Military Review

Russia honors its designer number 1

Russia honors its designer number 1So, 2011 came into its own year, last July, declared by Russian President Dmitry Medvedev the Year of Russian Cosmonautics. And on January 11, Prime Minister Vladimir Putin came to the Space Flight Control Center in the Moscow region near Korolev to hold a meeting of the organizing committee to celebrate the half-century anniversary of manned cosmonautics.

Speaking about the tasks of the organizing committee, the head of government drew attention to the need to encourage people involved in the rocket and space industry. “Last year the medal“ For merits in space exploration ”was instituted. I propose to think about other forms of state encouragement of those people who make a significant contribution to the development of the national cosmonautics, ”Putin said. He also noted that everything related to space and its development is a “Russian national brand”.

And indeed, it’s not coincidental, probably, that it coincided that this speech by Vladimir Putin took place just on the eve of January 12, the birthday of Sergei Pavlovich Korolev, the great designer of space rockets, whose name, by the way, is the name of the city where the Space Control Center is located today. flights.

Sergei Korolev was born on January 12, 1907 in the city of Zhitomir in the family of Pavel Yakovlevich Korolev, a teacher of Russian literature, and his wife, Maria Nikolayevna Moskalenko. Back in school years, Sergey was distinguished by exceptional abilities and an indomitable craving for a new one then aviation technique. In 1922-1924 he studied at the construction vocational school, studying in many circles and at different courses.

In 1921, he became acquainted with the pilots of the Odessa hydro-detachment and actively participated in aviation public life: from 16 years - as a lecturer on the elimination of aircraft literacy, and from 17 years - as the author of the K-5 aircraft-free aircraft officially protected by the competent commission and recommended for construction.

Having entered the 1924 of the year at the Kiev Polytechnic Institute on the profile of aviation technology, in two years Korolyov mastered general engineering disciplines in it and became an athlete glider. In the fall of 1926, he transferred to the Moscow Higher Technical School (Moscow Higher Technical School).

During his studies at the Moscow Higher Technical School, S.P. Korolev has already received fame as a young capable aircraft designer and an experienced glider pilot. The aircraft designed by him and built - Koktebel gliders, Krasnaya Zvezda and the light aircraft SK-4, designed to achieve a record flight range - showed the Queen’s extraordinary abilities as an aircraft designer. However, he was particularly fascinated by flights in the stratosphere and the principles of jet propulsion. In September, 1931, S.P. Korolev and a talented enthusiast in the field of rocket engines F.A. Zander is seeking the creation in Moscow with the help of Osoaviakhim of a new public organization, the Jet Movement Study Group (GIRD). In April, 1932, it becomes essentially the state research and development laboratory for the development of rocket aircraft, in which the first domestic liquid-propellant ballistic missiles (BR) GIRD-09 and GIRD-10 are created and launched.

In 1933, on the basis of the Moscow GIRD and the Leningrad Gas-Dynamic Laboratory (GDL), the Rocket Research Institute under the direction of I.T. Kleimenov. S.P. Korolev is appointed his deputy. However, differences of opinion with the heads of the GDL on the prospects for the development of rocket technology forced Korolyov to switch to creative engineering work, and as the head of the rocket flying apparatus department in 1936, he was able to bring the cruise missiles to the tests: anti-aircraft 217 with a powder rocket engine and long-range 212 with liquid rocket engine.

In 1938, Korolev was arrested on a false charge. According to some information, during the interrogation his jaw was broken. The author of this version is journalist J. Golovanov. However, in his book, he emphasizes that this is only a version: “In February, 1988, I spoke with a member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Efuni. Sergey Naumovich told me about the operation 1966 of the year, during which Sergey Pavlovich died. Efuni himself took part in it only at a certain stage, but, being at that time the leading anesthesiologist of 4, the Main Directorate of the USSR Ministry of Public Health, he knew all the details of this tragic event.

Anaesthesiologist Yury Ilich Savinov was faced with an unforeseen circumstance, ”said Sergey Naumovich. - In order to give anesthesia, it was necessary to enter the tube, and Korolev could not open his mouth wide. He had broken jaws ... ”Nevertheless, Golovanov even names the names of the investigators who beat the Queen, Shestakov and Bykov, but nevertheless clarifies that he has no documented evidence of their guilt.

