Military Review

Memories of a former high-ranking Russian official about his stay in Georgia and Azerbaijan from the autumn of 1917 to the spring of 1920.

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Memories of a former high-ranking Russian official about his stay in Georgia and Azerbaijan from the autumn of 1917 to the spring of 1920.

“The 66 year is coming to me, the age is big. A lot has been lived and a lot has been experienced” - these words begin the memoirs of one of the heads of the department of internal affairs in the last years of the Russian Empire, the real state councilor Konstantin Dmitrievich Kafafov.


A lawyer by training (graduated from St. Petersburg University with a degree of candidate), Kafafov rose to the top of the public service from lower positions. October 3 1888 as a collegiate secretary, he was appointed to the office of the Senate Department, and by 1892 reached the appointment of secretary to the rank of titular adviser. The following 25 years worked in the judiciary, in prosecutorial oversight, judge, member of the judicial chambers. In 1912, a new phase of his career has begun, involving service in the Ministry of the Interior. 2 April, he was appointed vice director of the Police Department. He didn’t have any experience in the political wanted list, and he was entrusted with purely bureaucratic functions, mainly as vice-director, he was responsible for the departments related to legislative activity, and as a member of the council of the minister represented the Ministry in various interdepartmental commissions and meetings. The most serious work was done by them in the Workers Insurance Council.

In the days of the February 1917 revolution, Mr. Kafafov, like many of the highest ranks of the tsarist administration, was arrested. 4 March The Provisional Government established the High Commission of Inquiry to investigate the illegal actions of former ministers, chief executives and other senior officials, renamed a few days later the Emergency Investigation Commission. On May 24, the Commission issued a resolution which stated that "taking into account Kafafov's age, his marital status and painful condition", as well as "by the very nature of the act", his continued detention seems excessively strict. The imprisonment in the solitary confinement cell of the Peter and Paul Fortress was replaced with house arrest, and from May 31 it came down to a written undertaking not to leave Petrograd.

24 August Kafafov applied for permission to travel to Tiflis and was released. For three years he lived in Tiflis, in Baku, in the Crimea, and in November 1920 emigrated to Turkey, then moved to Serbia, where he died in 1931.

In June, 1929, Mr. Kafafov, completed his memoirs, the pages of which, devoted to his stay in the former Russian Transcaucasus, are listed below with slight abbreviations.

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... I will not describe the collapse of the Russian state. Much has been written about this, both by those who contributed in every possible way to this destruction, and by bystanders.

My story is humble.

I spent the summer after being liberated from the [Peter and Paul] Fortress in Petrograd, since I was obliged by subscription not to leave the place of residence anywhere. In the fall, I filed a petition with the Emergency Commission of Inquiry for permission to move to the Caucasus, to Tiflis. After intensified requests, at last, permission was given to me, and a subscription was withdrawn from me that I pledge to come to Petrograd at the first request of the Emergency Investigation Commission. 11 September 1917. I went to the Caucasus with my family.

We arrived in Tiflis 17 September. Autumn this year was unusually good. But the revolution was strongly reflected in the life of the city. There was no bread. Instead of bread, one had to eat some pulp of bran and straw. Even corn, which is usually quite a lot in the Caucasus, was not enough this year. The high cost of other products grew by leaps and bounds, and to top it all, the most unceremonious looting began in the city. Robbed in the afternoon on the street. They meet, for example, robbers on the street a well-dressed lady, silently escort her to the apartment and, approaching her porch, unexpectedly offer her to undress - they remove everything of value from her, not excluding shoes and silk stockings, then they ring the bell entrance and quickly hiding with the loot, and the unfortunate victim is surprisingly the servants or loved ones who opened the door, is home almost not completely nude. Not only women, but also men and even children were subjected to such a robbery. In addition, the usual robbery of apartments has become frequent. Hooliganism has become extremely frequent. There was continuous firing on the streets. The authorities could not cope with this.

However, the authorities, in essence, were not. After the February Revolution, a coalition government of Transcaucasia was formed in Tiflis from representatives of Georgia, Armenia and Baku Tatars. The coalition authority, however, was not strong, as it did not have cohesive unity and solidarity. In general, in the Caucasus it was very difficult to reconcile the interests of the Caucasian Tatars and Armenians, it was not easy to reconcile the interests of the Georgians with the Armenians. Between the Armenians and the Tatars the enmity was constant. This enmity led to the distant past relations between the Turks and Armenians, who periodically fought with brutal beatings of Armenians in Turkey. Georgians' hostility towards Armenians was explained by the seizure of all trade and city property in the Caucasus by Armenians. In addition, the Georgians, as the most cohesive element and the most revolutionary, tried to dominate the coalition, but this desire was met with opposition from both Armenians and the Tatars.

Meanwhile, the revolutionary movement in Russia became more and more deep. Shortly after my arrival in Tiflis (at the end of October 1917), information was received from Moscow about the seizure of power there by the Bolsheviks. Began a complete collapse of the army. The rebellious gangs of soldiers pulled from the front home indiscriminately, noisy armed crowd, threatening the safety of the cities lying in the way. Communication with the central Russian government has ceased. At this time, taking advantage of the state of things, the Georgians decided to realize their long-cherished dream - to declare their independence. Yesterday’s representatives of the Georgian people in the State Duma, and during the revolution - on the Council of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies, Cheidze, Chkhenkeli and Gegechkori, convinced internationalists - Social Democrats, Mensheviks, suddenly turned homely into ardent nationalists of patriots. It was urgently convened a Constituent Assembly. The independence of Georgia was proclaimed, the basic laws were worked out - and Georgia became an independent socialist republic.

It is necessary to recognize that Georgians turned out to be experienced and sophisticated businessmen in revolutionary work. Paying tribute to the demands of the revolution, they managed, however, to direct all these demands in a sense desirable for their leaders. So, for example, on the model of Central Russia and they formed a council of workers and soldiers' deputies, although there are actually few workers in Georgia, and there are almost no factory workers, since there are only 2-3 tobacco factories there, and their soldiers at first did not It was. Nevertheless - the infection is stronger than logic - and such advice was formed. But the leaders of the Georgian independent movement were also able to seize this revolutionary institution into their own hands. In essence, members of the council of workers and soldiers' deputies, members of the Constituent Assembly and, finally, members of parliament — if they were not the same persons — then in any case were like-minded people who not only interfered with each other, but, on the contrary, mutually supporting each other.

