Military Review

Long before Rust. About unknown flights across the Soviet border

34
Long before Rust. About unknown flights across the Soviet borderMatias Rust, a German amateur pilot, having deceived all the radars and posts of the Soviet air defense, managed to land on Red Square in Moscow without hindrance and cause a real shock in the world. Many military men then lost their posts, and some ended up in prison. However, few people know that Rust was not the first ...


The first “flyer” who illegally arrived in the USSR by plane was the Englishman Brian Montague Grover, who was told in his memoirs by the former Soviet Ambassador to the UK Ivan Maisky. Grover, being an engineer by profession, worked under a contract in the oil fields in Grozny. There he fell in love with a Soviet girl, the daughter of a local pharmacist, and wanted to marry her. However, his contract expired and he had to return to England. Grover began to try to get permission to leave for his beloved, but in those days the border was closed, and his petitions went unanswered. He himself was no longer given a visa for a trip to the USSR to his beloved. Then Grover decided on a desperate act. I learned how to fly a plane, and in November 1938 flew illegally to the USSR through Stockholm, intending to seek permission for a wedding on the spot in order to take away the object of his passion to England.

Grover flew safely across the border — no radar then. However, he did not have enough fuel, and he was forced to land the plane directly on the collective farm field somewhere in the Kalinin region (now Tver). Alert collective farmers immediately reported “where necessary”, the pilot was arrested and taken to Moscow. Security officers reported to the high authorities.

Those were the times of rampant espionage, and the English flyer was threatened with the most serious troubles.

However, Grover sincerely spoke about his love. Having carefully checked everything, the intruder was not judged as Rust, but was released. Moreover, he was allowed to marry his beloved and allowed to take her to England. Arriving in London, the happy spouses visited Ambassador I. Maisky and asked him to convey their thanks to the Soviet government.

It is not hard to guess that in those times when the label of a “foreign spy” was placed even on those who had never been such, the successful completion of the incident with the most real violation of the Soviet border could be due only to some very special reasons. After all, the KGB and the then Kremlin leaders were hard to suspect of kindness and condescension. But the air already smelled like a big war and, probably, Stalin - and only he personally solved such problems then - tried to use this history in order to demonstrate their nobility in front of British public opinion. In the USSR, no one knew about this for a long time, newspapers did not write about Grover.

In 1970, the professional pilot of the Greek Air Force distinguished itself in the field of violation of the Soviet border.

He illegally flew from Greece to Sevastopol and landed an American Dakota military aircraft with NATO identification marks at a local airport, and no one shot him down along the way. It was now a pensioner, and then the pilot of the Greek military aviation Michalis Manyadakis, about which few have heard.

This incredible story happened at the very height of the Cold War, when the dictatorial regime of the “black colonels” ruled in Greece. And I happened to learn about it by chance, while working in Greece as a TASS correspondent during a meeting on the island of Crete with the then members of the Greece-USSR Friendship Society. Among them was an elderly man, short in stature with the former military man. He suddenly approached me and said quietly in Russian:

- You know, I was in the USSR! I flew to you on a US military plane back in 1970 year ...

His friends confirmed that such a fact did take place. In those years, Manyadakis served at a military airfield on the island of Crete with the rank of captain of the Air Force. He was an opponent of the Greek pro-fascist junta of the "black colonels", who brutally persecuted the democrats, imprisoned people and camps. However, the military pilot, of course, could not openly oppose the dictatorship - he would immediately find himself in a prison or camp - and therefore he decided to leave the country. Of course, it was impossible to legally emigrate "under the colonels", and the Air Force pilot decided to fly a military plane to the USSR, which then seemed to him "the bulwark of democracy and peace in the world."

To his bold step, Manyadakis prepared for a long time, studied the maps, carefully worked out the route. As a military pilot, he was familiar with the NATO air defense system.
It flew on the night of November 8 from a NATO airfield on the island of Crete, where at that time several of the largest airfields and military bases of the United States were located. First flew over the sea, and then over the territory of Turkey. He walked on a low-level flight, and therefore, according to him, the plane could not detect radars. In the same way, without interference, he reached Sevastopol and calmly planted his “Dakota” there. No one shot him down or even tried to intercept him ...