Although the Queen was charged with an article under which in those years many were shot, he “got off”, if I may say so, with a sentence of 10 years in prison (plus five more civil rights defeats). He spent the whole year in the Butyrka prison, and later managed to visit both Kolyma and the Vladivostok camps. But in the 1940 year, for the second time convicted in Moscow by the Special Meeting of the NKVD, he was transferred to the Central Design Bureau (number 29) of the USSR NKVD, which was led by the outstanding aircraft designer Andrei Tupolev, who was also a prisoner at that time.

Of course, both Korolev and Tupolev, yes, probably, the majority of their colleagues in the TsKB-29 had enough reasons to be offended by Soviet power. Nevertheless, the threat to the very existence of the country due to enemy aggression forced them all to work fruitfully for the benefit of the defense of their homeland. Sergei Korolev, for example, took an active part in the creation and production of a Tu-2 front-line bomber and at the same time initiatively developed projects of guided aeroped and a new version of a missile interceptor.

This was the reason for the transfer of Korolev in 1942 to another organization of the same camp type - the USSR NKVD design bureau at Kazan Aviation Plant No. XXUMX, where work was done on rocket engines of new types with the aim of using them in aviation. There, Korolev, with his characteristic enthusiasm, gave himself the idea of ​​the practical use of rocket engines to improve aviation: reducing the length of the aircraft’s run during takeoff and improving the speed and dynamic characteristics of aircraft during air combat.

13 May 1946 was decided to create in the USSR an industry for the development and production of rocket armament with liquid rocket engines. In accordance with the same decree, all groups of Soviet engineers for the study of the German V-2 rocket armament were merged into the Nordhausen research institute, the director of which was Major-General L.М. Gaidukov, and the chief technical engineer - S.P. Korolev. In Germany, Sergei Pavlovich is not only studying the German V-2 rocket, but also is designing a more advanced ballistic missile with a range of up to 600 km.

Soon, all Soviet specialists returned to the Soviet Union to research institutes and experimental design bureaus established in accordance with the above-mentioned May government decree. In August 1946, the SP Korolev was appointed chief designer of long-range ballistic missiles and head of department No. 3 NII-88 for their development.

The first task set by the government to Korolyov as the chief designer and all organizations involved in rocket armament was to create an analogue of the V-2 rocket from domestic materials. But already in 1947, a resolution was issued to develop new ballistic missiles with a greater range than the V-2, with a range of up to 3000 km. In the 1948 year, Korolev begins flight design tests of a ballistic missile P-1 (similar to the V-2) and successfully puts it into service in 1950.

During 1954 alone, Korolev simultaneously works on various modifications of the P-1 rocket (P-1А, P-1B, P-1В, P-1D, P-1Е), finishes work on P-5 and outlines five different modifications of it , completes the complex and responsible work on the R-5M missile with a nuclear warhead. The work on the P-11 and its sea variant P-11FM is under way, and the intercontinental P-7 acquires ever clearer features.

On the basis of the P-11, Korolyov developed and put into service in 1957 a strategic missile R-11M with a nuclear warhead transported in a loaded form on a tank chassis. Having seriously modified this rocket, he adapted it to arm submarines (PL) as R-11FM. The changes were more than serious, since a new control and aiming system was being made, and also the possibility of firing was ensured during quite a rough sea from the surface position of the submarine, i.e. with a strong rolling. Thus, Sergei Pavlovich created the first ballistic missiles on the stable components of mobile ground-based and sea-based fuel and was a pioneer in these new and important areas of development of rocket weapons.

He handed over the final fine tuning of the R-11FM rocket to Zlatoust, in SKB-385, having seconded a young talented lead designer VP from his OKB-1 there. Makeev together with qualified designers and designers, thus laying the foundation for creating a unique center for the development of sea-based ballistic missiles.

On the subject H-3, serious design studies were carried out, during which it was proved that it was possible in principle to develop long-range missiles up to intercontinental within a two-stage scheme. Based on the results of these studies, according to a government decree, two research projects under the direction of Korolev were started at NII-88 to determine the appearance and parameters of ballistic and winged intercontinental missiles (T-1 and T-2 topics) with the necessary experimental confirmation of problematic constructive decision.