Of the Georgians, the Imerethins were the most energetic and militant workers. Georgians are divided into several tribes: Kartalin, living in the lower reaches mainly in the Tiflis province, Imeretin, Minghrelians and Abkhazians living in the Kutaisi province. Of these, Kartalin residents are the most peaceful civilians in Georgia. Imeretians and generally inhabitants of mountainous areas are distinguished by a hotter temperament. In peacetime, the Imeretians mainly engaged in sedentary crafts, which was prompted by both the paucity of their nature and the innate entrepreneurial nature of character. The best cooks and servants in both the Transcaucasus and the North Caucasus were mainly from the Imeretians. When the socialist teachings and the revolutionary movement began to penetrate into the Transcaucasus, the Imeretians were the most susceptible followers. They seized the revolutionary and independent movement in Georgia. The fundamentals of the language of all Georgians are common, but each tribe has its own characteristics, its own pronunciation and its own turn of speech. They understand each other relatively freely. Almost all surnames in Kartalinia end in “shvili” - Mgaloblishvili, Hoshiashvili and others. “Shvili” Translated means “son”, in Imeretin the surnames end in “dze” - Chkheidze, Dumbadze, Jamarjidze and others. also means son. Thus, surnames seem to come from a representative of a clan, but, moreover, there are many surnames in Imereti, the origin of which can be explained, probably, by the fact that their founders came to the Caucasus in long past times from the west, for example: Orbeliani, Zhordania and so on. As we know, almost all peoples passed from the East from east to west. There is no doubt that some of them settled in the Caucasus, retaining their type and some of the old customs. Especially it can be observed in the mountains, in the mountain villages.

In 1911 in the summer, with several persons from the Moscow judicial department, I went on foot along the Military-Ossetian road, which runs from the tract of St. Nicholas (near Vladikavkaz) to Kutaisi. I will not describe the enchanting beauty of nature in the Caucasus Mountains, the majestic picture of the Tsei glacier at an altitude of 9 thousand feet, and the rarely picturesque valley of the Rion River. I will only indicate that we were amazed by the amazing variety of types and customs in different places, not far from each other. So, along with the usual types of mountaineers, mostly dark brunettes and brunettes, we in one aul had to meet a rare beauty a girl of 16-ti, a light blonde with a heavenly color and blue eyes. And in this village, almost all women were blondes. In a sakla with the parents of this girl, we were treated to a drink, which was an ordinary home-made beer. To our question, where did they get this drink from, they replied that in their aul everyone since time immemorial brewed it. It is possible that a small part of the German tribes that passed through the Caucasus settled in this aul.

In general, the Caucasus, despite its relatively small territory, is replete with ethnic groups. It is inhabited by Russians, Georgians, Imeretians, Abkhaz, Minghrelians, Svans, Tatars, Lezgins, Ossetians, Ingushs, Kabardians, etc., live in the mountains. The vast majority of Georgians are Orthodox, although there are Georgians who are Roman Catholics, but there are few of them. Mountain tribes predominantly profess Islam. On the whole, Georgians are not religious. As soon as Georgia was proclaimed an independent socialist republic, naturally, not only freedom of religion and equality of all religions was immediately declared, but it was also allowed to be a non-religious state, and therefore civil burial was allowed without the participation of the clergy. Despite the fact that civilian funerals were only allowed and the funerals for the rites of their religion were not forbidden, civilian funerals were relatively often used. However, they made a heavy impression on believers and caused open protests. So, when the son of the head of state died at that time, his extremely solemn funeral was organized with the participation of the clergy, and the rumor was spread among the people that the clergy were invited at the insistence of women close to the deceased. However, even among most religious-minded people, religion had a mostly external, ritual character, with a large admixture of superstition, rather than internal, ideological, which is generally observed among the peoples of the East - among the Greeks, Armenians, etc. This is why a number of phenomena are often of a physical nature. , following the declaration of independence, greatly influenced the Georgians and caused them to rise religiously.

First of all, they were frightened by an unprecedented hail that had severely damaged vineyards and orchards in a number of localities - the only source of livelihood for local residents. Then the ardent imagination was struck by a series of catastrophic earthquakes that ended with the death of the whole city of Gori. The people began to see the wrath of God in this and decided to appease him with prayers. In some villages closest to the city of Gori, the Sunday bazaars were even canceled, as they began to say that God was not happy with the market on Sundays. Appeared, as always happens in such cases, soothsayers who frightened the people. The Georgian government, which listened to the popular mood, made concessions. Representatives of the authorities began to appear in churches at solemn public worship services and even approached to be attached to the cross and the hand of the clergymen. Thanks to this mood, the anti-religious movement has somewhat subsided, and churches that are still completely empty have gradually begun to fill with people.

Even before the proclamation of independence, the Georgians declared the autocephaly of their church. Georgians have long sought this autocephaly. As far as I remember, for the first time conversations about this began under Emperor Alexander III and resumed under Emperor Nicholas II. But these conversations did not lead to anything, since our Governing Synod found that there could not be two independent Orthodox churches in the same state, on condition that the Orthodox religion was dominant in the country. However, the Georgians did not want to reconcile with this: considering their church to be older, they found it unjust to submit to the younger Russian church.

Georgians, as mentioned above, are not very religious at all, especially their intelligentsia, so the Georgians' desire for autocephaly could rather be explained by political considerations, by the desire to achieve some kind of autonomy, at least in the field of the church, than by religious motives. After the revolution, when the question of the complete separation of Georgia from Russia arose, the question of the autocephaly of the Georgian church again naturally came to the fore. Therefore, the Georgians and rushed to the implementation of this project.

In the old Mtskheta Cathedral, the autocephalous Georgian church was declared with great solemnity and was consecrated Catholicos by Bishop Kirion, the former Bishop of Orel and Savsky in 1905. Kirion took the title of Catholicos "All Georgia"; this imitation of the title of the Russian patriarch, “All Russia,” sounded somewhat comical, for all Georgia consisted at that time of only two provinces, Tiflis and Kutaisi; Batumi region passed to the Georgians only in 1920 year.

(...)

