Military Review

Romanian “descendant” T-55: medium tank TR-85M1

15
Over the past decades, the main armored forces of Romania are medium Tanks T-55 models and its modifications, built in the Soviet Union or assembled under license at Romanian plants. Over the past time, the design of the original T-55 managed to undergo several modernizations, as a result of each of which a new modification of the combat vehicle appeared. The latest Romanian development of the T-55 family tank is the TR-85M1 Bizonul armored vehicle ("Bison"). The development of this modernization project for the previous TR-85 tank began in 1994 in accordance with the order of the Romanian Ministry of Defense.




It is worth noting, on the way to the "Bison" Romanian T-55 had a noticeable change. On the basis of the original tank, TR-580 was first created, then TR-77, and only after it appeared TR-85, which became the basis for the most recent development. Because of such a "pedigree" modern tank TR-85M1 little resembles the original Soviet T-55. In this case, Bizonul retained some of the features of the T-55 tank, which greatly affect its appearance and combat capabilities. And yet, the Romanian tank builders are positioning their development as a new combat vehicle, far superior to all previous tanks based on the T-55.

The project involved several Romanian and foreign organizations. So, the main role was assigned to the local consortium ROMARM, and several European companies were invited to the project as subcontractors. The most noticeable mark on the project was left by the French company Matra, which supplied most of the electronic equipment. Also in the modernization of the TR-85 involved the company Sagem, Racal, EADS and others. Probably due to such international cooperation, a number of systems of the finished tank TR-85M1 are compatible with NATO standards.

Even before the start of work on Bizon, the Romanian versions of the T-55 received an updated armor case. In order to optimize the internal space, the hull was extended by about 500 mm, which, however, required that the undercarriage be supplemented with another support roller. It is noteworthy that the increase in the supporting surface could not positively affect the specific pressure on the soil. The finished TR-85M1 was heavyweight to 50 tons, and the specific pressure increased to about one kilogram per square centimeter.

The growth of the tank's combat mass was due to several factors at once. First of all, it is necessary to note the updated frontal booking of the hull. Instead of the rolled sheet, which was present on the previous tanks of the family, the Romanian designers equipped Bizonul with a combined armor unit. According to some sources, the design of this unit is similar to that used on T-72 tanks. Based on these data, we can draw conclusions about the level of protection of the forehead of the armored hull. The TR-85M1 tower also became stronger. Through the use of a new design, its frontal part provides protection at the level of 350 mm homogeneous armor. In addition, elements of dynamic protection are mounted on the cheekbones of the tower.



An increase in the tank's combat mass required a change in the power plant. Instead of the TR-85M engines available at that time, the new 8VS-A2T2 German diesel engine produced in Germany with 830 horsepower was obtained. The engine torque is transmitted to the drive wheels using the THM-5800 six-speed hydromechanical transmission. The use of the new engine made it possible to slightly raise the specific power of the tank - this figure exceeded the 17 hp. per ton of weight. With the help of a new power plant, Bizon is able to accelerate to the highway to 60 km / h. However, a slight increase in power density, combined with increased pressure on the ground, had a bad effect on the combat capability of the combat vehicle. In this parameter, the new Romanian tank almost does not exceed the old Soviet T-55.

The turret of the TR-85M1, although it represents the development of the corresponding T-55 unit, is significantly different from it. It has a slightly larger size and a characteristic elongated forage niche. When finalizing the fighting compartment, several goals were pursued. Firstly, the Romanian tank builders brought the ammunition assembly outside the manned volume and placed it in a niche of the tower, equipped with inside security doors and externally ejection panels. Secondly, as stated in some sources, the TR-85M1 was later planned to be equipped with an instrument of millimeters 120 or 125. However, in the end, all built tanks Bizonul received a smaller caliber cannon, a similar gun T-55.



The 100-mm gun A308 Romanian production is a further development of the Soviet gun D-10, one of the modifications of which was installed on the T-55. The recoil device also went to the "Bison" without significant changes. In the aft niche of the tower it was possible to place the packing on the 41 unitary projectile. The loading is done manually, which is why the maximum rate of fire does not exceed 5-6 rounds per minute. The absence of any automated devices for the supply of ammunition appropriately affected the composition of the crew: there are still four people. The additional armament of the TR-85M1 tank consists of one PKT machine gun coupled with a cannon with ammunition in 4500 ammunition and an antiaircraft gun-shank with a reserve in 750 ammunition over the commander's hatch. In addition, a total of 20 smoke grenade launchers are located in the front and rear sides of the turret.

