%D0%BC%D0%BF%D0%B
        5%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%BE/
      2. Horde
        Horde 28 June 2013 17: 00
        0
        . What surname was Mikhail Fedorovich?


        apparently it’s already possible to learn about it reliably, but of course Rurik is not a native of the Varangians.
        1. Horde
          Horde 28 June 2013 17: 18
          0
          Quote: Horde
          . What surname was Mikhail Fedorovich?


          apparently it’s already possible to learn about it reliably, but of course Rurik is not a native of the Varangians.


          Illustration from the book of Sigismund Herberstein "Notes on Muscovy" edition
          1576. Russian Tsar Vasily receives foreign ambassadors sitting and in a turban. The European ambassador is kneeling with his head uncovered.
          1. Oldréd
            Oldréd 1 July 2013 07: 14
            0
            You don’t cut a chip at all, or you purposely enter a fornication. Engraved courtyard of the Turkish Sultan. Protection in typical costumes of Janissaries. Go learn the story.
            1. Horde
              Horde 2 July 2013 08: 10
              0
              Quote: OldRed
              You don’t cut a chip at all, or you purposely enter a fornication. Engraved courtyard of the Turkish Sultan. Protection in typical costumes of Janissaries. Go learn the story.


              such a boor as you probably would have been right not to answer at all, but I will answer
              http://www.vostlit.info/Texts/rus8/Gerberstein/karten.phtml?id=995
              I apologize ... hear
    2. stroporez
      stroporez 28 June 2013 10: 08
      +1
      Quote: Horde
      The West did not like such a subordinate state of affairs when Russia dictated the rules of the game
      Well, there were serious arguments for this. Ivan Vasilyevich also had the "coolest" artillery park in the world, you can argue with such "dudes" figs. Conclusion, Europe listens to Russia when Russia has a powerful army, not measured artillery and pr. power "chips" .............
      1. Horde
        Horde 28 June 2013 17: 06
        0
        [quote = Horde] The West did not like such a subordinate state of affairs when Russia dictated the rules of the game [/ quote] Well, there were serious arguments for this. Ivan Vasilyevich also had the "coolest" artillery park in the world, with such "dudes" fig argue.conclusion, Europe listens to Russia toko when Russia has a powerful army, not measured artillery and other power "chips" ............. [/ quote]




        I often bring this map to the first Northern War of 1656 Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, the one who is SILENT, who came up with such a stupid nickname? with their army 80000 soldiers besieging the MISCELLANEOUS RIGA of the defending 9000 soldiers and according to TI they manage not to take it, that they always had problems taking logic from the silencers. The Russian fleet is sailing with ships with several masts, these did not go along the rivers, but only along the seas but traditions persistently begin the marine history of Russia with Peter
    3. Uzoliv
      Uzoliv 28 June 2013 10: 23
      +5
      Quote: Horde
      The influx of gold and silver into the country was simply unprecedented

      In this case, it is completely unclear why, under Aleksey Mikhailovich (who, according to alternative Romanovs, is not Romanov), they had to lower the amount of silver in money, in effect, introduce copper money, which ultimately led to a copper riot.
      1. Horde
        Horde 28 June 2013 17: 43
        0
        Quote: Uzoliv
        Quote: Horde
        The influx of gold and silver into the country was simply unprecedented

        In this case, it is completely unclear why, under Aleksey Mikhailovich (who, according to alternative Romanovs, is not Romanov), they had to lower the amount of silver in money, in effect, introduce copper money, which ultimately led to a copper riot.