Immediately after the declaration of independence of Georgia, the local government was also constructed. A permanent parliament was elected, ministries were formed, and the old Social-Democrat Noah Jordania, formerly a minor employee of Nobel’s oilman in Baku, became head of the government. Nightgowns with ribbons instead of a tie were removed, and members of the new government donned starch collars, put on business cards, and covered their Social-Democratic heads with bourgeois cylinders. Special dandy was the most talented of them, Gegechkori, who took the post of Minister of Foreign Affairs. Among the first of his diplomatic steps was stripping in front of the Germans. The new diplomat turned out to be a bad politician and believed in the invincibility of the Germans, being obviously a big fan of the German armored fist at heart. However, information about the relations of some Georgian groups with the Germans was already known in 1914, at the beginning of the war. But these rumors were then ignored because representatives of the Georgian nobility close to the court, and behind them all Georgians were considered selflessly loyal to the throne.

Georgian ministers were both smarter and more experienced than the ministers of the Provisional Government. They did not disperse all administration and police officers, as the Ministers of the Provisional Government did. On the contrary, all the Georgians who served in these institutions remained, and some even received more responsible posts. But the severity and energy of the socialist minister of internal affairs, manifested in his struggle against the enemies of independent Georgia and the order therein, could have been envied by Plehve himself. Arrests, expulsions fell from the socialist horn of plenty, regardless of any principles and problems of freedom that these social democrats had so recently shouted from the tribune of the Russian State Duma.

The first regular concern of the Georgian government was the need to promptly and painlessly float Russian soldiers who returned from the front without permission from Georgia. This responsibility was mainly assigned to the former member of the Petrograd Council of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies Chkheidze, he met the troops, made speeches, urged the soldiers to return home as soon as possible to their expectant families, and in any case pointed them to the r. Chickens Davidovskaya mountain, saying that there is a huge number of guns there and in the case of resistance in one moment all the cars with soldiers will be "turned into dust."

As you know, Tiflis is located in a depression along both banks of the Kura River. On the left bank, the terrain is less elevated than on the right. The main branch of the Transcaucasian railway, connecting Baku with Batum, passes through the highest place of the left bank. The right bank of the Kura is considerably higher than the left and ends at a rather high mountain towering above the city - this mountain is called Davidovskaya - according to the church of Sts. David, built in the middle of the mountain near a small key, beating out of the mountain. According to legend, there was no time here, when even the whole mountain was covered with forest, there lived a hermit St. David. Here, in the fence of the church, buried the immortal author of "Woe from Wit" Griboedov. It was on this mountain that the Georgians, in order to intimidate the soldiers returning from the front, built a seemingly formidable battery of 2 guns taken from the Russians.

With sweet speeches and cannon threats, the Georgian authorities managed to smuggle the troops returning from the front outside of Georgia. Not less successful were the diplomatic attempts of the Georgian diplomat. In the first half of 1918, I don’t remember a month now, a small train of German troops with guns and music unexpectedly arrived in Tiflis. And the amazing thing. In the morning the Germans arrived, at noon one German soldier without guns with one cleaver was put on the main streets, and full order was immediately restored in the city; from that day it was possible to return home in the dead of night without any fear of attack. So strong was the authority of the Germans in the east. The Germans behaved tactfully in Tiflis. They established full order in the city. Their headquarters is located in one of the houses on Golovinsky Avenue. Every day, information about the course of the war was posted near the doors of the headquarters. In the evenings, music played on Golovinsky Avenue; but the days of the Germans were already numbered. Georgian diplomats made a mistake.

After the September breakthrough of the Solunsky 1918 front, the position of the Germans became difficult: their front still held, but they felt an impending catastrophe. The Allied forces, united under the general command of Marshal Foch, were preparing for a decisive blow. In view of all this, the Germans quickly collapse and leave Tiflis. The Georgians, willy-nilly, had to change their orientation and turn to the British.

Soon the British came. Their arrival was not as solemn as the appearance of the Germans. Apparently, among the Georgians, they did not use such charm. And the British themselves treated the Georgians coldly and haughtily. The British did not interfere in the internal affairs of the Georgians and, as always and everywhere, set themselves the goal of extracting more benefits from their arrival in the Caucasus. They began to export oil from Baku and manganese from Georgia.

As soon as Georgia declared its independence, Armenians and Baku Tatars followed its example. On the territory of Erivan and part of the Elizavetpol province, inhabited by Armenians, the Armenian Republic was formed, and on the territory of Baku and other parts of the Elizavetpol province, inhabited by Tatars, the Azerbaijan Republic. Until this time, Azerbaijan was called the part of Persian territory adjoining Russia. Baku and its environs, before the Russians conquered them, constituted a special khanate, which was ruled by Baki Khans, who were vassals of the Persian shahs. On the shores of the Caspian Sea, above the present city, stood the castle of Bakikhanov. Khanate was poor, the inhabitants were engaged in cattle breeding and fishing.

They didn’t have a clue about oil then, and the gases that got out of the ground in places helped to create a religious cult of fire-worshipers who, thanks to these gases, maintained eternal fire in their temples. After the adoption of Islam by the Persians, this religion gradually began to spread among Baku and other Caucasian Tatars and Highlanders. Rod Bakikhanov stopped. Baku and Elizavetpol gubernias have long since entered not only within the borders of the Russian state, but little by little began to become attached to Russian culture. Representatives of the local population in most cases were already pupils of Russian educational institutions. They didn’t dream of independence, which, moreover, they never had. But life is more fantastic than the richest human fantasy. And now the Baku Tatars unexpectedly had the opportunity to organize their own oil republic, and they decided for greater importance to invent their ancestors - in the person of an independent Azerbaijan that had allegedly existed on their territory once. Of all the latter-day republics, the Azerbaijan Republic was richer than all, thanks to its oil sources. Then came the Georgian, which had manganese mines and coal. The Armenian turned out to be the poorest - she didn’t even have a single decent city. For its main city, Erivan, is a rather seedy provincial provincial town, which cannot be compared even with Baku, not only now with Tiflis. All three republics, especially at first, lived solely on the basis of the remaining Russian legacy in the form of various warehouses of food, clothing and weapons. They unceremoniously divided all this property among themselves, and the lion’s share of the whole went to the Georgians, because almost all the large warehouses were located in Tiflis and its surroundings.

Neither the factory, nor the factory, nor the agricultural industry was developed in any way either in Georgia or in Armenia. Before the newly-minted state formations, there was an urgent need to clarify means of subsistence. The financial authorities of the new republics were the first to seek these funds. First of all, they attack or print their own banknotes. The Transcaucasian bonds, issued by the triune government of the Transcaucasus, were soon replaced by booms - Georgian, Armenian and Azerbaijani. These coupons were issued, of course, without observing the emission rules and without at least providing some of their gold cash. They only indicated that they were provided with all state property of the country, but what was the value of these properties, the authorities themselves were hardly aware of. The authorities seemed to care more about the external beauty of the bonds, flaunting each other fancy emblems of their state power on their credit signs than their real credit worthiness. Strangely enough, but on the Transcaucasian Stock Exchange - their quotes did not go further - Georgian bonds stood higher than the rest, followed by Azeri bonds and the last were Armenian.