“When I landed at the airfield in the USSR,” Manyadakis said, “nobody arrested me, on the contrary, they met me very cordially. Especially when they found out that I was seeking political asylum. I probably was the first pilot from the western country who addressed the Russians with such an unusual request. After interrogation and “identification”, I was sent to Tashkent, where many Greek political emigrants from Russia lived at that time. They gave me an apartment there, they helped me learn Russian, and then they gave me a job. ”

In Greece, Manyadakis returned six years later, after the fall of the junior “black colonels”. But there he was immediately sent to prison, but then he was released anyway. Apparently, his former “protest” against the junta played a role. He was no longer taken back to the Air Force, of course, and the age for working in military aviation was no longer the same.

After all his incredible adventures, Manyadakis worked in the most prosaic and peaceful place - in agricultural aviation, and then quietly retired. Now he lives on the same island of Crete, in the town of Kalohoria and at his leisure tells friends in the taverns behind a bottle of Retsina about how he flew in the USSR. Did Soviet newspapers report on his unparalleled flight? This former pilot does not know, he did not know how to read Russian.

Although it is unlikely that the Soviet authorities wanted to admit that they had “slept through” a foreign military aircraft. The times of “democracy”, when violator Rust became our “hero”, have not yet arrived.

Such is the sensational story in the version presented to me in Crete by Manyadakis himself. However, if you think about it, a lot of it is in doubt. Firstly, how could a Greek captain fly to Sevastopol at shaving? After all, any pilot will say that you can only fly this way along a well-known route, and the Greek flew to a completely unfamiliar country. Moreover, the NATO pilot flew into the "camp of enemies", over anti-aircraft guns and missiles of several countries at a time when suspicious targets were shot down without hesitation. Suffice it to recall at least the fate of the American Francis Gary Powers, shot down on his reconnaissance "Y-2" by a Soviet missile near Sverdlovsk. Or about a South Korean passenger plane, also shot down by a Soviet rocket.

Secondly, how Manyadakis could “calmly” land a Dakota at a Soviet airfield and find it in general? After all, the airfields were not mapped then. Especially in the area of ​​Sevastopol - a large military base. What language did the Greek speak with the Russian dispatchers and ask for permission to land? How could he have enough fuel, because in the area of ​​Crete, the planes had nowhere to fly far, near then hostile to the Greeks, Turkey? It is unlikely that cars could refuel for long-haul flights. Why, finally, Manyadakis was not shot down over the Soviet airfield, after all, the guards saw that the plane was American, and it had other identification marks?

Some people think that it is impossible to answer all these questions if one does not assume that the hijacking of a US military plane from Greece was nothing other than ... a previously prepared KGB operation!

That is why, probably, they so generously met the violator in the USSR and then sent him not to Siberia, but to warm Tashkent. Manyadakis himself is unlikely to tell the truth now, because in this case he will become not a "fighter against the junta", but a banal traitor. And in Greece, as a military pilot, he will be accused of treason and will be put in jail for many years.

However, as some now consider, and in the story of Rust, still not everything is clear. They say that they allegedly spotted him right away, but they could not knock him down, because as a result of an explosion of a rocket launched into a low-flying plane, civilians on the ground could suffer. But this is only one of the versions ...
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  1. xetai9977
    xetai9977 27 June 2013 08: 40
    +5
    At that time they wrote that Rust's plane was found immediately, several times "MiG" and approached him, but the leadership in Moscow did not know how to react ..... "perrrrrrrroika" they say, in the yard ...
    1. Col.
      Col. 27 June 2013 11: 05
      +4
      Quote: xetai9977
      At that time, they wrote that Rust's plane was discovered immediately, several times by MiGs and approached him, but the leadership in Moscow did not know how to react .....

