Military Review

June 29 - Day of the partisans and underground fighters

35
The day of partisans and underground fighters appeared in the calendar of memorable dates relatively recently. This year, the partisans and underground fighters who defended the Fatherland during the Great Patriotic War will be remembered separately only for the fourth time *.


* In accordance with the amendments made by the President of the Russian Federation to Article 11 of the Federal Law “On Days of Military Glory and Memorable Dates of Russia” 11 on April 2009, the Day of Partisans and Underground Workers was included in the list of memorable dates and received official status.


Guerrillas and underground fighters of WWII remember 29 June because it was on this day of the tragic 1941-th Council of People's Commissars of the USSR and the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) that it issued a directive addressed to party and Soviet organizations operating in the front-line areas of the country partisan resistance. The directive prescribed: "to create guerrilla groups and sabotage groups to fight enemy units in the areas they occupied ..., to create intolerable conditions for the enemy and all his accomplices, to pursue them at every turn and destroy, to disrupt any of their activities."

The contribution of the partisan detachments, “fighters of the invisible front,” operating in the underground, literally under the nose of a cunning and bloodthirsty enemy, to the victory won by our people cannot be overestimated. Thanks to the selfless actions of the Soviet partisans, the Nazis literally burned the ground beneath their feet. From the very beginning of the war against our country, the invader, unpunished and insolent from his European successes, could not feel safe, day or night. Neither in the forest, nor in the field, nor in the occupied large city, nor in a small village deep in the rear — everywhere the nazis' complacent complacency was disturbed by the noble revenge of the Soviet partisans, instilling fear and awe in them in front of the inflexible Russian spirit. The colossal material damage inflicted on the enemy by the actions of the Soviet partisans, coupled with the strongest moral pressure exerted on the rear of the enemy, approximated the day of the Great Victory.

All of Belarus, Bryansk, Smolensk and Oryol region, many regions of Ukraine, the Crimea and the southern regions of the RSFSR were covered by a well-organized partisan struggle. Grateful descendants will forever remember the names of the twice heroes of the Soviet Union partisan movement leaders Sidor Artemievich Kovpak and Alexei Fedorovich Fedorov, hundreds of heroes who died in battle and torn to pieces in fascist dungeons, thousands of brothers, sons, husbands and fathers who laid down their heads for the Fatherland and for their friends in the forests and marshes of Belarus, in the Kuban estuaries, the Donetsk steppes and on the hills of the Crimea.

Eternal memory to the fallen partisan heroes! Good health and good spirits to the living participants of the heroic struggle!
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  1. Vitaly Anisimov
    Vitaly Anisimov 29 June 2013 08: 05
    13
    Partisans are our worst weapon of all time!
    1. Apologet.Ru
      Apologet.Ru 29 June 2013 20: 25
      +4
      I completely agree with you, colleague! But, it is a pity that all the achievements of 30's, with pre-established bases and training of personnel (even taking into account the Civil War) were practically destroyed. How much easier (if I may say so) and more effective would be this struggle during the Great Patriotic War and, perhaps, there would be fewer victims! Eternal memory to the Heroes!
      1. 7ydmco
        7ydmco 30 June 2013 23: 23
        0
        Could you tell me more about the 30 destroyed developments?
    2. 755962
      755962 29 June 2013 20: 27
      +3
      Quote: MIKHAN
      Partisans are our worst weapon
  2. Bokdan1700
    Bokdan1700 29 June 2013 08: 21
    13
    Yes! The relevance of national resistance to the invaders remains with us! Every man must be mentally, physically prepared to tear the enemy who has stepped onto our Holy Land!
  3. Apollo
    Apollo 29 June 2013 08: 34
    16
    Good morning everyone! hi

    Without the partisans and the underground, the victory of the regular Soviet army over fascism would hardly have been possible. The partisans' role in the Second World War is truly huge, a deep bow to you.

    quote-Eternal memory of the fallen guerrilla heroes! Good health and good spirits to the living participants in the heroic struggle!

    subscribe to every word.

