Military Review

Royal gift

In the halls Armory the chambers of the Moscow Kremlin are always crowded. But most of the visitors are usually delayed by the huge display case, behind the mirrored glass of which as if an entire regiment of soldiers was lined up. There are horse and foot, simple warriors and governors. They are all in shiny steel armor and weapons in hand. Here are pointed helmets, "mirrors" - bibs from large plates decorated with a gold notch - and chain mail.

One of the chain mails in this showcase is different from the others in that on the left side of her breast there is a small, with a five-kopeck coin, a gold-plated copper circle, or a “target,” as such circles were called in antiquity. Looking more closely, you can read on this target a convex cast inscription: "Knia Petrov Ivanovich Shuskgov."

Prince Shuisky! Familiar last name! It was worn four years ago by eminent Moscow boyars, in the past - the princes of a small independent princedom with a capital in the city of Shuya, which was part of the grand duchy of Suzdal. One of the Shuiskys, Vasily Ivanovich, later even became for a short time the Moscow Tsar.

It seems not surprising that the ancient treasury of the Moscow kings - the Armory - kept one of the Shuisky chain mail, that it looked like a new one: perhaps it was not very much used for this beautiful and expensive thing that belonged to the same royal To a relative, there was always a caring care (each ring was thoroughly wiped and oiled).

But no, the happy look of this thing deceived us. The chain mail was in fierce battles, changed owners many times and only by sheer chance returned to Moscow and gained a quiet life of the museum exhibit. Made it really for one of the princes Shuisky - Peter Ivanovich. He was once a famous commander who participated in many campaigns, including the siege of Kazan. During the Livonian War, he was one of the main Russian governors, took a number of cities, was a governor in Polotsk. But in 1564, his troops were, as already mentioned, defeated by the Lithuanian hetman Radzivill near the town of Orsha, and Shuisky himself was killed in this battle. The body of the murdered governor, according to the customs of that time, was traded from enemies to be buried with honors at home. It was then that, apparently, for the first time, the dear chainmail of Peter Ivanovich Shuisky fell into the tsar's storerooms: after all, the time had passed when noble warriors were buried along with their weapons.

The years went by. And the young Russian state significantly expanded its eastern limits. Its composition included the immense Siberian land. This feat was accomplished by a small detachment of Cossacks led by Yermak Timofeevich, who triumphed over the forces of the Siberian Khan Kuchum, much superior to him.

With the news of the victory over Kuchum, people from Yermak arrived in Moscow, Tsar Ivan the Terrible "forgive" the Cossacks for their former "guilt" and wished even to bestow Cossacks from their treasury. Among the royal gifts sent to Yermak in Siberia, there were two chain mail, including chain mail, which once belonged to Prince Peter Ivanovich Shuisky. This gift, of course, came just by the way, and Yermak, continuing his difficult march, wore both chain mail (one on top of the other) both day and night.

The storm roared and the rain was noisy;
In the darkness the lightning shone,
And constantly thunder thundered,
And the winds in the wilds raged.
To the glory of passion breathing,
In a country of severe and gloomy,
On the wild shore of the Irtysh
Sitting Ermak, wrapped in a thought.
Comrades of his labors,
Victories and glory glory
Among the tents
Carelessly slept near the oak forests.
“Oh, sleep, sleep,” the hero thought, “
Friends, under the storm roaring,
With dawn my voice will be heard,
He is calling for glory and for death. "

Who does not know this folk song! Her words are a somewhat modified “Duma,” written about a hundred and fifty years ago by the famous poet Kondraty Ryleev. The song is about the death of Ermak. Indeed, Yermak died during an unexpected night raid by Kuchum’s troops on a Russian camp stationed on the banks of the Irtysh. Probably, he tried to escape by jumping from the shore into a boat standing on the river. But the heavy chain mails, which more than once protected him in battle, this time became the cause of his death. It is difficult even for a very strong person, which, probably, Yermak was, to jump far in fully armed, which then (all together) weighs one and a half or two. Even harder to swim, if he did not jump to the boat. Or maybe Yermak was also injured; after all, he had to run and swim, of course, under a hail of enemy arrows.