        Pavel Aleppsky in the 17th century writes: “The annual income of the Moscow Tsar, according to the law of justice and correctly collected, is thirty-six million. All this comes from the trade in wheat and rye, sold to all Frankish lands, and from the re-minting of piastre real into a walking coin ”(1). As we see, everyone knew about the re-minting of American piastres at that time - this was one of the main sources of income for the Russian Emperor. The Russian Empire sucked in American and European precious metals like a mad vacuum cleaner. With this state of affairs, Europe was rapidly impoverished, and the wealth of Russia became simply fabulous. In 1656, Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich issued the heaviest gold coin - the Russian Portuguese at ten ducats! And at that time, Sweden, having sent all its silver stock to Muscovy, was forced to introduce not even copper - paper money inside the country in 1661, one of the main European silver producers! And a similar fate awaited the whole of vassal Europe.
        http://istclub.ru/topic/508-%D0%B3%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%B0-%E2%84%962-%D0%B7%D0%
        B0%D0%B1%D1%8B%D1%82%D0%B0%D1%8F-%D0%B8%D0%BC%D0%BF%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B8%D1%8F/

        I can’t answer directly about the copper riot, I’ll find it
        1. Oldréd
          Oldréd 1 July 2013 07: 23
          +1
          What is America in the 17th century ?! South? Of these, all of Spain and Portugal sucked out, and in the North there was no * Rena except the Indians naked! And the piastre is a Turkish coin!
      2. Horde
        Horde 28 June 2013 18: 06
        0
        Quote: Uzoliv
        Quote: Horde
        The influx of gold and silver into the country was simply unprecedented

        In this case, it is completely unclear why, under Aleksey Mikhailovich (who, according to alternative Romanovs, is not Romanov), they had to lower the amount of silver in money, in effect, introduce copper money, which ultimately led to a copper riot.


        Russian EFIMOK, or as historians Russia-Mother was cheated with a large coin.


        It is generally believed that in Russia from the time of Prince Vladimir to Peter I there was no large coin. All commodity and settlement operations were carried out in kopecks, half shells, and money. Over the centuries, no shift has been observed in this process, and pennies are rapidly decreasing due to constant inflation and becoming worse and worse. And only with the advent of Peter I did large coins of excellent quality finally appear in Russia, they learned how to do it right away.

        It seems to me such a picture is ridiculous, because the state cannot do without a large coin, especially the largest state in Europe. How to carry out cash settlements? What to save? How to conduct foreign trade operations? I asked these questions on many historical sites, and in response I always received the same thing: there was a penny and everyone was happy. But, excuse me, I asked, and how, for example, to accept goods from the Hamburg ship of tens of thousands of thalers? When exchanging for a penny, you will have to count a million coins! Well, how many weeks do you need to recount, check every penny, and how then to store this unimaginable number of cents? I didn’t get an answer ... Sometimes they told me that no one counted anything - directly by weight the pennies were capitalized, in bags. But how can I give my thalers to a pig in a poke without checking ?! And if there are a million of these cats? With all due respect to our historical science and its followers, I find such answers not convincing.


        The absence of a large monetary unit in Russia is unimaginable and absolutely illogical. How could such a large state as the Russian kingdom first use gold medals, then bilingual dichrums and ... get to tiny unsightly scales the size of a fingernail on the little finger? Why did these scales remain the main means of payment in Russia? What is the reason for this, because inconvenience and absurdity on the face. The main historical version boils down to the fact that they simply did not know how to make a large coin in Russia, technically they could not. Yes, they could receive thalers and ingots, melt them into silver, then cast a wire of a certain size, evenly divide it in the foot, carefully cut and apply a double-sided coinage on each tiny particle of wire, but they could not make a large coin. Under Vladimir, the Red Sun could, and under Tsar Ivan the Terrible, they had already forgotten how. All these very strange explanations seemed ridiculous to me, to say the least.