Smoke grenade launchers can be used both in manual mode and in automatic mode. In the second case, their control is transferred to the French-made SAILR and DLC systems. The first monitors the situation around the tank and is designed to detect flying anti-tank ammunition or radiation guidance systems. The second controls the shooting of smoke grenades and false heat targets. According to some reports, the Bizonul tank is equipped with two dozen grenade launchers in order to increase the likelihood of survival on the battlefield, even with existing outdated weapons.

Another way to increase the likelihood of a successful outcome of the battle is a new fire control system. The French-made Ciclop-M FCS is associated with a laser range finder, a sensor set and a ballistic computer. The tank gunner has a telescopic sight and a Sagem ALIS night vision device. In addition, the thermal imaging device is built into the commander's observation devices. Above the gun barrel there is an optical-electronic block of the Sagem MATIS night vision device common for the commander and gunner. Sights and guns are coupled with a two-plane stabilizer manufactured by the EADS concern.

The ammunition of the tank TR-85M1 includes armor-piercing fin-stabilized sub-caliber projectiles BM-421 Sg, cumulative BK-412R and BK-5M, high-explosive OF-412, armor-piercing with tracer BR-412B and BR-412D, as well as training PBR-412. The aiming devices and the characteristics of the weapon make it possible to hit targets with the help of cumulative ammunition at a distance of up to three kilometers. The maximum range of high-explosive fragmentation projectile is about six kilometers. According to ROMARM official data, the BM-421 Sg armor-piercing projectile can pierce up to 425 millimeters of homogeneous armor from a distance of one kilometer and at an encounter angle of 90 °. By modern standards, such indicators do not look particularly successful, but they may be sufficient to combat obsolete armored vehicles.



From the very beginning of the design work it was assumed that the TR-85M1 Bizonul tanks would not be built from scratch. They were proposed to convert from the available TR-77 and TR-85. Due to this approach, it was possible to significantly reduce the cost of updating the fleet of armored vehicles. Upgrading one tank of the old model to the TR-85M1 state costs no more than one and a half million US dollars, which is much less than the price of a new tank with similar characteristics. Repair and modernization of the available tanks TR-85 began in the very late nineties and lasted for several years. In total, about 50-55 machines were converted. According to some data, it was planned to upgrade the entire existing fleet of TR-1 tanks to the state of “M85”, but due to the difficult financial situation the project was actually frozen.

Of some interest is the issue of classification of the new Romanian tank. The combat vehicle has a serious defense and combat mass, which does not allow it to be ranked among medium tanks. At the same time, the armament and mobility of the Bison do not meet the criteria for heavy and main tanks. This classification problem was solved quite simply. Since the TR-85M1 is a deep modernization of the medium tank T-55, he, as the military and tank builders thought, should also be considered an average.

Currently, the Romanian army has X-NUMX TR-250 and 85-50 TR-55M85 tanks. It is worth noting that updating even a small fraction of the existing fleet of equipment significantly affected the capabilities of the armored forces, although after that they cannot be called modern. There is information about the development of a new modification of the TR-1 with the additional index “M85”. Allegedly, this tank will get a more powerful engine, a new 3 caliber or 120 millimeter gun, an updated reservation and more advanced electronics. In addition, it is likely that the prospective tank will be equipped with dynamic and active protection systems. In recent years, however, only a lot of talk has been known about the modernization of the TR-125M85. Apparently, to date, this project has not reached even the stage of building a prototype. For this reason, over the next few years, the Bizon will remain the newest and most advanced tank in Romania.


On the materials of the sites:
http://btvt.narod.ru/
http://dogswar.ru/
http://globalsecurity.org/
http://strangernn.livejournal.com/
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  1. UPStoyan
    UPStoyan 25 June 2013 08: 22 New
    +3
    The tank looks good, but it has practically no chance against the oldest of the T-72 and T-64 (for example, Ukrainian).
    1. cartridge
      cartridge 25 June 2013 09: 23 New
      +4
      Ready TR-85M1 weighted up to 50 tons


      50 tons instead of 36? And all this with the old cannon? Such an upgrade does not make sense.
      1. Geisenberg
        Geisenberg 26 June 2013 00: 53 New
        +2
        Quote: cartridge
        Ready TR-85M1 weighted up to 50 tons


        50 tons instead of 36? And all this with the old cannon? Such an upgrade does not make sense.


        Give the Romanians anything - they will spoil.
      2. svp67
        svp67 26 June 2013 11: 32 New
        +1
        Quote: cartridge
        50 tons instead of 36? And all this with the old cannon? Such an upgrade does not make sense.