Probably, we would never have learned anything about how Ermak's mailbox came back to Moscow if the famous historian Sergey Vladimirovich Bakhrushin had not taken up the fate of this thing. It was he who suggested that precisely the chain mail that is kept in the Armory was among the royal gifts to Yermak. This thought brought Bakhrushin to find the exact same cast copper gilded target on the old settlement Isker (the former capital of Kuchum) with the inscription: “Prince Petrov Ivianovich Shuskovo”. On the reverse side are its two pins, with which the target was once attached to the chain mail. Probably, there were at first two targets on Shuisky’s mail, one on each side of the chest. One target has remained in its place until today, while the other has come off in Isker, the capital of Kuchum. But Isker was finally abandoned by the population in 1588. It means that the chain mail has been there before. And this could only happen if, after the death of the first owner, it belonged to Yermak and if Yermak's body was lifted from the bottom of the river (of course, not to give him military honors, but to take a valuable weapon). Both of his chain mail, of course, were captured and brought to the capital, Kuchum.

Yermak was so famous for his exploits that even the Siberian Tatars and Kalmyks considered his weapons magical, bringing good luck in the war. Behind one of his mail armor, which Kuchum gave to a certain murza Kaydaulu, he was given ten families of slaves, fifty camels, five hundred horses, two hundred bulls and cows, a thousand sheep.

And Kaidaul did not sell mail even for such a price.

The other chainmail, as can be seen, was donated to a local deity (such a custom - to give part of the war booty to temples - existed in antiquity among many nations of the world). Mail came to the Ostyak sanctuary Belogorie, at the confluence of the Irtysh in the Ob. There was in those days the famous oracle. Who knows, maybe the enemies, before attacking the Ermak detachment, consulted with this oracle of their neighbors, the Ostyaks (or, as they call themselves, the Khanty), and the rich gift was promised gratitude for a successful prediction?

But soon the coat of mail was taken from the sanctuary by one of the Ostyak princes. For a while this armor was in his arsenal. It is difficult to say whether it was captured by the Nenets (self-caring as they were called then) or was sold to them by the Khanty, but only in 1646 year, more than half a century after the death of Ermak, the Russian detachment sent from the town of Berezov to pacify the rebellious Nenets captured they have chain mail, on which the target with the name of Peter Ivanovich Shuisky was. Chain mail sent from Berezov to Tobolsk, and from there to Moscow. And the second time she reincarnated herself in the royal treasury. Now for a long time.

In the numerous lists of the Armory, she was given an honorable place. In the 1687 description book of the year, it is listed under the first number: “The emblem on it is the Copper Target signature: Boyar Prince Peter Ivanovich Shuisky” ...

“And according to the census ... and after the inspection, the quiver against the old census cards was not announced at the census,” some clerk wrote down with alarm. Obviously, there was confusion, as can be judged from the following entry made five years later: “And according to a non-census ... and after a visit, that pouch appeared at the Armed Chamber, the price was thirty rubles, and the second was written in the previous book”. Thirty rubles at the time was a lot of money.

In the 1711 inventory of the year, the mail was again "on inspection of the face, and on it appeared the 2 targets were silver plated." The palace officials were so anxious about the old chain mail year after year.

You have seen that this thing that seems so good seems to have endured, perhaps, more adventures than any other described in our book. Two famous commanders - a noble boyar and a simple Cossack - died in battle, having this armor on him. She probably went to battles near Kazan, and in Livonia, and in Siberia. It was kept in the arsenals of the Moscow kings, the Siberian Khan, the Khanty prince, the Nenets, and even in the temple with an oracle.