        How did the Russian people manage without large coins? I started to study this question ... and this is amazing! In documents and annals, pennies are almost not mentioned at all, and the following names meet: ruble, altyn, yefimok, plate, chervonets, ducat, Ugric, ruble. I wrote out quotes and ran to historical forums: how so, they say, my friends? There are how many large coins in Russia there were: rubles to you, and you chervonets, and you yefimki in large numbers! But the answer discouraged me - it turns out that historians know about these artifacts, but prefer to consider all these memoirs conditional. Allegedly, the number of cents was determined.

        http://istclub.ru/topic/868-%D1%80%D1%83%D1%81%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9-%D0%B5%D1
        %84%D0%B8%D0%BC%D0%BE%D0%BA/
      3. Horde
        Horde 28 June 2013 18: 10
        0
        Well, if they say, admittance, the blacksmith Ivan paid 15 efimkov and three altyns for copper to the merchant Athanasius, then this means that he paid it all in kopecks, based on the acceptance course at that time in Yefimka-thaler in Arkhangelsk plus three kopecks. In what, I thought, interesting! Now everything has become clearer ... And then I tried to count in a similar equivalent, and so I immediately reached a dead end. Not practical and extremely uncomfortable. How does a blacksmith know the course of Efimka today? How to determine whether it is a yefimok: amorous, or rat? How many cents will be output? With such conventions, every mention of such calculations should then be processed by a computer to establish the exact number of cents. And if you take into account that the pennies themselves had different feet and sizes (since the Novgorod was twice as large as Moscow), then such calculations in pennies generally lost their meaning. To understand what was meant was simply not real.

        And why do foreigners need a penny if they don't use these scales? Historians note that foreigners did not bring back a penny and spent all of them in Russia. Okay, I agree. But how then to understand the following fact: "Alexei is so devoted to a devout way of life that he is constantly with him a confessor, without whose permission he does not attend any games or shows. In 1640 he presented (to the Patriarch of Jerusalem) 100 thousand rubles for a particle of the Holy Cross, moreover, he promised, according to the custom of his ancestors, constant protection and assistance, as far as possible, to Orthodox Christians in the East. Kindness of heart - in order to crown the list of his good qualities, as it were, with a precious stone - there is so much in him that he strictly demands it from others "(1 . Reitenfels, 73). Why does the Patriarch of Jerusalem need 100 thousand rubles in kopecks as a gift? Where was he going to spend them? And try to imagine the whole unimaginable mass of kopecks: 100 thousand rubles = 10 kopecks! Then it will take years to recount ... And how much effort does it take to chasing from a wire with precise markings on a hundredth of a foot and applying a double-sided stamp on each scale? This half of the country's population should work on the minting of kopecks! Even in our time, in the conditions of advanced technologies, the minting of a bargaining chip is considered unprofitable, that is, the costs of producing a small coin cost significantly more than the denomination itself. It must be assumed that this ratio in more backward centuries was simply colossal! And if we add to this the inevitable losses during the melting of imported silver into a penny wire and marriage during minting, then the very idea of ​​using only a penny denomination becomes absurd.

        No, I thought, that doesn't happen. And he began to investigate this issue further ...
        http://istclub.ru/topic/868-%D1%80%D1%83%D1%81%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9-%D0%B5%D1
        %84%D0%B8%D0%BC%D0%BE%D0%BA/
    4. CHILD
      CHILD 28 June 2013 10: 27
      -1
      there is an opinion that Peter was replaced in Holland ....
      1. Yarosvet
        Yarosvet 28 June 2013 10: 46
        +4
        Quote: KIND
        there is an opinion that Peter was replaced in Holland ....

        And Putin - in Germany laughing
        1. CHILD
          CHILD 28 June 2013 18: 09
          0
          but about Putin it’s not funny at all ..... and there who knows ............ history can hardly be called an exact science .... but I don’t believe the answer, I don’t even argue!
    5. stoqn477
      stoqn477 28 June 2013 14: 33
      +2
      Peter the First Romanov, who destroyed the Russian State

      If not for Peter the Great, you would still have a beard to the knees, to trade in furs and walrus teeth! Your army will continue to be streltsy regiments with spears and axes. Sea trade and the navy will only be dreamed of.
      1. Basileus
        Basileus 28 June 2013 15: 24
        +2
        Sobsno, the so-called the regiments of the new system existed before Peter, and the Russian army quickly absorbed the achievements of the West without the massacre of beards and fashion for tights and lousy wigs.
      2. MahsusNazar
        MahsusNazar 28 June 2013 16: 36
        +1
        You would not get excited with the conclusions about beards and axes. Before Peter there was a fleet and an army. With him, there was more foolishness than good, here are screams and stories - a heap, but a little sense!
      3. Horde
        Horde 28 June 2013 17: 56
        0
        Quote: stoqn477
        Peter the First Romanov, who destroyed the Russian State