      I am reporting. Aircraft Rust's combat crews of the command post of air defense units "conducted" constantly. They could shoot him down at any moment. But the fact is that in all the instructions of the command posts of the air force and air defense aviation of the country there was a clause prohibiting the shooting down of private and light-engine aircraft! For some reason, they shyly keep silent about this all the time. As a result, the mediocre political leadership punished the military for following the instructions!
      1. ded10041948
        ded10041948 27 June 2013 12: 28
        +3
        Before, in my opinion, 1987 there were no talk about light-engine and private documents. I will not quote verbatim, but it was about passenger and transport vehicles, according to which only the Central Command of the Air Defense Forces gave permission to open fire.
        In addition, due to the low image intensifier and low flight speed, some of the funds could not take the Cessna for escort at all, and the rest constantly disrupted escort. Well, at that time, RTR means were not supplied capable of taking a target with such a combination of speed - height - image intensifier in the Air Defense Forces. The border guards - were, the landowners, the sailors. And the country's air defense was not completed.
        As a result, on the traverse of Smolensk, the goal was generally lost and discovered by clear order on Red Square.
        1. Airman
          Airman 27 June 2013 17: 39
          +2
          Quote: ded10041948
          Before, in my opinion, 1987 there were no talk about light-engine and private documents. I will not quote verbatim, but it was about passenger and transport vehicles, according to which only the Central Command of the Air Defense Forces gave permission to open fire.
          In addition, due to the low image intensifier and low flight speed, some of the funds could not take the Cessna for escort at all, and the rest constantly disrupted escort. Well, at that time, RTR means were not supplied capable of taking a target with such a combination of speed - height - image intensifier in the Air Defense Forces. The border guards - were, the landowners, the sailors. And the country's air defense was not completed.
          As a result, on the traverse of Smolensk, the goal was generally lost and discovered by clear order on Red Square.


          Moscow air defense found him and accompanied him, but there was no command to destroy him.
          1. воронов
            воронов 27 June 2013 20: 29
            -3
            Moscow air defense found him and escorted, but there was no command to destroy. [/ Quote]
            Nobody found him, he slept through elementary
      2. Goldmitro
        Goldmitro 27 June 2013 12: 59
        +6
        Colonel: <<< As a result, the mediocre political leadership punished the military for following the instructions! >>>
        The hunchbacked perestroika specially organized this operation with his friends in the West, which would remove the military leadership in the USSR Armed Forces, which was in opposition to his politics. He knew what the military’s reaction would be to this violation of the border, he knew that without an indication from the center (his instructions, after the scandal with the South Korean Boeing), the flight of Rust’s plane, which had been conducting our air defense all the time, would not be stopped, much less shot down, and was silent, not making decisions, he presented the matter to the public in such a way that the military leadership slammed the violation of the border, which enabled him to remove from the leadership of the USSR Armed Forces
      3. xetai9977
        xetai9977 27 June 2013 14: 30
        +4
        The point mentioned by a respected colleague did not stop Belarusians from shooting down a balloon with a provocateur (or maybe a spy) on board several years ago. That is what an adequate leader at the head of state means.
        1. Col.
          Col. 27 June 2013 16: 33
          +1
          Quote: xetai9977
          That is what an adequate leader at the head of state means.

          I agree. But I also believe that a commander of any level must be able to quickly and correctly find a solution in a non-standard situation. It is not for nothing that earlier many instructions and guides ended with a phrase that "the requirements of this guide (instructions) should be applied creatively, in accordance with the specific conditions of the situation." But this is real skill and wisdom that you need to learn all your life ...
          1. ded10041948
            ded10041948 27 June 2013 17: 13
            +1
            This is if allowed to apply ...
          2. Airman
            Airman 27 June 2013 17: 48
            +1
            Quote: Colonel
            Quote: xetai9977
            That is what an adequate leader at the head of state means.

            I agree. But I also believe that a commander of any level must be able to quickly and correctly find a solution in a non-standard situation. It is not for nothing that earlier many instructions and guides ended with a phrase that "the requirements of this guide (instructions) should be applied creatively, in accordance with the specific conditions of the situation." But this is real skill and wisdom that you need to learn all your life ...


            The commander had the right to independently use weapons (after reporting to the top) only if the aircraft was military and forced to land was not possible or he refused. Before entering the database, they knew how to pass the test.
        2. ded10041948
          ded10041948 27 June 2013 17: 04
          +1
          I don’t know what powers the operational duty officer in units and subdivisions of the air defense duty forces of Belarus has. These functions are determined by the Order on the organization and carrying out combat duty. Existing at the time of the incident with Rust, tightly ruled out any independent actions. Violation of the Order was a war crime with all the ensuing consequences.
          Moreover, the development of technology does not stand still. I have no idea what forces and means were involved in the case of this balloon. According to the variant of actions on Rust, I was able to communicate with the direct participants in the events. Believe me, they did everything they were given to do, and even a little more. The punishment over them was all the more painful and disgusting.
    2. Vovka levka
      Vovka levka 27 June 2013 14: 41
      +1
      Quote: xetai9977
      At that time they wrote that Rust's plane was found immediately, several times "MiG" and approached him, but the leadership in Moscow did not know how to react ..... "perrrrrrrroika" they say, in the yard ...