        In a word - "Romanian"
  2. Dima190579
    Dima190579 25 June 2013 08: 42 New
    +4
    Strong armor. these tanks will check the RPG - 7.
    1. cth; fyn
      cth; fyn 25 June 2013 09: 09 New
      +2
      RPG-7 is constantly being improved (they say that armor-piercing has already reached 650-700mm of solid homogeneous armor), so the question is which grenade is enough for him.
    2. svp67
      svp67 26 June 2013 11: 33 New
      +1
      Quote: Dima190579
      Strong armor. these tanks will check the RPG - 7.
      Rather, its thickness, but the fortress could check 125mm OFS ..
  3. cth; fyn
    cth; fyn 25 June 2013 09: 31 New
    +1
    No, well, only drive Papuans on this.
  4. Akim
    Akim 25 June 2013 09: 44 New
    +2
    I sometimes read Romanian forums (though through a translator). All the "Bison" and the subsequent modernization of the tanks plan to equip the French CN105F1, the most powerful of the 105-mm guns. Enough against the T-64BV and against the Serbian M-84. On the French forum, I also came across such information.
    1. Kars
      Kars 25 June 2013 10: 17 New
      +3
      Quote: Akim
      CN105F1, the most powerful of the 105 mm guns. Enough against the T-64BV and against the Serbian M-84

      Against the M-84, perhaps, about the BV with a stretch. That’s why the AMX-30 didn’t really show themselves in the Bure in the Desert.
      1. Akim
        Akim 25 June 2013 10: 35 New
        +1
        Quote: Kars
        Against M-84 maybe, about the BB with a stretch.

        They have a new chip now. After last year's “Perspective” tone has changed. Now they are not Serbia. In general, you read their forums - all the neighbors owe them. Even Poland, with which there are no common borders.
        Quote: Kars
        . That the AMX-30 themselves in the Bure in the Desert are not particularly shown.

        As for the AMX-30V2 Andrey, do not forget that the Arabs rode on it in a different climatic zone, although the Battle of Khafji showed that they were capable of snapping off the T-72M.
        1. Kars
          Kars 25 June 2013 11: 06 New
          +3
          Quote: Akim
          Khafji, showed that they are capable of snapping from the T-72M

          Ogryzatsa, they are obliged, but the frontal armor parts were not voiced. A BV, however, the forehead is more serious than T-72M even the DZ containers, even without taking into account the impact of the BB, are still additional armor barriers. And new ammunition --- 105 mm has been tormented for so many years that that’s super punchy - just like in advertising.
          1. Akim
            Akim 25 June 2013 11: 22 New
            +1
            Quote: Kars
            And new ammunition --- 105 mm has been tormenting for so many years, something super punchy - just in the advertisement.

            Quite possibly. However, it is not known reliably. And suddenly they are already in reality. We will take into account the maximum.
          2. self-propelled
            self-propelled 25 June 2013 11: 34 New
            +2
            Quote: Kars
            And new ammunition --- 105 mm have been tormenting for so many years, something super punchy - except in advertising

            well, there is still ur. for example ATGM "Falarick" (Falarick), developed in Kiev KB "Luch". the launch of this missile is possible from the 105-mm tank gun. ATGM provides target destruction at a maximum range of 5 km. The tandem warhead pierces the steel armor thickness 550 mm, protected by dynamic protection.
            1. Akim
              Akim 25 June 2013 11: 44 New
              +2
              Quote: self-propelled
              well, there is still ur. for example ATGM "Falarick" (Falarick),

              Are you laughing For Ukraine to sell weapons to its potential adversary! From sub-floors to trade them will not work.
              1. self-propelled
                self-propelled 25 June 2013 11: 54 New
                +1
                Quote: Akim
                Are you laughing So that Ukraine sells weapons to its potential adversary

                the fact is that this missile was developed by order of Belgium (more precisely, CMI Defense). so Ukraine may not be aware of the supply of these missiles to a potential adversary. Alas. request
                1. Akim
                  Akim 25 June 2013 15: 50 New
                  +1
                  Quote: self-propelled
                  the fact is that this missile was developed by order of Belgium (more precisely, CMI Defense). so Ukraine may not know

                  This is all just negotiated. For example, passenger airliners with American components cannot be delivered to Cuba.
            2. Kars
              Kars 25 June 2013 15: 09 New
              +3
              Quote: self-propelled
              well, there is still ur. for example ATGM "Falarick" (Falarick),

              Well, yes, of course, the Romanians will buy them)) they have been buying 16 for 16 years))) F-16)))

              And on Falarik there is .. Barrier. and not the fact that he has a Doublet in caliber.
              Quote: self-propelled
              so Ukraine may not know about supplies