        If not for Peter the Great, you would still have a beard to the knees, to trade in furs and walrus teeth! Your army will continue to be streltsy regiments with spears and axes. Sea trade and the navy will only be dreamed of.


        So you say dude, as if you are not from our German? with spears and axes - even the number on the head laughing
        The author even told you in an article that Russia even traded cannons, and not many could do the aerobatics of civilization at that time.
        1. stoqn477
          stoqn477 28 June 2013 18: 31
          +1
          Just because you produced something does not mean that the army also chooses it. You are currently selling much more advanced systems abroad than in your army.
      4. Horde
        Horde 28 June 2013 18: 34
        -1
        Quote: stoqn477
        Peter the First Romanov, who destroyed the Russian State

        If not for Peter the Great, you would still have a beard to the knees, to trade in furs and walrus teeth! Your army will continue to be streltsy regiments with spears and axes. Sea trade and the navy will only be dreamed of.



        By the way, if it was so bad in Russia, why did all Europeans rush to Russia for any service? And not everyone was taken. And when Peter opened the gates of holy Israel to his pets, the stream of Europeans who fled to Muscovy from smelly Europe became like a mudflow:

        Quote
        The Germans rained down to Russia, like rubbish from a holey bag, clung to the yard, settled the throne, climbed to all the profitable places in the office. Klyuchevsky. The course of Russian history. Lecture No. 71
        laughing
      5. Horde
        Horde 28 June 2013 21: 55
        +1
        Quote: stoqn477
        Peter the First Romanov, who destroyed the Russian State

        If not for Peter the Great, you would still have a beard to the knees, to trade in furs and walrus teeth! Your army will continue to be streltsy regiments with spears and axes. Sea trade and the navy will only be dreamed of.


        By 1675, so much silver had accumulated in Russia that guns started pouring from it! The secretary of the Austrian embassy of 1675, Adolf Lisek, describes the entry into the Kremlin: “Warriors with banners and various weapons stood in two rather large courtyards, between which there were two silver cannons called snake guns” (25). And historians tell us fables about the copper riot that impoverished Russia since the time of Tsar Alexei. What a cynical lie! There were silver guns on Muscovy - evidence of the unprecedented wealth of the Great Empire.
    6. anomalocaris
      anomalocaris 29 June 2013 06: 44
      +1
      Uh-huh. Add to this the "salt" and "copper" riots, church schism, razinshchina and there is a lot of other little things ...
      There were no gold mines of our own, that's for sure. And "efimok" is just a joachimstaller, with a stamped penny stamp. And nobody melted them anywhere.
      1. Horde
        Horde 29 June 2013 09: 10
        +1
        Quote: anomalocaris
        Uh-huh. Add to this the "salt" and "copper" riots, church schism, razinshchina and there is a lot of other little things ...
        There were no gold mines of our own, that's for sure. And "efimok" is just a joachimstaller, with a stamped penny stamp. And nobody melted them anywhere.


        about the "copper riot" I wrote above, as for the "split", then, of course, the historian Alexander Kas must understand on the materials of contemporaries of that time convincingly proves that the "split" is church transformations, the departure from Russian customs and rituals to Greek what is attributed Patriarch Nikon was a LIE, just the opposite of Russia they tried to inculcate Catholicism, but Nikon, just opposed such transformations.
        http://istclub.ru/forum/51-%D0%BA%D1%80%D1%83%D1%88%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B5-%D0%


        B8%D0%BC%D0%BF%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B8-%D1%80%D1%83%D1%81%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D1%8


        5-%D1%86%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B5%D0 ЧИТАЙТЕ%B9/
        Want to know the TRUTH? READ OUR historians and do not read German.
        1. The comment was deleted.
  2. Boris55
    Boris55 28 June 2013 08: 58
    -1
    Quote: Basileus
    Two questions:
    1. What surname was Mikhail Fedorovich?