It is hard to even imagine how many hands she went through, how many human eyes looked at her with admiration, greed, hope, hatred!
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  1. Vladimirets
    Vladimirets 26 June 2013 08: 26
    It turns out that although they never pierced it (if everyone dragged it in turn, or repaired it?), The thing turned out to be fatal and, along with courage and glory, brought death to the owner in the end. Some kind of mysticism!
  2. Nayhas
    Nayhas 26 June 2013 08: 40
    Mr. Rabinovich probably has no idea what to find a drowned in a deep sea river with a fast current, even at the present time using diving equipment is an extremely difficult task, and even in the 16th century it is impossible to do. The Tatars got the armor because Yermak was killed on land, he was killed by a Tatar Kutugai with a spear in the neck, and therefore the armor was preserved.
  3. George
    George 26 June 2013 12: 30
    The legendary personality of Ermak. I really liked the film of the same name with Victor Stepanov in the title role.
    1. Marek Rozny
      Marek Rozny 1 August 2013 00: 10
      By the way, an amusing remark on this film. There is a "Siberian Tatar" - a Kuchumite from Karach, who kills Ivan Koltso. In short, it looks like a sworn enemy. The real name of Karachi is Kadyrgali Kasym-uly Zhalairi (from the Kazakh clan "zhalayyr"), he served Kuchum, then, when Kuchum was slain by rivals, he began to serve the Kazakh khan Tauekel and was an ambassador to the Russian lands. He was "taken prisoner" and taken to Moscow, where he had to serve the Russian government.
      They captivated him in a curious way. Chronicle of the "Conquest of Siberia":
      "... In the summer of 7096 (1588), it happened to Prince Seydyak (the last khan of Siberia - Seid-Akhmad) with the Saltan of the Cossack Horde (as I understand it, the Kazakh sultan Uraz-Muhammad) and with Murza Karachei and with 500 Tatars on on the banks of the Irtysh River to amuse themselves with a hawk hunt ... And before this happened in sight from the city, then the written head Chulkov immediately saw this and sent him to the prince to ask him and his comrades for dinner, and it would be possible to advise on peace treaties ... " ...

      Uraz-Mohammed also served Boris Godunov and was even a commander in the Crimean direction. He died at the hands of False Dmitry (but Peter Urusov, a former Horde who also served the Russian Tsar, avenged him).

      Kazakhs perceive Karachu not as "the murderer of Ivan Kolts", but as a scientist. His main work is "Jami at-tauarikh" ("Collection of chronicles"), another name is "The Legend of Oraz-Muhammad"). It says about the history of Kazakhstan, the Turks, describes life in Russia and talks about the politicians of that time - Uraz-Muhammad and Boris Godunov. In Kazakhstan, he is known as the first scientist who wrote not just in Turkic (or even more so in Arabic / Persian, as was customary before), but in Kazakh.
      Boris Godunov appointed Karach as one of the viziers (ministers) of the Kasimov Khanate under Uraz-Muhammad. But of course, this is not mentioned in the film about Yermak. There is given a different image - the usual face of the "evil Tatar")))
  4. omsbon
    omsbon 26 June 2013 12: 56
    If things could say, then the story of this chain mail would be super interesting!
  5. Konsmo
    Konsmo 26 June 2013 15: 26
    I saw a documentary film about the death of Ermak.
    They also state that he drowned and then got Yermak. Any of the fastest rivers have quiet backwaters, and the flow is slow. And through chain mail (2 pieces) they presumably went to the place where Ermak was buried. They showed the grave near the Muslim cemetery. According to one version, Yermak was from the Kazakhs, but Orthodox. In the film they talk about this version. By the way, the Kazakhs themselves are 100 percent. sure of it. I talked with one on this subject. Kazakhs are deep in the subject (unexpectedly).
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 26 June 2013 16: 39
      Quote: Konsmo
      According to one version, Ermak was from the Kazakhs, but Orthodox. In the film they talk about this version. By the way, the Kazakhs themselves are 100 percent. sure of it. I talked with one on this subject. Kazakhs are deep in the subject (unexpectedly).