  4. Vitaly Anisimov
    Vitaly Anisimov 29 June 2013 08: 36
    +4
    A Russian peasant with a pitchfork from the forest !!! it's worse than SS-20 missiles. And And all their Alkaids of the Taliban will be yellow-handed chicks .. compared to ours (Alaska is the base of Russian partisans .. will be)))) I’m joking .. Eternal memory to all the fallen partisans, underground workers! They didn’t die for ranks and awards .. it was just necessary and that’s all ... In our Victory we owe them a lot ..
    1. nnz226
      nnz226 29 June 2013 16: 35
      +4
      They went into the woods either not having time to follow the retreating front, but did not want to surrender, or the "enlightened Gayropeytsy" got it so that they had to be killed without fear of revenge from the punishers. In Belarus alone, partisans buried HALF MILLION invaders, for reference, they surrounded 330 at Stalingrad, and buried 000 "yubermens". So a deep bow to ordinary people who took up arms, so that there is no evil spirits on our land !!!
  5. omsbon
    omsbon 29 June 2013 08: 58
    +5
    From children to gray-haired old people, the country stood up for its defense! Sucks sleepy invaders and traitors. It was terrible to the enemy on our earth.
    Glory to the people's avengers! Eternal gratitude of posterity!
  6. Komandir 1999
    Komandir 1999 29 June 2013 09: 04
    +4
    All a happy holiday !!!
  7. Prapor Afonya
    Prapor Afonya 29 June 2013 09: 35
    +4
    Happy Partisans laughing Every normal man should be ready to take the pitchfork and go into the forest and from there mercilessly stab the enemy (I’m figurative !!!)
  8. Dimitr
    Dimitr 29 June 2013 09: 41
    +4
    Eternal memory to the feat of the common people! Happy holiday to the present day!
  9. Algor73
    Algor73 29 June 2013 10: 42
    +5
    In principle, the underground and partisan movement in the USSR during WWII was planned, organized and was not left to chance. Thanks to this, the PD was the most effective in the entire history of the existence of the military. Until the middle of 43 years, almost all units were subordinate to Moscow. It was a real army. One of my grandfather fought at Kovpak, returned from the war without a leg. He told a lot of things, and even about what should have been silent, because there were also partisans who were planning to sit out from the war, and other dishonest people, to put it mildly. But what is indisputable, the partisans fought, and fought well
  10. fenix57
    fenix57 29 June 2013 11: 16
    +5
    Quote: Apollon
    Without the partisans and the underground, the victory of the regular Soviet army over fascism would hardly have been possible. The role of the partisans in the Second World War is truly huge, a deep bow to you

    Happy Holidays! soldier So after all, in the Patriotic War of 1812, the partisans did a lot to defeat Napoleon's army! "The cudgel of the people's war" was called the partisans in those days. hi
  11. awerkiev
    awerkiev 29 June 2013 11: 17
    +5
    Served not for the stars and not for the order! Mother poured blood for motherland ... verily soldier
  12. botur
    botur 29 June 2013 11: 33
    +6
    As the saying goes, the farther into the forest, the more angry the partisans! WITH HOLIDAY, VETERANS OF PARTISAN MOVEMENT, A LOW BOW TO YOU.
  13. Valery-SPB
    Valery-SPB 29 June 2013 11: 34
    +1
    Note. Photo 1 at Bokdan 1700 (1). Frame 2 at Appolon. And there and there partisans. The first are not quite correct (in accordance with international standards), the second are correct (assuming that they didn’t get weapons in the frame).

    International law provided for the possibility and legality of hostilities on the part of residents of the occupied territories.

    Requirements: spontaneity of resistance, submission to a single command, demonstration of external signs of resistance: wearing signage and weapons.
  14. Ulysses
    Ulysses 29 June 2013 11: 48
    +1
    Quote: Valery-SPB


    International law provided for the possibility and legality of hostilities on the part of residents of the occupied territories.

    Requirements: spontaneity of resistance, submission to a single command, demonstration of external signs of resistance: wearing signs and weapons.


    I don't know who wrote this "international law", but I immediately remembered:

    With a tired gait, Stirlitz walked through the snowy Berlin, completely not understanding what betrays a scout in him.
    Either a budenovka shot down to the side, or a parachute dragging behind.
  15. Valery-SPB
    Valery-SPB 29 June 2013 12: 19
    +2
    Quote: Ulysses

    With a tired gait, Stirlitz walked through the snowy Berlin, completely not understanding what betrays a scout in him.
    Either a budenovka shot down to the side, or a parachute dragging behind.