      This is not perestroika, this is a mess in the army.
  2. Selevc
    Selevc 27 June 2013 08: 50
    10
    The story with Rust is actually a very dark affair - his landing on Red Square was clearly shot by professional cameramen and from different angles ... That is, they were clearly waiting for him there ... That is, the whole story with Rust is most likely an attempt by the Kremlin werewolf to denigrate the army and lower it in the eyes of its own people !!!

    1. Sirocco
      Sirocco 27 June 2013 16: 56
      +1
      I recommend an interesting film from the 5th minute.
      1. ded10041948
        ded10041948 27 June 2013 21: 27
        +3
        Vladimir! Thank you so much for the entry. Unfortunately, I somehow missed it on TV. Basically, everything that was said in the studio (to be more precise, almost everything) I have calculated before. I did not know about the metamorphoses with the pilot's clothing, about the changes in the drawings on the plane, about the removed wires, information from the SVR and intelligence of the border guards, and most importantly: I did not know about the invariability of the radar field! Sorry, missed attention! Such things are done only by orders from above! As for the phrase about the request of the striped prezik to remove one "Satan" from duty: we are talking about the ONLY missile at that time, equipped with a special aiming unit, capable of almost one hundred percent guarantee to break through the missile defense system of mattresses and aimed at the White House, the Pentagon and the control center of the missile defense system ... Moreover, all MIRVs were evenly distributed among the targets. Thanks to the three-fold duplication of strikes on targets, mattress mats would not seem like a little! This rocket was the most expensive among all its friends of this type. Her spotted and ordered to be removed from duty in the first place!
        So the demand of the "Spotted One to deprive him of all awards, privileges and privileges and to lean him against the wall" gets another justification.
  3. Xnumx kopeek
    Xnumx kopeek 27 June 2013 09: 03
    +4
    Quote: Selevc
    The story with Rust is actually a very dark affair - his landing on Red Square was clearly shot by professional cameramen and from different angles ... That is, they were clearly waiting for him there ... That is, the whole story with Rust is most likely an attempt by the Kremlin werewolf to denigrate the army and lower it in the eyes of its own people !!!
    -
    -Dark story - UTB Obama. belay And Rust - just like 3 cents. After the incident with the Korean airplane / 1982 / Dan was given an order to defend anti-bullet! - This is how the demoralization of the country was prepared, / by rusts, etc. / - the rest is known to everyone.
    1. ded10041948
      ded10041948 27 June 2013 09: 39
      -2
      Did you serve in the General Staff? And in what position?
    2. ded10041948
      ded10041948 27 June 2013 12: 04
      +1
      Have you learned Russian? Yesterday, they spoke in gibberish and complained about "Klava", and today at least on the Unified State Exam in Russian. Who are you trying to fool, troll?
  4. ded10041948
    ded10041948 27 June 2013 09: 14
    +4
    The speed of "Tsesna" Rust is comparable to the speed of a flock of geese during migration. The mark on the locator screen is generally something incomprehensible: either a "glitch" of the equipment, or a flock of sparrows ... While they were sorted out, the goal went to the neighbors, and the bosses at the Central Command Center for Air Defense in Moscow (which, in those days, the ONLY decisions to open fire) except for obscenities and hysterical screams - nothing gave out threats on the air. It was all the more incomprehensible how to shoot at this "rattler". For the country's air defense, the target was almost motionless! The planes raised to check the area simply skipped past without having time to see anything (you will see a lot of ants on the asphalt when you are late for the airport for the plane?). It was optimal to raise a couple of helicopters to intercept (they would have driven him into the swamp with a jet stream from the propellers, if they had not shot him down!), And for this you need to disturb the aviation or the ground! And so on ... So, under the general confusion and screams, this bastard flew to the goal.
    1. Airman
      Airman 27 June 2013 10: 11
      +4
      Quote: ded10041948
      The speed of "Tsesna" Rust is comparable to the speed of a flock of geese during migration. The mark on the locator screen is generally something incomprehensible: either a "glitch" of the equipment, or a flock of sparrows ... While they were sorted out, the goal went to the neighbors, and the bosses at the Central Command Center for Air Defense in Moscow (which, in those days, the ONLY decisions to open fire) except for obscenities and hysterical screams - nothing gave out threats on the air. It was all the more incomprehensible how to shoot at this "rattler". For the country's air defense, the target was almost motionless! The planes raised to check the area simply skipped past without having time to see anything (you will see a lot of ants on the asphalt when you are late for the airport for the plane?). It was optimal to raise a couple of helicopters to intercept (they would have driven him into the swamp with a jet stream from the propellers, if they had not shot him down!), And for this you need to disturb the aviation or the ground! And so on ... So, under the general confusion and screams, this bastard flew to the goal.