      Their Indian and African elephants are our mammoths, only shredded and bald.

      let's ask what nationality was Khoja Nasreddin, you just need to stock up on beer with roach, --- I guarantee srach. bully
      1. Apologet.Ru
        Apologet.Ru 27 June 2013 00: 34
        Russia is the birthplace of elephants ...
      2. Andrew-001
        Andrew-001 27 June 2013 00: 55
        Quote: Karlsonn
        let's ask what nationality was Khoja Nasreddin

        How is it of what nationality - of course he was Russian angry I myself read a book and watched a movie - he speaks Russian there so that you can see right away - this language is his native language yes
      3. Marek Rozny
        Marek Rozny 1 August 2013 01: 02
        Quote: Karlsonn
        let's ask what nationality was Khoja Nasreddin

        And why argue - he was a Central Asian city dweller. It means either Tajik, or Sart from Tajiks, or Uzbek (Sart from former nomads). Considering that he joked about the mullahs, he is clearly not a Tajik, but a Turk, since the Turks are usually free to obstr_ the clergy (Tajiks are more ossified in this matter). So it turns out - a Turkic-speaking Sart-Uzbek (former nomad). The Kazakhs have stories about Khoja Nasreddin, but more often he appears under the name Aldar-Kose ("The Beardless Deceiver"). This is an important detail, since most often Caucasoid Tajiks have a thick beard, and migrants from nomads often have a thin beard or none at all (although there are enough bearded Kazakhs, there are practically no beardless Tajiks).
        Easy task :)
    2. Marek Rozny
      Marek Rozny 1 August 2013 00: 49
      Quote: Konsmo
      According to one version, Ermak was from the Kazakhs, but Orthodox. In the film they talk about this version. By the way, the Kazakhs themselves are 100 percent. sure of it. I talked with one on this subject. Kazakhs are deep in the subject (unexpectedly).

      Everything is correct. Kazakhs are firmly convinced that Yermak is a traitor, an Orthodox Kazakh who fought against the rest of the Kazakhs. For Kazakhs, this is not even an assumption, but most often an iron belief. And that hell knows how many years this infa has been transmitted. Who else but the Kazakhs ("Siberian Tatars") know who he is. The Kazakhs do not call Ivan Koltso or the Moscow boyars Kazakhs, but it is Ermak himself who is usually called a Kazakh traitor.
      True, this is rarely said in the presence of Russians. Because the Russians start right away: "aaaa, this is ours! Russian! Hero! Don't you dare! It can't be that he is Kazakh! I saw a movie about him! He is Russian there!" It is useless to say something, because for Russians, a school textbook on the history of Russia is an indisputable truth in the final instance. Especially when a non-Russian is his opponent.
  6. Kazakh
    Kazakh 26 June 2013 20: 48
    There is a version that Ermak died not on the Irtysh River but on its tributary of the Belaya River, in the area of ​​the current city of Aksu, before the city of Yermak, the current there is not too strong so that they could principle and find a body with Kazakhs, it’s interesting to talk about it remember Yermak smile
  7. Sakolik
    Sakolik 27 June 2013 06: 29
    Quote: Kazakh
    with Kazakhs it is interesting to talk about this topic remember Ermak

    And they don’t really like it, the city of Ermak was renamed in the first place.
    1. Marek Rozny
      Marek Rozny 31 July 2013 13: 49
      Back in Soviet times, Kazakhs were annoyed by this name. Therefore, immediately after the collapse of the USSR, the name "Ermak" was removed, and the monument to him was dismantled (he is now in Russia).
      For Kazakhs, Ermak is an occupier who attacked the Siberian Khanate from the bay-ramp, which the Kazakhs are considered to be one of the Kazakh khanates, given that the Siberian Tatars and Kazakhs of the Middle Zhuz consist of the same clans - Argyns, Naimans, Kipchaks, Keri, etc. Well, in general, the lion's part of the Siberian Khanate is the territory of present-day Kazakhstan. In short, for whom he is a hero, and for whom - a bandit.