    Comrade! Reread again. The human right to organized resistance was established, based on spontaneously arising resistance to the enemy. The permissible forms of such resistance are indicated.

    And what about intelligence?

    Look at some movie showing the Polish AK, AL and NHA. There is no jacket, but on the head there is a confederate or other headdress with a white eagle. And our partisans began to wear hats with a red stripe or a star. Otherwise, they were considered bandits.
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 29 June 2013 12: 38
      +3
      Quote: Valery-SPB
      Look at some movie showing the Polish AK, AL and NHA. There is no jacket, but on the head there is a confederate or other headdress with a white eagle. And our partisans began to wear hats with a red stripe or a star. Otherwise, they were considered bandits.

      You're not right. A sufficient condition for recognition as a combatant is the open carrying of weapons and compliance with the laws and customs of war.
      You base your conclusions on Article 1 of Chapter 1.1 of the Convention on the Laws and Customs of the Land War. But there is, after all, article 2 of the same chapter:
      The population of an unoccupied territory, which, upon approaching the enemy, will voluntarily take up arms to fight the invading troops and which did not have time to settle down, according to Article 1, will be recognized as a belligerent if it openly carries weapons and abides by the laws and customs of war.


      However, the Germans permanently violated the Geneva and Hague Conventions, and therefore it was absolutely on the drum, is there a confederate on you or a hat with a red stripe, or not. It’s more likely that they were used for mutual identification, like white bandages on the sleeves or color tape now.
  16. Savl
    Savl 29 June 2013 13: 30
    +6
    My grandfather (deceased) fought in Tikhomirov’s detachment on the territory of the Republic of Belarus, now Soligorsk, but somehow for some reason he ended up in a sabotage school with Moscow for 6 months.
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 29 June 2013 13: 39
      +3
      What's so surprising here? The partisan movement was placed on a very high organizational level. Several 76-mm ZiS-3 guns were transported across the front line to Kovpak with the appropriate amount of ammunition, and you are surprised that your grandfather was sent to "refresher courses"
  17. Alew
    Alew 29 June 2013 13: 38
    +5
    One grandmother told me how their young people were driven to work at the station. They lived in a hut. one night the partisans entered the station and ran into two girls and asked where they mined something and then blew up the warehouses. After that, the Germans took all the young people out of the barracks and said that they would be shot. Then these two girls failed and told everything and were executed. So the Germans vilely used the civilian population as hostages. When the Germans were asked about the hostages, the answer sounded - there was a war. Like this. Well, in our peacetime, we must be a partisan underground to defend our country. WITH HOLIDAY YOU ARE PARTISANS !!!
  18. redwar6
    redwar6 29 June 2013 13: 58
    +1
    There was a partisan in the great-grandmother's family, I know little about him, I know that under Kiev partisan first, then somewhere in eastern Ukraine.
  19. Nicotine 7
    Nicotine 7 29 June 2013 14: 25
    +2
    I happened to visit the partisans' parking lot (Vasya Korobko) in the Chernihiv region. It is surprising that the parking lot is located several tens of meters from the road and is completely invisible to prying eyes.
  20. Sashko07
    Sashko07 29 June 2013 14: 43
    +3
    Quote: Nicotine 7
    I happened to visit the partisans' parking lot (Vasya Korobko) in the Chernihiv region. It is surprising that the parking lot is located several tens of meters from the road and is completely invisible to prying eyes.

    In Chernihiv, a detachment of Fedorov, one of the founders of partisan tactics, began to operate. They guerrilla there glory)))
  21. Valery-SPB
    Valery-SPB 29 June 2013 14: 51
    0
    Quote: Spade

    You base your conclusions on Article 1 of Chapter 1.1 of the Convention on the Laws and Customs of the Land War. But there is, after all, article 2 of the same chapter:
    The population of an unoccupied territory, which, upon approaching the enemy, will voluntarily take up arms to fight the invading troops and which did not have time to settle down, according to Article 1, will be recognized as a belligerent if it openly carries weapons and abides by the laws and customs of war.