    The first Russian Tsar (1613 - 1645) from the Romanov dynasty.
    He was closest in kinship to the former Russian tsars: the grand-nephew of Anastasia Romanovna Zakharyina, the first wife of Ivan the Terrible. The ambassadors found him with his mother in Kostroma, in the Ipatiev Monastery.
    First, the mother and son abandoned the royal throne, since Mikhail was young, and the state was devastated after the turmoil. His father, the future Russian Patriarch Filaret, who himself was aiming at the Tsar, was at that time in Polish captivity. Upon returning to Moscow, Filaret agreed to be a patriarch.

    From this moment (1619 r) there were actually two sovereigns in Russia: Mikhail — son, Filaret — father. State affairs were decided by both, relations between them, according to the annals, were friendly, although the patriarch had a large share in the board. With the arrival of Filaret, a troubled and powerless time ended.

    2. What was the name of father Peter Alekseevich?

    And it depends on what:
  3. Yarosvet
    Yarosvet 28 June 2013 10: 52
    +1
    "The Romanovs: Myths about the Dynasty" http://vechorka.ru/gazeta/?b=view&articleID=27143
  4. igordok
    igordok 28 June 2013 12: 16
    0
    The main catalyst for the industrial revolution is the scarcity of resources. The limited resources made the little shavers rob, whenever possible, of everyone everywhere. With our resources, when almost everything is there, we have become catching up. Fortunately, or to grief? I do not know.
    1. Sour
      Sour 28 June 2013 15: 04
      0
      In addition to the scarcity of resources, there must be some foundation for the industrial revolution. Foundation in the form of sufficient development of science and education, a sufficient level of enterprise development. If anything, in the Middle Ages the shortage of resources in Iran was greater than in Europe (in Europe at least there were copper, silver, lead, timber, charcoal and coal), but in Iran there was no industrial revolution. And Iran is just one example. One can recall Mongolia, where a shortage of resources led only to a short-term surge in external aggression, but not to the growth of industry. You can recall many more.
      It’s not necessary to reduce everything to needs. For the industrial revolution, not only needs are needed, but also opportunities, potential.
      1. Sour
        Sour 28 June 2013 15: 25
        +2
        For example. In the 13-14 centuries, universities were already in full swing in Europe (this was when our ancestors were chopping up on the Kulikovo field), it was possible to get a decent (at that time) technical education, because geometry, mathematics, mechanics were taught. And in our country, back in the 17th century, Patriarch Nikon declared geometry a "godless science". It was with these that Peter fought. Try, build a ship or a modern fortress without "godless geometry".
        Regarding the development of entrepreneurship. In Europe at the beginning of the 17th century there were deposit banks, commodity exchanges, and even stock exchanges, where there were quotes of currencies and securities (there was already stock ownership in Europe). There were large trading and industrial companies, patent law was born. In short, the foundation was being prepared for the future industrial revolution. And at that time, False Dmitry fought for power with Boris Godunov, and the peasants fled into the dense forests and uninhabited steppes, fleeing the boyars and governor.
        1. Basileus
          Basileus 28 June 2013 15: 47
          0
          And how are the civil war in Russia and the industrial revolution connected? There, in Germany, just at the beginning of the 17th century, there was such a war that civilian casualties amounted to more than 6 million. But for some reason you somehow do not want to drag the Thirty Years into the industrial revolution, but the Troubles - please.
  5. mithridate
    mithridate 28 June 2013 12: 19
    0
    Extensive and serious historical research must be carried out in order to clear up the multi-volume layering of lies written by agents of the influence of the West.
  6. Sour
    Sour 28 June 2013 14: 19
    +6
    Yes, everything was in pre-Petrine Rus - and even a standing army appeared ("regiments of a foreign system"), and even the fleet was the only modern (at that time) military ship "Eagle", which was burned by the Razins in the Caspian Sea.
    And guns were made, and even guns, in small numbers, really.
    And steel was generally the best in the world, at that time. England then imported Russian steel.
    But how it came to activating foreign policy, solving great-power tasks, so problems arose immediately. First of all, problems of the management system and problems of national mentality. Ivan the Terrible encountered this even earlier. Peter also understood what was happening, and in addition to creating regiments and ships, in addition to building weapons factories, he took up (primarily) the restructuring of the control system and breaking down the national mentality.
    Without understanding this, based solely on economics, it is impossible to understand Peter's policy.
    Do not idealize pre-Petrine Russia. Nobody respected and was not afraid of her in Europe, and in Asia in places too. Grozny’s 54-year rule was an exception. Constant territorial problems, lack of access to the warm seas, underdeveloped trade, grandiose and almost continuous peasant-Cossack uprisings, frequent riots in cities, robber gangs on high roads - this is what pre-Petrine Russia is. And Peter, no matter how you relate to him, made everyone, if not respect, at least be afraid. Both in Europe and in Asia.
    1. Horde
      Horde 28 June 2013 19: 20
      0
      And guns were made, and even guns, in small numbers, really.