One of the socialist activities of the Georgian government was the nationalization of natural wealth. In Tiflis itself there were hot sulfur springs, which were used by their owners, private individuals, by arranging public baths over these sources. These baths were named after their owners. So, there were baths: Iraklievskaya, which once belonged to Irakli, the Georgian prince, and later passed on to his heirs; Sumbatovskaya, which belonged to the princes Sumbatov; Orbelianovskaya, owned by the princes Jambakuri-Orbelianovs, Bebutovskaya, owned by the princes Bebutov; Mirzoyevskaya, who belonged to the rich in the Caucasus at one time, Mirzoyev, and others. The local population willingly visited these baths, and their profitability grew as the population of the city grew. In 1913, in Tiflis city self-government, the question was raised about buying up all these baths from private owners and, in view of their healing properties, about the device of a health resort at their location. Even negotiations began with the owners, but the war prevented the implementation of this intention. The Georgian socialist government solved the issue more simply, it simply took away these bathhouses with all the buildings and land belonging to them from private owners - as the natural wealth of the earth’s interior. The very same nationalization was also made easy. Over time, the number of owners of individual baths has increased significantly. In view of this, for the convenience of their management, these baths were usually rented by the general meeting of their owners. The Georgian government invited tenants and announced to them that, pending further special orders, it would leave these baths in their lease and now charge them with the rent to the treasury, due to the nationalization of the baths. Then it notified the owners, promising to pay them the cost of the buildings. However, until his collapse, they did not pay anything.

Left without owners and their constant monitoring of cleanliness and order in the baths and not confident in the future, the tenants directed all their forces to the greatest possible exploitation of the property entrusted to them, without paying any attention to the condition of this property. As a result, after a few months the baths were extremely neglected and polluted.

Manganese mines were also nationalized. Experienced socialists did not go further than the release of the bonds and the nationalization of the earth’s interior, but the bad financiers did not go, and there was nowhere to go. In the Caucasus, there was a saying that "Georgians are cheerful because they eat lobio (beans) and drink wine." Indeed, they know how to drink in Georgia, and they have good wine for those who are used to it. And lobio they eat a lot and love it, they even bake it in a special bread made from corn. But between ordinary fun and state-building distance of a huge size. From wine and lobio you can be cheerful and fill your own stomach, but it is difficult to fill the state treasury.

As I mentioned earlier, the Armenians had a particularly difficult situation. Surrounded on the one hand by the hostile Tatars, on the other hand by the Georgians, who are also not entirely friendly towards them, they were suffocating in their small territory. Earlier, under the tsarist government, Armenians seized almost all trade in the Caucasus, not excluding the oil industry in Baku. Not only all the large-scale trade, but almost all the houses in Tiflis belonged to them, and they were accustomed to consider Tiflis to be theirs, when the revolution broke out and turned everything upside down, and they had to close in Erivan gubernia, where the only consolation for them was the Echmiadzin monastery in which the head of their church lived - the Catholicos of all Armenians. But for practical Armenians this consolation was weak. They wanted something more real, and they embarked on an adventure.

Without a declaration of war, unexpectedly, the Armenians moved their forces towards Tiflis, apparently, with a sudden blow, thinking to seize the city and settle in it. However, their deed caused a storm of indignation among the Georgians, who pulled their regular army to Tiflis; in addition, armed people began to flock to Tiflis from everywhere and [on time] no longer than two days the Georgians managed to set up an army of several thousand against the Armenians. The thunder of guns was already heard on the outskirts of the city. The war, without any major results, however, lasted for several days. The Georgians delayed the advancement of the Armenians and began to go on the offensive. But all this bothered the British, and they sent a small military unit to stand between the warring parties and offered the latter their mediation, which, to the mutual pleasure of the parties, soon led to a peace agreement.

(...)

I left Tiflis [to Baku] at the end of November 1918. There were a lot of people on the train: our compartment was packed, six people sat on four-seater sofas. As soon as we crossed the Georgian border, bestial persons armed to the teeth began to appear in the cars; they opened the doors of the compartment, examined the passengers and silently left the car. It turned out that these were Tatars from the surrounding villages, who were looking for Armenians on the train. Shortly before this, there were pogroms, first Armenians smashed Tatars, and then Tatars of Armenians. Passions did not have time to lie down. The train told that the day before the Tatars had taken two Armenians from the train and killed them at the station.

The next morning we arrived in Baku. I was immediately struck by the difference between Baku and Tiflis. Baku from the outside remained the same as it was before the revolution. Russian speech, Russian people, Russian troops, detachment of General Bicherahov. The residents of Baku after the seizure of power in Russia by the Bolsheviks had to go through a lot. First of all, shortly after the Bolshevik coup in Russia, the Bolshevik uprising broke out in Baku. With the help of the workers, the local Armenian and Russian Bolsheviks managed to seize power in their hands. Immediately all privately owned oil fields were nationalized. At that time, the Armenians organized a cruel pogrom of Muslims, several buildings were destroyed and destroyed by fire, and many people were killed and maimed.

Bolshevism did not last long in Baku. Almost simultaneously with the arrival of the Germans in Tiflis, the Turks arrived in Baku. They quickly eliminated Bolshevism and restored order in the city, but the Turks did not stay in Baku for long. After the breakthrough of the Solun front, the Turks, like the Germans, left the Caucasus. After their departure, a pogrom of Armenians soon broke out, organized by the Turks, its cruelty not inferior to the Armenian pogrom. In the middle of 1918, General Bicherahov arrived in Baku from the Persian front with his detachment. Due to the presence of Russian troops in the city quickly restored order. By this time, the authorities in the newly formed republic had managed to finally construct. The head of the government was sworn attorney Khan Khoisky. A parliament was formed, which included several Russian members. Then a coalition Council of Ministers was drawn up with two Russian ministers - a former member of the council under the governor of the Caucasus from the Ministry of Finance, I.N. Protasyev as Minister of Finance and local merchant Lizgar as Minister of Trade and Industry.