    However, the Germans permanently violated the Geneva and Hague Conventions, and therefore it was absolutely on the drum, is there a confederate on you or a hat with a red stripe, or not. It’s more likely that they were used for mutual identification, like white bandages on the sleeves or color tape now.


    Dear Shovels. You can point to something true, but not with the right conclusions.

    Speech in the conventions (and there were more than one) establishes the right of citizens in the Occupied Territory to SPACE armed resistance, but with subordination to a single command, open bearing weapons and signs indicating belonging to resistance.

    Legal status, due to unforeseen circumstances, persons who voluntarily took up arms to repel aggression in the territories unoccupied by the enemy are different.

    And what was mutual identification used for? A red ribbon on a partisan hat or a white bandage on a sleeve politsa?

    It is clear that these people thus identify themselves with some organization acting in the interests and goals common to them, with a public demonstration of such identification, which is not possible without any subordination, since it is carried out in the field of military activity.

    Sorry, the meaning of your reasoning is this. Are partisans sitting around the campfire with red ribbons or stars in order not to confuse theirs from a stranger?
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 29 June 2013 15: 09
      0
      Quote: Valery-SPB
      Legal status, due to unforeseen circumstances, persons who voluntarily took up arms to repel aggression in the territories unoccupied by the enemy are different.

      Dear, The Second Hague Convention on the Laws and Customs of the Land War of 1907. Acting at present. Section One Chapter One. You open and read, everything is completely intelligibly written there and does not allow free interpretation, which you are fond of.

      Quote: Valery-SPB
      Sorry, the meaning of your reasoning is this. Are partisans sitting around the campfire with red ribbons or stars in order not to confuse theirs from a stranger?

      And your- put on ribbons so that the Germans would not be called a bandit and executed if they are captured? Are you sure this helped?
      1. Valery-SPB
        Valery-SPB 29 June 2013 17: 05
        0
        Quote: Spade

        Dear, The Second Hague Convention on the Laws and Customs of the Land War of 1907. Acting at present. Section One Chapter One. You open and read, everything is completely intelligibly written there and does not allow free interpretation, which you are fond of.

        Quote: Valery-SPB
        Sorry, the meaning of your reasoning is this. Are partisans sitting around the campfire with red ribbons or stars in order not to confuse theirs from a stranger?

        And your- put on ribbons so that the Germans would not be called a bandit and executed if they are captured? Are you sure this helped?


        And I offer you to re-read in response. Everything is so intelligible!

        "Article 1
        Military laws, rights and obligations apply not only to the army, but also to militias and volunteer units if they satisfy all of the following conditions:
        1) are led by a person responsible for their subordinates;
        2) have a distinctive mark that is clearly visible from a distance;
        Xnumx) openly carry weapons and
        4) abide by the laws and customs of war in their actions.
        Article 1 expressly gives only one interpretation.

        Corresponding you to Article 23 "... it is forbidden ... c) to kill or injure an enemy who, having laid down his weapon or no longer having the means to defend himself, certainly surrendered;
        f) it is illegal to use ... military insignia and uniforms of the enemy, as well as distinctive signs "and to Article 22:" The belligerents do not enjoy unlimited right in choosing the means of harming the enemy. "

        What's the point? The enemy of the belligerent one way or another should be indicated by the presence of weapons and identification marks. All act on the basis of Art. 1
        Volunteers in the territory unoccupied by the enemy (it is not yet occupied), act in accordance with the reference norm in the Law in the same way, on the basis of Article 1. Obviously, we are talking about the so-called irregular or auxiliary formations of volunteers operating under the command of regular troops. Different countries - different laws. They called in one, but did not have time to dress up. Weapons were given into battle! In another, such auxiliary troops from volunteers were allowed, in their clothes and with their weapons.
        Do not shovel laws to fit your vision.
        1. Lopatov
          Lopatov 29 June 2013 18: 02
          +1
          Oh, read the first article. Now read the following.

          Dear, they drove me into it in military law so that I still remember who the combatants are.
  22. valokordin
    valokordin 29 June 2013 18: 23
    +1
    Happy holiday dear! My grandmother and aunt were in occupation in Bryansk. All the time I asked how they lived there among the Germans. The grandmother was silent, and the aunt said that the garrison would be Finnish in Bryansk and that they would have nearly shot her grandmother, but her neighbors hid it, but her aunt has a medal to Partisan of the Second World War.
  23. Valery-SPB
    Valery-SPB 29 June 2013 18: 25
    0
    Quote: Spade
    Oh, read the first article. Now read the following.