              We will know 100% after all, a percentage of the amount of the transaction .. I get it .. I should go.
              1. self-propelled
                self-propelled 25 June 2013 15: 24 New
                +1
                Quote: Kars
                We will know 100% after all, a percentage of the amount of the transaction .. I get it .. I should go.

                percentage by percentage, only CMI Defense is not obligated to inform Luch about customers
                1. Kars
                  Kars 25 June 2013 15: 33 New
                  +2
                  Quote: self-propelled
                  only CMI Defense is not obliged to inform Luch about the buyer

                  Have you read the contract?
                  1. self-propelled
                    self-propelled 25 June 2013 15: 41 New
                    +1
                    Quote: Kars
                    Have you read the contract?

                    I hope you enlighten
                    1. Kars
                      Kars 25 June 2013 15: 47 New
                      +1
                      So they didn’t read, therefore, it is not a right to assert about free sale of the final product without notice.
                      1. self-propelled
                        self-propelled 25 June 2013 15: 53 New
                        0
                        that's why I ask you to enlighten. I hope you read the contract, since you say
                        We will know 100% after allpercentage of the amount of the transaction .. I get it .. I have to go

                        with respect hi
                      2. Akim
                        Akim 25 June 2013 16: 04 New
                        +2
                        Quote: self-propelled
                        We will know 100% after all, a percentage of the amount of the transaction .. I get it .. I have to go

                        If in Abu Dhabi he was at the Ukrainian stand, then Belgium does not have copyright on him.
                      3. self-propelled
                        self-propelled 25 June 2013 16: 08 New
                        +1
                        Kars (2) Today, 15: 33 ↑
                        Quote: self-propelled
                        only CMI Defense is not obliged to inform Luch about the buyer
                        Have you read the contract?

                        ATGM was created by order of Belgium. and what rights to each missile each side has - I can’t judge. thank Kars'y, set the right path
                      4. Kars
                        Kars 25 June 2013 16: 25 New
                        +2
                        Quote: self-propelled
                        thanks to Kars, set the right path

                        Please.

                        Quote: self-propelled
                        We will know 100% after all, a percentage of the amount of the transaction .. I get it .. I have to go

                        This is a standard condition, you can say royalty.

                        And why do you need a gun with 105 mm, when there are 100 mm guns for the native.

                        Shot with anti-tank guided missile STUGNA
                        A shot with an anti-tank guided missile is designed to destroy stationary and moving modern armored targets with combined, monolithic or spaced armor, including with dynamic defense, as well as small-sized bunker bombs when firing from an MT-12 artillery cannon or a T-55 tank , a tank in the trench of lightly armored objects and helicopters.
      2. Alexander D.
        Alexander D. 25 June 2013 20: 58 New
        0
        Quote: self-propelled
        Quote: Kars
        And new ammunition --- 105 mm have been tormenting for so many years, something super punchy - except in advertising

        well, there is still ur. for example ATGM "Falarick" (Falarick), developed in Kiev KB "Luch". the launch of this missile is possible from the 105-mm tank gun. ATGM provides target destruction at a maximum range of 5 km. The tandem warhead pierces the steel armor thickness 550 mm, protected by dynamic protection.

        Does it pierce 550 mm of steel monolithic or combined armor? On the T-64, after all, combined armor under a dynamic “shirt”.
  • cth; fyn
    cth; fyn 25 June 2013 10: 29 New
    +2
    Provided that the T-64 does not fire first, 350 mm is still not enough against a 125 mm gun. With all this, the T-64 already exists and costs a penny, and Ukraine was very good at upgrading them, for the same $ 1 million, you won’t get Damascus steel, but you can certainly get a more adequate car.
    1. Akim
      Akim 25 June 2013 10: 37 New
      +3
      Quote: cth; fyn
      you won’t get Bulat for the same $ 1 million, but you can certainly get a more adequate car.

      The cost of BM Bulat is 7 million hryvnias (900 thousand green) + tank.
      1. cth; fyn
        cth; fyn 25 June 2013 13: 29 New
        +1
        Well then, the question is whether Kharkov will take up the work, and where to get the source material.
        1. Akim
          Akim 25 June 2013 13: 41 New
          +3
          Quote: cth; fyn
          will Kharkov take up the job, and where to get the source material

          By the end of the year they will hand over another company. And the source material is entire sites in factories. There is another question. Pennies !!!
          1. Alexey Prikazchikov
            Alexey Prikazchikov 25 June 2013 14: 58 New
            +1
            You will find 200 tanks. And this is enough to cool the Romanians, provided that normal crews are seated.
            1. Akim
              Akim 25 June 2013 15: 28 New
              +2
              Quote: Alexey Prikazchikov
              to cool the Romanians, provided that normal crews are seated.