Bicherahov's squad in the spring of 1919 went to Denikin. The British came to replace him from Baku. The British treated Baku people quite favorably. They advised them to expand the coalition and give the ministry two or one portfolio to the Armenians. This council was formally adopted, although it was practically not implemented, the mutual hostility between Armenians and Tatars was too great, especially after the recent mutual pogroms. After the arrival of the British, the Baku People grew stronger and the newly appeared Azerbaijan Republic gradually began to unfold. A significant part of the employees in the Azerbaijani state institutions consisted of Russians. The relations of local authorities and the population towards them were the most benevolent, and there is no reason to compare these relations with the relations of Georgians and Armenians. It is interesting to note the fact that in the Republic of Azerbaijan all the paperwork and all official correspondence were conducted in Russian, which, by the way, was also an international language in relations between all three Transcaucasian republics. Only in the Parliament spoke Turkish, and even then not all. It is rather difficult to establish precisely the legal nature of the Transcaucasian republics, since they did not have time to crystallize and were still in the organizational and revolutionary period.

By design, the Georgian republic, with a parliament, with a responsible ministry, fully responded to the principles of democracy by the people. As for the Republic of Azerbaijan, it was rather mixed. The ministers here were also appointed by non-members of parliament, moreover, the principle of a responsible ministry was not clearly carried out, because in their work they reported more to the head of government than to parliament. Some of the ministers, such as Russian ministers, did not go to parliament at all, but on the other hand, the parliament was not only a legislative body, but also a governing and supervisory body and quite vigorously discussed all issues of life and government, although sometimes long overdue.

The Armenian Republic was a cross between the Azerbaijan and the Georgian Republics. In all three republics there was no title of president of the republic, and his duties were performed by the head of government. So the head in Georgia was Noah Jordania, in Azerbaijan - Khan Khoyski, and in Armenia, if memory serves me, Khatisov. The peculiarity of the Republic of Azerbaijan was its army, organized by the full general of the Russian service Mokhmandarov, a knight of two officers Georgiev. This army was built, armed and uniformed in the Russian style. General Mokhmandarov himself walked all the time in a Russian military uniform, with two George, and wore buttons on his uniform with eagles. Almost the entire officer corps consisted of former Russian officers, as a result of which the team, at least at first, was conducted in Russian. Nobody was surprised at this and no one protested against it. And Mokhmandarov himself even spoke in Russian in parliament.

In this respect, the Tatars were very different from the Georgians. In Georgia, from the very first days of the declaration of independence in all institutions, not only correspondence, but also conversations began to be conducted in Georgian. The army was also organized into a special, Georgian, or rather, Western European model, although it was all outfitted and armed with Russian uniforms and Russian weapons. The entire officer corps of the Georgian army was filled with Georgians serving in the Russian army. In general, there were very few Russians in the Georgian service, which is why the majority of Russians moved to Baku. The question of nationality did not constrain Russians in Azerbaijan either, since they did not consider this question, at least with respect to Russians, there. The Russians, in spite of their citizenship, could hold any posts, up to and including the minister. Although the law on citizenship was adopted by the Parliament, in practice it was hardly used until the end of the days of the Republic of Azerbaijan. While the Georgians managed to enforce their law on citizenship. According to this law, by the way, all persons residing within Georgia from a certain time period (until Georgia declared independence) automatically became Georgian subjects. At the same time, persons who did not want to transfer to Georgian citizenship were obliged to declare this within a certain period.

Of all the Caucasian nationalities, the Georgians were the most loved ones in Russia — of all the Caucasian nationalities, after the revolution, the Georgians became the worst to treat the Russians. And, oddly enough, the Tatars - the Muslims were the most grateful to Russia for what she did for them. At the same time, many Tatars sincerely declared that they were not happy with their independence, did not believe in it, that they lived immeasurably better under the Russian authorities than they did with their independence. Many large Baku figures have repeatedly spoken about this to me personally. It was not only intelligent people who thought this way, the common people thought so.

I personally witnessed the next scene. Somehow on the way I went to a little lane in a little shop to buy matches. Almost simultaneously with me, a Russian officer unfamiliar to me entered the bench, who, after removing his uniform cap with a Russian cockade, put it on the counter. Suddenly, the shop owner, a middle-aged Tatar, grabbed this cap and began to kiss the Russian cockade. Then, with tears in his eyes, he addressed us with a bitter reproach in broken Russian: "Why did you kill Tsar Nicholas, oh, how well we lived with him, everything was, it was true, there was money, there was bread, soldiers of our children they took, but now there is no truth, there is no money, there is no bread, they take children as soldiers; yesterday’s conductor of the horseman’s minister today, what he understands. Oh, why did you kill the Tsar ... "We, embarrassed and touched, hurried out of the shop - What could we answer him? As I was leaving, I noticed tears in the officer’s eyes. So the simple Tatar people valued the former Russian national power.

In the Baku parliament, as in any orthodox parliament, political parties immediately formed. Of these, the larger and influential was the party called “Musavat”. The most intelligent representatives of Azerbaijan belonged to this party. The head of the government Khan Khoysky, the majority of ministers and such prominent local figures as the sworn attorney Ali Mardan bey Tonpchibashev, who left for Paris as a delegate of the republic to protect her interests, former comrade of the minister of trade and industry Ali bei Aliyev, Ali bek Makinsky , famous oilman Asadulaev and others. Despite the fact that intelligent people entered this party, no one, however, could distinctly detail the program of his party to me: all were usually limited to explaining that the program was approximately the same as the Russian Cadet party.

The next largest party was called "Ihtiat", it was considered a more conservative party and was mainly a supporter of pan-Islamism. This party consisted of the most chauvinistic elements. Finally, the third party called itself the party of independent socialists; it consisted mainly of younger people who were rather superficially familiar with socialist doctrines and who more admired their membership of the socialist party than they understood the essence of socialism. One of these party members, to my question, what is the essence of their party program, answered with pride to me that they are socialist internationalists, and moreover independent, because they do not depend on anyone: neither on II, nor on III International.

Russian members of parliament made up the Russian group without a specific program. Organized work in parliament, of course, still could not get better. Most members of parliament belonged to the Musavat party, which mainly led this work.

In Baku, I got a job as a legal adviser on freelance employment at the Ministry of Trade and Industry, headed by the Russian Minister Lizgar. The work mainly consisted in drawing up contracts for the sale of oil and the purchase of various goods. In the summer of 1919, I moved my family to Baku. Got settled, but not for long. In the fall, my eldest son, 19 years old, became an invasive pleurisy. On the advice of the doctors, I moved my family back to Tiflis, and I myself returned to Baku. Soon the British left Baku, and Azerbaijan was left to itself. The departure of the British, however, did not cause any changes.