    Dear, they drove me into it in military law so that I still remember who the combatants are.


    I read long before you. They drove you into it, but they taught me how to interpret laws. Therefore, the diploma of a lawyer is with me, and not with you!

    What else can I tell you to understand the differences of the partisan movement? Where did you see active partisans in your territory not yet captured by the enemy? Against whom are they partisan? Against your own?
    What do you poke me at Article 2, as if you understood something special in it, inaccessible to me?

    They knocked you on military law the concept of combatants, ask to drive and non-combatants!
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 29 June 2013 21: 27
      +2
      Quote: Valery-SPB
      I read long before you. They drove you into it, but they taught me how to interpret laws. Therefore, the diploma of a lawyer is with me, and not with you!

      I will not say anything about your diploma, I will not say anything. Dear, why did you decide that war cannot be fought in the territory occupied by the enemy? In which document did you read this?
      Certainly not in the 1907 Hague Convention. I did not stress the date for nothing. You may be a lawyer, but I am a military man, and therefore I know that at the time of its signing there was no such thing as a "front line" yet. Before that, there were still 8 long years. Well, a lawyer, do you know why?

      Quote: Valery-SPB
      What do you poke me at Article 2, as if you understood something special in it, inaccessible to me?

      You are a lawyer. You know how to interpret the laws. They should have understood for a long time.
      Any loner who openly carries weapons and complies with the laws of war is a combatant with all the ensuing consequences. Even if he does not have a commander and an insignia.

      Quote: Valery-SPB
      They knocked you on military law the concept of combatants, ask to drive and non-combatants!

      With this drive and started, how could it be otherwise.
      1. Valery-SPB
        Valery-SPB 30 June 2013 11: 04
        0
        Quote: Spade

        Dear, why did you decide that war cannot be fought in the territory occupied by the enemy? In which document did you read this?
        Certainly not in the 1907 Hague Convention. I did not stress the date for nothing. You may be a lawyer, but I am a military man, and therefore I know that at the time of its signing there was no such thing as a "front line" yet. Before that, there were still 8 long years.
        Any loner who openly carries weapons and complies with the laws of war is a combatant with all the ensuing consequences. Even if he does not have a commander and an insignia.


        Dear, you arbitrarily interpret my words. Most likely, because you are looking over the text and not reading.
        Why do I attribute a phrase about a war that cannot be waged on enemy territory?
        If there is nothing to answer, so we assign an obvious nonsense to the opponent? Distort! Reread better.
        "Article 2. The population of unoccupied territory ..."!
        Unoccupied for whom?
        The following is an explanation that we are talking about those who did not have time to identify themselves in accordance with Article 1, in other words, the situation is characterized in law as force majeure. So for them, the norm on the availability of weapons, as a mandatory sign of self-identification of the belligerent, also applies.
        Example. On the outskirts of the village a battle. Of the defenders, no living. The village boys run up, pick up the weapons of the dead and enter the battle. So the law recognizes them as a warrior and, if captured, they are considered prisoners of war.

        In other cases, the population may unite to fight back in accordance with Article 1.

        You introduced the concept of self-identification by wearing insignia. And I'm trying to make it clear to you that international law does not recognize a citizen as a warrior in one way or another not identified with the opposing warring party. Roughly speaking. Wearing a cap and a cloak, stuffing a gun in his pocket, stealthily approach, kill the enemy, hide a revolver and mix with non-combatants. International law, recognizing the right of the people to armed struggle, prohibits simultaneously hiding under the guise of a peaceful, non-belligerent person. Want to fight, but designate yourself as a warrior. Only this is in question.