      There is evidence that before the flight of Rust, Gorbaty wanted to get acquainted with air defense maps of the north-western direction. They brought the cards, he said: leave me, I will get acquainted with them later. The next day, he did not find a map. And Rust was taken to escort even before the state border, interceptors were raised and found several times, but there were NO commands to shoot down, MOSCOW did not. At that time, the Sov. a secret order on combat duty, in which it is written in black and white that only military aircraft can be destroyed after they refuse to land. All the others get off only by ORDER from the SUPREME headquarters. The generals were hindered by the generals by the hunchback to carry out inadequate disarmament, and this was an occasion.
      1. ded10041948
        ded10041948 27 June 2013 17: 24
        +2
        Colleague! If I do not quote orders with two zeros, this does not mean that I do not remember them! Rust prepared about a month and a half. This is for us maps of our territory and the deployment of units and divisions - a state secret. In the West (in those years), a detailed map - a kilometer of the European part of the Union with all the applied situation could be bought at any cartographic agency. Directories with the detailed TTX of our equipment were sold in bookstalls almost to the burden of condoms!
        1. NektoRU
          NektoRU 27 June 2013 18: 32
          +2
          - Regarding our secrecy, I confirm. Handing over "state" in the school (mid-90s), I had to compare the capabilities of our MiG-23P and Tornado. There were only 4 MIG flight manuals (FLE) per course. Fortunately, he was a secretary and had the opportunity ... But that's not the point. When the time of my report was coming to an end, one of the members of the examination committee asked where I got information about our materiel. I properly told about the RLE, to which I received an answer that I could not suffer, but take all this from the magazine "Foreign Military Review", sold in kiosks.
    2. Selevc
      Selevc 27 June 2013 21: 08
      +2
      A good flock of geese that flies to itself from Finland to Moscow calmly bypassing the very strong Leningrad air defense district ... Probably there is no need to particularly tell how the sky of Moscow was guarded in those years - it was still a legacy of the Brezhnev era ... Yes, there the fly could not fly without the knowledge of the country's air defense headquarters ... Especially since there were effective means of hitting small and slow-moving targets such as a balloon or a mini-plane - for this the same Su-25 attack aircraft or any decent helicopter takes off and shoots targets such as during exercises ...

      And this one flies quietly for himself a little a lot for 6 hours and no one touches it !!! The country's military leadership was obliged to make a decision in minutes - in case of a sudden nuclear strike ... And here in 6 hours they could not decide ... Then this pretzel calmly sits not on somewhere else but on Red Square - the holy of holies of the land of the Soviets ... They take it off from all sides and even congratulate it ... This is pure PR-provocation - mine didn’t do without the actions of high-ranking moles from the Kremlin. ..