      In the work of Pavel Aleppo, who visited Moscow in the middle of the 17th century while Tsar Alexei was on a campaign, it is reported: “The patriarch showed our teacher from the window at the many carts loaded with guns that he sends to the Tsar. He said that there were 50 thousand of them and that they were now received in boxes from the Swedish kingdom. We marveled at their multitude, and he added that at the Tsar in the Kremlin, craftsmen make seventy thousand guns for him annually. It’s in the capital, and how many of them are also made for the Tsar in most other cities, it’s countless ... The whole army of the Tsar is equipped with a fire battle, that is, guns ”(1). As can be seen from the text, the Russian Tsar has a myriad of rifles, hundreds of thousands of units are produced per year, in addition, the Swedish governor dutifully sent 50 thousand rifles. With such an arsenal and such a large army, it was possible to conquer the entire universe.

      First of all, problems of the management system and problems of national mentality.


      what are these "problems of national mentality"? read "my struggle"? it's not all true.

      Peter also understood what was happening, and in addition to creating regiments and ships, in addition to building weapons factories, he took up (primarily) the restructuring of the control system and breaking down the national mentality.


      As for the ships, I cited the above consideration on the map of the 1st Northern War of 1656. Well, as for the fact that Peter broke a lot of things in Russia, it becomes known that Peter was German.
    2. Horde
      Horde 28 June 2013 19: 43
      0
      Do not idealize pre-Petrine Russia. Nobody respected and was not afraid of her in Europe, and in Asia


      Now let's see what victories his predecessor, “Silent” Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, won. In the years 1648-1654. Tsar Hetman Bogdan Khmelnitsky as a result of crushing victories over the Polish army covered himself with victorious glory. And this fame thundered to Warsaw itself, where Khmelnitsky twice brought his army. These campaigns resulted in gigantic territorial acquisitions: in 1654 Little Russia became part of the Russian Empire. Moreover, Little Russia should be understood as the territory from the Dnieper to the Danube and to the west to the Greater Carpathians, and not at all Left-Bank Ukraine, as our historians try to present. Here is how the contemporary of events, Pavel Aleppsky, describes the military conquests: “They (voivode Buturlin and Bogdan Khmelnitsky) took twenty-eight fortresses and cities from the Poles, including a city named Lublin, which in their language means“ a city of assembly ”, for Poles in the era of their power gathered in it for meetings. They defeated the great hetman Lyakhov Pavel Pototsky "(1). The acquisitions touched precisely the Polish lands, Bogdan Khmelnitsky fought along with the royal governor Buturlin, because initially he represented not the Zaporozhye robbers, but the famous Russian army.