        About the concepts. A textbook for students-officers of higher military educational institutions of the Soviet armed forces. Approved by order of the Minister of Defense of the USSR. Military publishing house of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR. Moscow - 1970. "History of war and military art." Page 41:
        "The troops of one or even several armies deployed over dozens and hundreds of kilometers acted according to a single plan, under general leadership, trying to solve a common operational task." These are the actions of the troops in 1904-1905. Russian-Japanese war. This is a description of the actions of army and front-line operations.
    2. воронов
      воронов 30 June 2013 18: 01
      0
      Quote: Valery-SPB
      I read long before you. They drove you into it, but they taught me how to interpret laws. Therefore, the diploma of a lawyer is with me, and not with you!

      In 1941. if the Germans took you with weapons in their hands and dragged them to the gallows, then you would have entered into a dialogue with them about the violation of your rights laughing
      1. Valery-SPB
        Valery-SPB 30 June 2013 18: 12
        0
        Quote: voronov
        Quote: Valery-SPB
        I read long before you. They drove you into it, but they taught me how to interpret laws. Therefore, the diploma of a lawyer is with me, and not with you!

        In 1941. if the Germans took you with weapons in their hands and dragged them to the gallows, then you would have entered into a dialogue with them about the violation of your rights laughing


        It is completely impolite to enter into a discussion that does not concern you and in which you are not a sissy.

        It is about compliance with the conventions and no more, fulfillment of obligations, if any.
  24. George
    George 29 June 2013 21: 40
    +3
    Happy Holidays!
  25. Snoop
    Snoop 29 June 2013 22: 27
    +2
    Here the debate went about the legal status of the partisans during the hostilities. In fact, the partisans recognized legally as a warring party only after the war. Therefore, abroad there were cases of acquittal by judges of former German officers who ordered the shooting of captured partisans. Since they were an illegally warring party. And him. officers obtained applied reprisals. That is, retaliatory actions (essentially illegal) to force the other side to stop violating the rules of war. Here is such legal casuistry.
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 29 June 2013 23: 06
      +1
      But the German judges justified them, didn't they.
      Because the very same British sent more than one German officer to the gallows not just for the partisans whom the ODR supported throughout Europe, from Brest to Brest, for their agents. Which under the Convention on the Laws and Customs of the Land War cannot be recognized as combatants, and therefore, when captured, are not prisoners of war.
  26. deputy ___ watered
    deputy ___ watered 29 June 2013 23: 00
    +3
    I will not argue about the legal aspects of the war in the territories occupied by the enemy. And in the event of an invasion of the territory of my country by enemy troops, it makes no difference to me what status I will have when dealing damage to the enemy!
    Eternal memory to heroes!
  27. aszzz888
    aszzz888 30 June 2013 09: 18
    +2
    Nemchura, who remained unfinished, still wakes up in the hot-cold sweat in the middle of the night.
    Especially those who remember our partisans and underground!

    To all our veterans of health and longevity!
  28. T-73
    T-73 30 June 2013 13: 50
    +2
    A graduate of the Bryansk University came to us at the beginning, they got into a conversation, a joke about the Bryansk partisans touched something. What he knew was telling. And he himself did not know half. How do you know so much about the Bryansk region in the Great Patriotic War (the Murmansky region hereafter)? So he said that he read in the library, many boys of the 80s were read by no means betmen. Kill this exam in today's boys cleaner punitive
  29. mole
    mole 30 June 2013 20: 12
    +1
    Quote: Snoop
    Here the debate went about the legal status of the partisans during the hostilities. In fact, the partisans recognized legally as a warring party only after the war. Therefore, abroad there were cases of acquittal by judges of former German officers who ordered the shooting of captured partisans. Since they were an illegally warring party. And him. officers obtained applied reprisals. That is, retaliatory actions (essentially illegal) to force the other side to stop violating the rules of war. Here is such legal casuistry.

    Winners are NOT JUDGED! Unfortunately, over the past 20 years they have been trying to turn everything upside down.
    Eternal memory to those who endured all the hardships and hardships! Who endured and did not betray! Who fought to the last bullet!
  30. Was mammoth
    Was mammoth 30 June 2013 21: 12
    0
    "Eternal memory to the fallen heroes-partisans! Good health and good spirits to the living participants of the heroic struggle!"
    This is the main thing.
    I do not care about the "international legal status" of the patriots of my country. They fought for their land, their freedom.
    I was in Khatyn. There is a symbolic monument, a reminder that every fourth Belarus died. And this reminder was erected when all the losses were not disclosed. This must be remembered.