1920 has come the year. Suddenly in the middle of March, in the old style, I received a telegram from my wife that my son is very bad. I went to Tiflis, but my son was no longer alive. Having buried my son, I decided to stay for a while in Tiflis, especially as Easter was approaching. After Easter, I finally decided to return to Baku. As usual, I went to the city station to buy a train ticket. There were no tickets against any waiting, so I decided to take him at the station. Having packed my things, I went to the cemetery at the grave of my son. The cemetery was located near our apartment in the courtyard of the Church of St. John the Divine. After spending some time at the grave of my son, I returned home and sent my younger son for a cab driver. At the grave of my son, I felt some kind of hunch, I conveyed this to my wife, explaining that I really did not want to go to Baku. My wife began to ask me to stay and let go of the driver, who was brought by her son. I sighed with relief, lay down on the bed and fell asleep as if I had been killed. Early in the morning in Tiflis information was obtained about the occupation of Baku by the Bolsheviks. The whole train in which I was supposed to travel was taken aback by them.

I purposely described in detail my gathering in Baku to indicate how the coherence of a number of circumstances, seemingly accidental for the first time, saved my life, since, undoubtedly, had I fallen into the hands of the Bolsheviks, I would have been killed. They shot down a number of people in Baku, including Lizgar, although he had long since left the post of minister of trade and industry and lived as a simple philistine. I brought this case without comment, but without any exaggeration, let everyone interpret it as far as their understanding. A few days later I was walking somehow in Tiflis along Golovinsky Avenue. Suddenly, I felt that someone was touching me on the shoulder. I looked around. Near me, smiling, stood the former Georgian ambassador to the Republic of Azerbaijan, the doctor ... (I forgot his last name). He knew me because I had to ask him for a visa to Tiflis more than once. "Happy is your god that you were not in Baku, even I ran away forcibly," he said laughing. “Well, what about my position here?” I asked him. "Here you can be calm, we are a country of law and culture."

However, in this country of law and culture, a diplomatic representative of the Bolsheviks soon appeared. Obviously, the Bolsheviks believed that the turn of the Georgians had not yet arrived. Busy with the war with Poland and Wrangel, they were afraid of complications in the event of serious Georgian resistance, why the issue of occupying Georgia was postponed and even agreed to recognize Georgia’s independence and enter into diplomatic relations with it. The agreement took place and was signed in Moscow, soon after that a diplomatic representative of the Bolsheviks appeared in Tiflis, who on the very first day of his arrival delivered a fiery speech from the balcony of his apartment. The first speech of his success was not, but the preparation of Bolshevism in Georgia began.

Baku was occupied by the Bolsheviks without resistance. At night, the Bolshevik armored train approached the city and the city was busy, and the Baku workers in the oil fields, already earlier promoted, supported the Bolsheviks. It is said that all this happened so unexpectedly that some ministers were arrested in the theater.

Whether this was so or not, I can not say. It’s indisputable that the 25-thousandth army of the republic with a fighting general led no resistance, despite its extremely favorable strategic position, since the road along which the Bolsheviks attacked went along the narrow coastal strip of the Caspian Sea, which, according to the military, it was extremely easy to defend with relatively small forces. However, the army, which had neither past nor present, proved to be incapable of any resistance. But the awareness of the authorities was below criticism. Sleepy with the caressing noise of the oil fountains, they did not hear or feel the oncoming thunderstorm that swallowed them in an instant. However, evil tongues said that General Makhmandarov allegedly asked the government about how long he could offer resistance to the Bolshevik army in the event of an offensive, replied: "Not more than two hours." I think, however, that this rumor is incorrect and thought up afterwards, since General Makhmandarov, although he knew the value of his army, could not answer that way, because he did not differ in his wit at all.

As is their custom, the Bolsheviks, having captured Baku, showed their usual cruelty in the form of a whole series of executions and excesses. Then the oil sources were nationalized again. All institutions were rebuilt in the Bolshevik manner; all wealthy individuals were robbed. In short, the Bolshevik obscurantism began. The poor Tatars, risking their lives, in women's attire, having thrown all their possessions, fled, cursing the servants of Shaitan (in Tatar - the devil). It was clear to me that the occupation of Georgia by the Bolsheviks was only a matter of time. Considering this and taking into account the success of Wrangel in the Crimea, I decided to go to the Crimea.

At the end of May 1920 I left Tiflis for Batum in order to get to Crimea from there by sea. I arrived in Batum on the eve of the departure of the British and their transfer of the Batumi region to the Georgians. The city was decorated with the Georgian flag. A mass of people gathered in Batumi from all over Georgia for this celebration. Troops passed along the streets in orderly rows, first English, with happy faces of people returning home. Behind them, Georgian troops solemnly entered the city, announcing the air with the sounds of music and the roar of guns. The public enthusiastically met their troops.

Just the next day after this celebration, a ship was scheduled to sail to the Crimea with the Russians under the auspices of the French. Early in the morning I hired a porter and, instructing him to carry things from the hotel, he went ahead, not to mention where to go. This precaution was not superfluous, as the Georgian authorities, under the pressure of the Bolshevik representation, were not very sympathetic to the departure of the Russians to the Crimea for the recruitment of Wrangel personnel. And on the eve of our sailing, a number of Russians in Batum were searched. Approaching the pier, I saw that it was guarded by several French soldiers who were checking the passes. On the boat I was met by a Russian officer who knew me from St. Petersburg. He happily greeted me: it turned out that he was in charge of registering the departing Russians, and right there on my list he noted my name.

Somehow I immediately felt happy when I boarded the ship. Russian speech, Russian people. And again for a while somewhere there, in the recesses of the heart, hope shone. On this steamer, under the protection of the French flag, we felt completely safe. Indeed, we saw from the deck how some Georgian policemen approached the pier, but the French quickly and without ceremony dismissed them. Already at noon, when the ship was filled with people, we slowly pushed off from the pier and went out to the open sea.