      In the years 1654-1655. the armies of the Russian governor Alexy Trubetskoy and Andrei Khovansky defeated the Polish-Lithuanian forces and occupied Roslavl, Mstislavl, Nevel, Polotsk. Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, who personally participated in military campaigns in 1654-1656, took Smolensk, Dorogobuzh, Gomel, Svisloch and Minsk, then Kovno and Grodno were occupied, and near Brest the Lithuanian hetman Sapega was utterly defeated by the Urusov detachment. From that moment, the Polish-Lithuanian army ceased to exist.
      Then the Russian tsar during the brilliant Riga campaign took Kogenhausen and Riga. In 1655, Alexei Mikhailovich triumphantly entered Vilna and annexed to Russia the entire Grand Duchy of Lithuania along with White Russia! Then, in addition to Little and White Russia, vast territories, including the Lithuanian, Podolsk and Volyn great princedoms, were included in the imperial title, in fact, all of Poland fell under the Russian scepter ... And historians called the great Russian Tsar commander with the sly nickname "Silent". Like, there was nothing remarkable in the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich, but the army was backward and worthless ...

      http://istclub.ru/topic/508-%D0%B3%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%B0-%E2%84%962-%D0%B7%D0%
      B0%D0%B1%D1%8B%D1%82%D0%B0%D1%8F-%D0%B8%D0%BC%D0%BF%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B8%D1%8F/

      when you begin to read at least contemporaries of that time, the picture opens that is completely OTHER precisely before the murder of Alexei Mikhailovich. Russia was an EMPIRE and owned all the known lands of that time. After the death of Alexei Mikhailovich, Latins came to power in Russia and tried to expand the country to Catholicism, but it did not work out .
  7. Sour
    Sour 28 June 2013 14: 49
    +4
    Another thing. My attitude to V. Shambarov is very critical. The point is not even that he has no historical education. The point is that he is an ordinary publicist compiler. He takes long known facts, filters them out, and then sets out on paper and puts his signature under them. His typical hand-made article is "White Guard". In this book (I read it), not a single fact was not published before Shambarov. Everything was already known to those who were seriously interested in the history of the Civil War. Not a single study, analysis, comparison. Not a single fact-based original version. The usual popularization of history (and a rather tendentious one), presented in the manner of a publicist, not a researcher. Nevertheless, Shambarov has the audacity to call himself a "historian", and his publishers agree with him in this. Shambarov is not a historian, he is just as much an amateur amateur as any of us. And no matter what Wikipedia writes about him, his contribution to historical science is zero. Sorry, but if I had stuck in publishing houses, I would write no worse. Yes, I am not a historian by education, but Shambarov was not a historian for a single second.
    1. Dovmont
      Dovmont 28 June 2013 17: 11
      0
      And I liked the "White Guard", although, I confess, I do not agree with him in everything. Especially in his assessment of the activities of the Japanese in the Far East.
      1. Sour
        Sour 28 June 2013 17: 54
        0
        Assessment is not difficult.
        Especially if it has already been given a hundred times by eyewitnesses and historians.
        And you try to outline some new problem, or bring new facts, or put forward a new confirmed version of certain events, or analyze existing data, or at least publish previously unpublished documents ...
        Then a person can be called a historian, albeit not the coryphaeus of historical science. But at least by some historian.
        But "to give an assessment", especially to that which has already been assessed before you, and I can do it no worse than Shambarov. It's just that he has familiar publishers, but you and I don't. It can be read if there is nothing to do. But referring to him as a source, sorry, is inappropriate. The same reason to refer to the school history textbook.
  8. Sour
    Sour 28 June 2013 16: 00
    0
    Quote: Basileus
    And how are the civil war in Russia and the industrial revolution connected? There, in Germany, just at the beginning of the 17th century, there was such a war that civilian casualties amounted to more than 6 million. But for some reason you somehow do not want to drag the Thirty Years into the industrial revolution, but the Troubles - please.