      Moreover, I note that this happened immediately after Gorbachev signed the disarmament treaties with America - an excellent excuse to "blow off the heads" of all disgruntled army officials and begin conversion chaos ...
  5. Gari
    Gari 27 June 2013 09: 57
    +4
    Good day to all
    Since such a topic has opened, I will share with you a similar case.
    In 1990, it seems in the spring in May, sorry so many years have passed, in Batumi, Georgia, and then it was still in the common country of the USSR, from Turkey flying across the border, and there, on a similar plane, I sat at the Batumi airport such as Rust , I brought flowers with me with congratulations to the humpback, they say how good he is (he was a good bastard for them too), he smoked and flew back to Turkey, so then it started, the commission arrived, the colonels, of course searched for the guilty, only who was to blame?
    They saw the air defense, they also saw the border guards, they also reported it, but Moscow was silent, everyone knew about Rust — that flew all the way to Moscow through the whole country and they could shoot nothing from the machine gun — in general, there was paralysis due to the humpback
    I know this all because I was just in Batumi and went to my grandfather with my grandmother, and my friend was from the air defense command in Batumi, as they were called points in the mountains, that’s why I know.
    Until now, I haven’t read about it anywhere.
    Respectfully all
    1. ded10041948
      ded10041948 27 June 2013 10: 48
      +4
      There was such a thing! The screeching after this incident in the air defense stood right up to the disintegration of the "indestructible".
      1. Gari
        Gari 27 June 2013 11: 40
        +2
        Quote: ded10041948
        There was such a thing! The screeching after this incident in the air defense stood right up to the collapse of the "indestructible

        I’m glad that you still know about this incident, and nowhere is there any information, even in Batumi, few people knew, I’m because of a friend more precisely his father, excuse me, and if it’s not a secret, where did you come from, he served in air defense?
        1. ded10041948
          ded10041948 27 June 2013 12: 07
          +2
          23 years was listed behind this cheerful company. I don’t know any particular details, but I brought information about the fact itself.
  6. washi
    washi 27 June 2013 12: 47
    +1
    With IVS in the late 40s and early 50s, any violation was severely suppressed.
  7. creak
    creak 27 June 2013 13: 49
    +1
    This is probably why the German junkers 52, Koenigsberg, who flew them, freely flied over Soviet territory and landed in Moscow on May 15, 1941. This incident was never especially advertised but took place.
  8. creak
    creak 27 June 2013 14: 04
    0
    The German side did not submit an application for a flight.
  9. NektoRU
    NektoRU 27 June 2013 18: 13
    +1
    About Rust is not entirely correct. In the early nineties, as a cadet, I underwent VLK in a Moscow hospital. With me in the ward lay a pilot who was being raised to intercept the German. Half of his comments on this case were mat ... So, our air defense systems guided him throughout the flight. Opportunities to "fill up" the foe were more than enough! Just go through the afterburner and ... he is a small fire in vast open spaces. It is another matter that the management did not really have enough courage to give the go-ahead for the “job”. And this is really a shame!
  10. Denis
    Denis 27 June 2013 18: 50
    +3
    Interesting, but the tone of the aftara is disgusting
    NATO pilot flew into the "camp of enemies", over anti-aircraft guns and missiles of several countries at a time when suspicious targets were shot down without hesitation. It is enough to recall at least the fate of the American Francis Gary Powers, shot down on his reconnaissance "U-2" by a Soviet missile near Sverdlovsk. Or about a South Korean passenger plane, also shot down by a Soviet missile.
    As far as I know, they try to plant the intruder first, and then ... The guys from the air defense, am I right?
    And with the South Korean in general, you don’t have to expose him. Hypothetically, all systems can fail, but not the eyes. And for some reason, Koreans are amateurs on passenger passengers. Before that, they put a Korean man on the ice in Karelia
    There used to be a plot like some kind of jackal pen was interviewing a pilot who shot down a Boeing. And this wretched scribbler asked if he felt sorry for the passengers. Mat and only!
  11. Selevc
    Selevc 27 June 2013 21: 24
    +2
    And most importantly - the reasons that caused Rust to fly were unknown - it’s interesting to look into his bank account before and after the flight :))) The German just won’t go to an almost certain death in life !!!
  12. Selevc
    Selevc 27 June 2013 21: 41
    +1
    In my opinion, the stories with the South Korean Boeing and the flight of Rust are all links in one chain - a chain of provocations against the USSR with the aim of destabilizing the political situation in the country ...
  13. uzer 13
    uzer 13 27 June 2013 21: 43
    +1
    The story of Rust was really much hyped in the media and was discussed for a long time, which means that someone needed it, but nobody seemed to know about the Greek plane. Such an event could not be overlooked if it were about him wrote in the newspapers. At the same time, they wrote a lot about these black colonels and the coup in Greece for a very long time.
  14. mithridate
    mithridate 28 June 2013 02: 02
    +1
    one more confirmation that the country was betrayed by the top