The weather was wonderful. The sea was completely calm. God, what is waiting for us ... Did our trials end, or is it just a minute respite ... Such thoughts roamed almost everyone, and it was felt without words ... I settled down for the night on the deck. What a night it was. From the depths of the sea on the horizon, as if after bathing, a huge, chubby, all brilliant, silver moon was rising, smiling cheerfully and congratulating us precisely on our return to our homeland. I looked at the sky, studded with stars, and so good, it was good at heart. Many years have passed since then, but I never experienced such sensations again. For a long, long time on the boat no one could fall asleep. The night enchanted everyone. It was only by morning that snores began to be heard here and there, and I dozed off. The next day, towards the evening, the coast of Crimea appeared in the distance.

Journal "Questions stories", 2005, No. 7, 8
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  1. Konstantm
    Konstantm 29 June 2013 08: 05 New
    +1
    The Endless Circle of History ....
  2. fenix57
    fenix57 29 June 2013 08: 06 New
    +3
    "All three republics, especially at first, lived solely on the legacy left from Russia in the form of all kinds of warehouses for food, uniforms and weapons. "- like a carbon copy at the end of the 20th century ... the irony of history however.
  3. borisjdin1957
    borisjdin1957 29 June 2013 10: 05 New
    +3
    from the Don.
    The author is handsome !!! Here is a story described by an eyewitness to the events that we have not been taught. A distinct difference. History moves in a spiral, which we observe !!!
  4. smersh70
    smersh70 29 June 2013 10: 38 New
    +9
    .so clearly outlined ..3 republics ..... such a stun that 90 years have not passed ......))) I liked the comparison of the Georgian and Azerbaijani armies)) .. the Georgian was built and is now based on the principle of Western armies countries, and the army of Azerbaijan as a whole on the principle of the Russian army .... and still we have Russian language freely used in the army and in the capital ..... Respect and respect for the author and those who published ... hi
    1. gene
      gene 29 June 2013 16: 17 New
      0
      Pay attention, dear smersh70, "Caucasian Tatars", "Baku Tatars". There were no Azerbaijanis then.
      1. Joker
        Joker 29 June 2013 20: 25 New
        +5
        Gennady, can we not fight? Do you miss the fact that the relations between your two states are already tense? Maybe instead of pouring oil on the fire should be more tolerant to each other?
      2. smersh70
        smersh70 29 June 2013 22: 21 New
        +2
        Quote: Gene
        Avkaz Tatars "," Baku Tatars "


        yes, and also say that they were not Azerbaijanis laughing and then moved to Mars ..... fellow
        By the way, and still notice .. in the parliament 2 deputies were from Armenians .. and now out of 125 deputies of the Milli Majlis of Azerbaijan .125th deputy is not elected, because elections are not held in the Khankendi district .. hi ..
      3. kNow
        kNow 30 June 2013 10: 55 New
        +3
        Quote: Gene
        Pay attention, dear smersh70, "Caucasian Tatars", "Baku Tatars". There were no Azerbaijanis then.


        nothing about hay
  5. vkrav
    vkrav 29 June 2013 11: 38 New
    +3
    Yesterday's representatives of the Georgian people in the State Duma, and during the revolution - on the council of workers 'and soldiers' deputies, Chkheidze, Chkhenkeli and Gegechkori, convinced internationalists - social democrats, Mensheviks, unexpectedly turned into ardent nationalists of patriots at home.

    The essence of the "internationalists" does not change ... And nothing changes at all.
  6. dark_65
    dark_65 29 June 2013 13: 50 New
    +1
    And nothing changes in the brain, where is this evolution of man, what should he learn?
  7. ylsdrm
    ylsdrm 29 June 2013 14: 48 New
    +4
    Twice in the XNUMXth century, our country was broken through a knee. Nevertheless, she survived and survived, although on a smaller scale.
    The situation is very interestingly shown, the eyes are obvious, it’s a pity that the Bolsheviks just seemed to him to be offspring of hell, only killing and taking away. I did not see continuity in those who restored the destroyed power. And what the French and British did in the Crimea, so everyone knows. Not the first time they are there.
  8. kombat_s300
    kombat_s300 29 June 2013 15: 09 New
    +4
    The weather was wonderful. The sea was completely calm. God, what awaits us ... And awaits us the restoration of the Russian Empire!
  9. Apologet insane
    Apologet insane 29 June 2013 15: 25 New
    +2
    They quickly eliminated Bolshevism and restored order to the city.


    Remarkably characterizes the essence of the Bolshevik revolution.
  10. family
    family tree 29 June 2013 21: 19 New
    +6
    Of all the ethnic groups of the Caucasus, Georgians were the most beloved in Russia - Georgians; of all the ethnic groups of the Caucasus after the revolution, Georgians became the worst affected Russians.
    what That is, already been? The third time would not step on the garden tools.
  11. Voskepar
    Voskepar 29 June 2013 22: 35 New
    0
    As soon as Georgia declared its independence, Armenians and Baku Tatars followed her example. The Republic of Armenia was formed on the territory of Erivan and part of Elizabethpol province, inhabited by Armenians, and the Republic of Azerbaijan on the territory of Baku and other part of Elizabethpol province, inhabited by Tatars. Until this time, Azerbaijan called the part of the Persian territory adjacent to Russia

    Auuuuuuu, the Transcaucasian Tatars, where are you? Or where is the truth, you hide.

    And then the Baku Tatars suddenly had the opportunity to organize their own oil republic, and for the greater importance they decided to invent their ancestors - in the person of an independent Azerbaijan supposedly existing on their territory.

    This is also about you. Since then, you have not changed. Until now, compose a story for yourself.
    1. smersh70
      smersh70 29 June 2013 22: 57 New
      0
      Quote: Voskepar
      In the territory of Erivan and part of the province of Elizabeth,


      I think I met you all the same, you’re my stoic laughing under the larva of the waxecap hid)))))))) where the lost canister of cognac)))))))))))
      now in order - read carefully, the author is right .. he meant the territory of present Azerbaijan at the beginning of the 19th century .. and now it adjoins Russia .... geography must be taught, comrade hi
      Well, we didn’t (c) draw a republic, YOU envy smile and then read above, as soon as, having created a republic, we went on the attack on the Georgians)) it’s in your blood .... all the time you want to chop off something from your neighbors wassat
      1. Voskepar
        Voskepar 29 June 2013 23: 41 New
        -2
        And I advise you to read academic books about stories, and not the works of "historians" of the NAS AR.

        And whoever is under the name "Stoic" is not familiar with him. Fortunately, or unfortunately.
        1. smersh70
          smersh70 29 June 2013 23: 55 New
          0
          Quote: Voskepar
          And I advise you to read academic books about stories, and not the works of "historians" of the NAS AR.