    Yes, it’s not in the Troubles, but in the general level of development of science and technology. Nobody here drags in Troubles. except you. And no one connects the Civil War in Russia and the industrial revolution. I didn’t catch what you were talking about. If anything, the industrial revolution even in Russia (not to mention Germany) began long before the Civil War. And if it had begun 50 years earlier, there would have been no Civil War. There would be minor urban riots, such as the Paris Commune.
    So that you finally understand. I do not consider the Time of Troubles in Russia or the Civil War as cause our economic backwardness, but exclusively as consequence and indicatorour backwardness. The Time of Troubles is a purely feudal showdown for power, the time of which in Europe had already passed by then. The Civil War is a consequence of the overpopulation of the Russian countryside. In the 20th century, major civil wars were only in Russia, Spain and China (well, even in Cuba). Economically developed countries have long passed (or escaped) the stage of civil wars.
  9. spanchbob
    spanchbob 28 June 2013 17: 06
    0
    This article is for the ignorant and ignorant, and Shambarov himself is either lying or also one of those. Citing rope yards, an armory yard, etc., as an example, I would just as well point to 12c. And "The Stroganovs in the Urals" - sounds to the ear, but nothing more. In the 16th century, the Stroganovs had a salt industry and trade, and that's the whole "industry"
  10. Pablo_K
    Pablo_K 28 June 2013 17: 12
    +1
    Quote: Sour
    Do not idealize pre-Petrine Russia. Nobody respected and was not afraid of her in Europe, and in Asia in places too. Grozny’s 54-year rule was an exception.

    And who should have been afraid of her? Throughout the 17th century, we fought with three neighbors.
    From the south, Turks and Tatars, from the west Poles, from the north-west Swedes, the rest of Europe, then nothing happened to us, they themselves were in continuous war.
    And under Alexei Mikhailovich, Russia was a strong country, Poland was settled forever, and in those days it was a strong power.
    And about the then economy:
    In Russia there was everything except money. There were no gold mines and silver mines then, all money was only from export (the author of the article mentioned this fact), an attempt to make money copper did not lead to anything good.
    Neighboring Poles and Swedes could not be trading partners because of a lack of money, at that time they only succeeded in fighting, the Poles saved Europe several times from the Turks, and the Swedes terrorized all of Europe.
    The only real trading partners were English and Golan merchants, but they dictated their prices and dreamed of making us a second India.
    And at the end of the 17th century, we had 3 kings of a youngster and, accordingly, a mess.
    When one of these youngsters grew up, he broke quite a few firewood, but this is already the 18th century.
  11. Sour
    Sour 28 June 2013 17: 45
    +1
    Quote: Pablo_K
    Poland settled down forever

    Under Alexei, Russia legally recognized the rights of Poland to the Belarusian lands and to the entire Right-Bank Ukraine. Gomel, Mogilev, Orsha, Polotsk continued to remain Polish colonies.
    This is despite the fact that Poland in the then European alignment of forces was nothing and nobody, just cannon fodder in the confrontation between the Turks and the Austrians.
    Poland was "calmed down", and even then not forever, only Catherine.
    Sweden and Turkey tightly blocked the oxygen of Russia (in the sense of access to ice-free ports). Crimeans continued to keep the South of Russia in suspense.
    The internal political situation under Alexei is complete. No wonder the time of his reign was called "rebellious time".
    For the development of the industry of the Urals, Alexei did nothing. This is despite the fact that England, Spain and France already with might and main exported gold, silver, copper, precious stones with whole squadrons from the newly discovered lands.
  12. trenkkvaz
    trenkkvaz 28 June 2013 19: 08
    +1
    "the profit from duties reached 300 thousand rubles (which amounted to 6 tons of gold)"
    It seems like an article about the economy, and the author makes childhood mistakes.
    What are 6 tons? The ruble of that time is the equivalent of about 2 grams of gold.
    300 thousand rubles, respectively 600 thousand grams. That is 600 kg.