Research on the T-1 has evolved into development work under the direction of Korolev, associated with the creation of the first two-stage intercontinental missile P-7 package scheme, which still surprises with its original design solutions, ease of execution, high reliability and efficiency. The P-7 rocket made the first successful flight in August 1957.

As a result of a study on the T-2, it was shown that a two-stage intercontinental cruise missile could be developed, the first stage of which was purely rocket and brought out the second stage - a cruise missile - to an altitude of 23-25 km. The winged stage with the help of a ramjet air-rocket engine continued to fly at these altitudes at a speed of 3 M and was aimed at the target with the help of an astronavigational control system that is operational during the daytime.

Given the importance of creating such weapons, the government decided to start development work by the Ministry of Aviation Industry (MAP) (chief designers SA Lavochkin and VM Myasishchev). The T-2 project materials were transferred to the IAO, some specialists and the unit engaged in the design of the astronavigation control system were also transferred there.

The first intercontinental missile P-7, despite many new design and design problems, was created in record time and put into service in 1960 year.

Further S.P. Korolev develops a more sophisticated compact two-stage intercontinental rocket R-9 (supercooled liquid oxygen is used as an oxidizer) and rents it (a mine version of P-9А) into service in 1962. Later, in parallel with the work on important space systems, Sergei Pavlovich began the first in the country to develop a solid-fuel intercontinental rocket RT-2, which was put into service after his death. At this, the OKB-1 Korolev ceased to be engaged in combat missile themes and focused its forces on the creation of priority space systems and unique launch vehicles.

Being engaged in combat ballistic missiles, Korolev, as is now evident, was striving for more - to conquer outer space and human space flight. To this end, Sergei Pavlovich, in 1949, together with scientists of the USSR Academy of Sciences, began research using modifications of the Р-1А rocket by means of their regular vertical launches up to 100 km, and then using more powerful P-2 and Р-5 rockets at heights 200 and 500 km respectively. The purpose of these flights was to study the parameters of the near space, solar and galactic radiation, the magnetic field of the Earth, the behavior of highly developed animals in space conditions (weightlessness, overloads, large vibrations and acoustic loads), as well as the development of livelihoods and the return of animals to Earth from space - about seven dozen such launches were made. This Sergey Pavlovich in advance laid serious foundations for the assault of space by man.

In 1955, long before the flight tests of the R-7 missile S.P. Korolev, M.V. Keldysh, M.K. Tikhonravov go to the government with a proposal to launch an artificial Earth satellite (AES) using a P-7 rocket. The government supports this initiative. In August, 1956, the OKB-1 leaves the NII-88 and becomes an independent organization, the main designer and director of which is SP. Korolev. And already 4 October 1957 year S.P. Korolev launches first in Earth orbit stories of mankind, the artificial satellite of the Earth - and the word "satellite" since then, is one of the few Russian words known all over the world that does not need to be translated.

But 12 on April 1961 was an event that was even greater in the history of mankind - the first man, the Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin made a space flight in near-earth orbit! And the creator of the Vostok ship piloted by Gagarin was, of course, Sergei Pavlovich Korolev.

Indeed, the first spacecraft made only one turn: no one knew how a person would feel during such a prolonged weightlessness, what psychological loads would act on him during an unusual and unexplored space travel. But already 6 of August 1961 of the year by German Stepanovich Titov on the ship "Vostok-2" was made the second space flight, which lasted one day. Then, from 11 to 12 on August 1962, the joint flight of Vostok-3 and Vostok-4 spacecraft, piloted by the cosmonauts A.N. Nikolayev and P.R. Popovich, a direct radio communication was established between the astronauts. The following year, from 14 to 16 June, the joint flight of cosmonauts V.F. Bykovsky and V.V. Tereshkova on the spacecraft "Vostok-5" and "Vostok-6" is studying the possibility of flying in space of a woman. Behind them - from 12 to 13 in October 1964 of the year - in space is a crew of three people of various specialties: the commander, the flight engineer and the doctor on the more complex Voskhod spacecraft. 18 March 1965 of the year during the flight aboard the Voskhod-2 with a crew of two people, cosmonaut A.A. Leonov makes the world's first spacewalk in a spacesuit through an airlock.