              Romanians will not rock the boat. Now they don’t even want Moldova. After the Minister of Defense announced six months ago that Romania is invading our economic interests and we will protect them. They now have other territorial claims. Not officially of course. To Bulgaria and Serbia. To those who are weaker.
            2. nok01
              nok01 25 June 2013 19: 18 New
              +1
              The specification "provided that normal crews will sit" is very correct!
  • Ivan79
    Ivan79 25 June 2013 13: 19 New
    +2
    Quote: cth; fyn
    RPG-7 is constantly being improved (they say that armor-piercing has already reached 650-700mm of solid homogeneous armor), so the question is which grenade is enough for him.

    It seems that any is enough, and - right through. smile
  • pensioner
    pensioner 25 June 2013 13: 57 New
    +4
    "Well, what was it?" - Asked a grenade from RPG-7 hitting the side of a Romanian tank ...
  • Mhpv
    Mhpv 25 June 2013 15: 07 New
    +4
    In the article you can find a deeper meaning.
    What enormous potential was built into our tanks by designers if they are still being modernized and even combined with foreign components.
    How many tanks in the world have such a long life? hi
    1. Kars
      Kars 25 June 2013 15: 14 New
      +3
      Quote: mhpv
      How many tanks in the world have such a long life?

      A lot, Starting tanks of the Second World War ending with the Centurions
  • zennon
    zennon 25 June 2013 19: 12 New
    +1
    Well, what a cool boar. Is it not enough current 830 hp for 50 tons? 17 hp a ton of weight, God knows what. In a modern tank battle, it is advisable to quickly leave the firing zone. Yes and 105 mm is probably not enough. Well, well done. They don’t look around like hungry thumbs with open mouths. They try to do it themselves, attract private firms. New system fire control. Ballistic calculator. Again, modernization means cost savings. Yes, and the pedigree of the machine is excellent!
    1. Alexander D.
      Alexander D. 25 June 2013 21: 11 New
      +1
      Quote: zennon
      Well, what a cool boar. Is it not enough current 830 hp for 50 tons? 17 hp a ton of weight, God knows what. In a modern tank battle, it is advisable to quickly leave the firing zone. Yes and 105 mm is probably not enough. Well, well done. They don’t look around like hungry thumbs with open mouths. They try to do it themselves, attract private firms. New system fire control. Ballistic calculator. Again, modernization means cost savings. Yes, and the pedigree of the machine is excellent!

      I do not agree with you. They have a very good production potential, but the lack of any experience is not only in the design of tanks, but at least in their independent and consistent modernization. To working hands, you also need to have a bright head.
      P.S .: Last year, I traveled around Romania - we must give them their due, they were able to build high-quality roads with European Union money and build high-tech plants. The production facilities there are really strong.
      1. zennon
        zennon 25 June 2013 21: 23 New
        +1
        Quote: Alexander D.
        Quote: zennon
        Well, why, a funny wild boar. Well done, well. They don’t look around like hungry galchats with open mouths. They try to do it themselves

        I do not agree with you.

        In fact, you practically agreed with me. hi I’m not writing that they created something of a child prodigy. I praised them for their initiative, their desire to work, to gain experience. Who argues about the lack of experience, an engineering school, R&D? But you don’t stand with an open wallet like Arabs at international exhibitions. then start. Experience is a bargain.
  • dustycat
    dustycat 26 June 2013 21: 11 New
    0
    Nice tractor.
    Budgetary. Properly modernized.
    Well done.
  • aspirin02
    aspirin02 28 June 2013 15: 38 New
    +1
    Kharkov modernization of the order of the ray ....

    As a result of the modernization, a large amount of modern equipment is installed on the tanks, including the 5TDFMA engine with 1050 horsepower, which provides cross-country speed of up to 55 kilometers per hour forward, and up to 30 kilometers per hour back. The crew consists of 3-ё military personnel - the tank commander, gunner and driver.
    The main armament is the KBM-1M gun of the 125 mm caliber, equipped with a fire control system with an integrated Buran-Katrin thermal imager and an automatic loader that provides up to 8 rounds per minute. The tank can hit targets with armor-piercing shells at ranges up to 3500 and with a Combat guided missile up to 5 thousand meters. The tank is equipped with a KBM-1M smoothbore gun with 125mm caliber and 48 caliber barrel length, equipped with an automatic loader. Automatic loading allows up to 8 rounds per minute without reducing the speed of the tank.