Continuing to develop a program of manned near-Earth flights, Sergei Pavlovich begins to implement his ideas about the development of a manned long-term orbital station (DOS). Its prototype was a fundamentally new, more sophisticated than the previous, Soyuz spacecraft. The composition of this ship was a household compartment, where astronauts could stay for a long time without space suits and conduct scientific research. During the flight, the automatic docking in orbit of two Soyuz spacecraft and the transfer of astronauts from one spacecraft to another through outer space in spacesuits were also envisaged. Unfortunately, Sergei Pavlovich did not live to see his ideas embodied in the Soyuz spacecraft.

For the implementation of manned flights and launches of automatic space stations S.P. Korolev is developing a family of perfect three-stage and four-stage carriers based on a combat missile.

In parallel with the rapid development of manned cosmonautics, work is underway on satellites for scientific, national economic and defense purposes. In the 1958 year, a geophysical satellite, and then Elektron satellites, are being developed and launched into space to study the Earth’s radiation belts. In the 1959 year, three automatic spacecraft to the Moon are being built and launched. The first and second - for delivery to the moon pennant of the Soviet Union, the third - in order to photograph the reverse (invisible) side of the moon. In the future, Korolev begins to develop a more advanced lunar apparatus for its soft landing on the lunar surface, photographing and transmitting to the Earth the lunar panorama (object E-6).

Sergey Pavlovich, who is faithful to his principle to involve other organizations in the realization of his ideas, entrusts the completion of this device to his colleague, who comes from the Scientific Research Institute-88, who headed the Yakovlev Design Bureau in 1965 year. S.A. Lavochkin, chief designer G.N. Babakin. In 1966, the Luna-9 station transmitted for the first time in the world a panorama of the moon's surface. Korolev did not witness this triumph. But his case fell into good hands: OKB im. S.A. Lavochkin became the largest center for the development of automatic spacecraft for the study of the Moon, Venus, Mars, Halley's comet, the satellite of Mars Phobos and astrophysical research.

While still in the process of creating the Vostok spacecraft, Korolyov began developing, on its constructive basis, the first domestic satellite-photo reconnaissance Zenit for the Ministry of Defense. Sergey Pavlovich created two types of similar satellites for detailed and survey reconnaissance, which began operating in 1962-1963, and transferred this important area of ​​space activity to one of his students, Chief Designer D.I. Kozlov in the Samara branch of OKB-1 (now the Central Specialized Design Bureau - TsSKB), where it found a worthy continuation. At present, the TsSKB is a large space center for the development of satellites for probing the earth's surface in the interests of defense, national economy and science, as well as for improving media based on the R-7 rocket.

Sergey Korolev gave rise to the development of another important direction in the use of satellites. He developed the first domestic communications and television satellite Molniya-1, operating in a highly elliptical orbit. Korolev gave this direction to the Krasnoyarsk branch of the OKB-1 to his student, chief designer MF. Reshetnev, thus laying the foundation for the birth of the country's largest center for the development of various space communication systems, television broadcasting, navigation and geodesy.

Back in the middle of 1950, Korolev was carrying ideas for launching a man on the moon. The corresponding space program was developed with the support of N.S. Khrushchev. However, this program has not been implemented. There were also frictions with various departments. The main customer - the USSR Ministry of Defense - did not show much enthusiasm on this issue, and the new party leadership headed by Leonid Brezhnev considered these projects very costly and not giving immediate practical benefits. Of course, over time, probably, Sergei Pavlovich would be able to convince Leonid Ilyich of the need to implement a domestic lunar program. But on January 14 1966 (two days after his 59-year-old birthday), Sergei Korolev died in a severe operation to remove intestinal sarcoma.

For his services to the country, Sergei Korolev was twice awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor. Shortly after his death, in 1966, the USSR Academy of Sciences established the S.P. Korolev "For outstanding achievements in the field of rocket and space technology." Later scholarships named after SP were established. Korolev for students of higher educational institutions. In Zhytomyr (Ukraine), Moscow (Russia), at Baikonur (Kazakhstan), in other cities monuments to the scientist have been erected, memorial houses-museums have been created. The Samara State Aerospace University, the streets of many cities, two research vessels, the high peak in the Pamirs, the pass on the Tien Shan, the asteroid, the thalassoid on the Moon are named after him.

And yet, probably, even this is not enough to really, to the full extent of merit, pay tribute to the memory of such a great man.
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