          The fact is that there are a huge number of displaced peoples in the world, and they do not hide, and are even quite justifiably proud of it. For example, the Magyars - the current Hungarians - call Hungary their acquired homeland, since they moved here far from the East. However, for some reason, the Armenians are trying to hide their repeated resettlement and falsely falsify their history. But even Armenian scholars do not write the history of Armenia, that is, the territory, but the history of the Armenian ethnos, since there are no facts proving where exactly their ancestral home is. According to ancient Greek sources, the present Armenians are the descendants of the Frigs (Phrygians) who migrated from Thrace in the Balkans to Asia Minor and then to the Caucasus. They were driven from there by the Cimmerian tribes moving forward east. According to scientific studies, the Cimmerians, who had driven the Phrygians in front of them, came to the Caucasus in two ways: through the North Caucasus and Georgia; and through today's Turkey. It was moving through Turkey that the Cimmerians pressed the Phrygians forward up to Asia Minor. About this at the beginning of the twentieth century, the Armenist N. Adonts wrote: “In the VIII century BC in Thrace, in the Balkans, the Cimmerians, one of the "peoples of the sea" by definition of ancient Egyptian written monuments, appeared. Here they came into contact with the ancestors of the present Armenians, whom they took away with them to the east - to Asia Minor. ” According to the "father of history" Herodotus, Phrygia was located next to another historical area - Cappadocia. In the time of Herodotus, the ancestors of the Armenians lived up the Euphrates, the river that separated, in his words, Armenia from Cilicia. Herodotus pointed out that the Armenians are descendants of the Phrygians. Scientists are unanimous that the Armenians in Asia Minor and Transcaucasia are newcomers. As far back as the XNUMXth century, the Russian Caucasus expert I. Chopin pointed out that “Armenians are aliens. This is the tribe of the Phrygians and Ionians who crossed into the northern valleys of the Anatolian mountains. ” The famous Armenian scientist M.Abegyan wrote: “It is believed that the ancestors of the Armenians lived long before our era in Europe, near the ancestors of the Greeks and Thracians, from where they crossed to Asia Minor. At the time of Herodotus in the XNUMXth century BC they were still clearly aware that the Armenians came to their country from the west. ” The list goes on. As I indicated above, the Armenians in Armenia are a new ethnic group, and modern Armenia is not their historical homeland. They, as noted, moved east - to Asia Minor, the interfluve of the Tigris and Euphrates - under the onslaught of the Cimmerians. From Asia Minor they came to Armenia and Karabakh. They are not indigenous to Asia Minor and the South Caucasus. In addition to historical sources, the so-called periodic or Armenian disease can serve as evidence of the aliens of Armenians. Those suffering from this disease have a sharp increase in temperature, which causes an unusual ailment, which is called the "Armenian periodic disease" or "Mediterranean disease." The disease occurs mainly in representatives of nationalities whose ancestors lived in the Mediterranean basin, especially among Armenians, Jews and Arabs.

          Details: http://www.1news.az/interview/20111214121739256.html
          Any use of materials is allowed only if there is a hyperlink to 1news.az
          1. Voskepar
            Voskepar 30 June 2013 00: 36 New
            +1
            You are not tired of out of place or out of place to put the delirium of Azerprop in serious resources?
            I did not know that the history of the Armenian people had already begun to be studied on the sites of dei.az, news.az, 1 news az ...
      2. ed65b
        ed65b 29 June 2013 23: 47 New
        +4
        Hi, smersh. Today I won’t be bored. but on the account chop it off, but is there anyone to try chop off with us ??? Yes, and you do not get excited, young, hot blood.
        1. smersh70
          smersh70 29 June 2013 23: 51 New
          0
          Quote: ed65b
          Hi, smersh. Today I won’t be bored. but on the account chop it off,


          Hi!!! and I’m sorry, I’m sorry to ask someone)))) if you mean your (c) lag, then everything was chopped off from the USSR, unfortunately ...
          and if you mean Russia, then of course they want ... it’s not without reason that Albright’s grandmother said that Russia should share its wealth .... so take care of Mother Russia ..
          1. ed65b
            ed65b 30 June 2013 14: 30 New
            0
            Oh dead, it’s more likely that the sun will rise in the west than something will be taken from Russia. It’s a pity that you don’t understand this. And grandmother, out of anger you never know what people say.
            1. valerii41
              valerii41 30 June 2013 15: 07 New
              +1
              Pan ed65b, I didn’t say that the Shors were Tatars. The south of Kuzbass is called Mountain Shoria. The Kuzbass residents call this region Switzerland. After the miners' strikes, they removed all areas. They build beautiful rest houses. The Caucasus doesn’t care.
              1. ed65b
                ed65b 30 June 2013 20: 05 New
                +1
                What for??? I myself am from Kemerovo.
                1. valerii41
                  valerii41 30 June 2013 20: 07 New
                  -1
                  Met America
      3. Voskepar
        Voskepar 29 June 2013 23: 51 New
        +1
        The lousy neighbors were caught, except for the Persians, of course
        They, too, as they saw what could be chopped off, attacked. They were also amateurs to fight with their tongues, but in reality they were just show offs, just like yours. But then they also asked for peace.
        In the internet you can find the results of this war.
        1. smersh70
          smersh70 30 June 2013 00: 05 New
          0
          Quote: Voskepar
          The lousy neighbors were caught, except for the Persians, of course


          than complain about fate and neighbors. smile look how the neighbors think of YOU)))) you’re enmity with all neighbors. territorial claims ... and even claims are laid down in the Armenian Constitution ... than to think about good-neighborly relations, about the world, about the economy, about the development of the country, drag your crazy ideas about great Armenia from sea to sea to the level of the 19th century ....

          Well, the Persians, of course your friends))) because they are afraid of the development of northern Azerbaijan ....
        2. P-15
          P-15 30 June 2013 20: 43 New
          +1
          If you smell shit everywhere, you look by yourself. Maybe it's you ... fucked up and not the neighbors around you.
          1. valerii41
            valerii41 30 June 2013 21: 01 New
            +3
            In Russia there is a smell of shit from migrants. If you would come as guests of the tourists you would enjoy some money, take the example of a hotel in Monaco, beaches, gambling establishments, how many guests are there to lose money. You pride yourself on your high culture that is not clear to us on our land and despise us who you will be tolerate Build a civilization in your own state so that guests come to you and leave money. You in the criminal diasporas in Russia create problems for us, patience will not burst
            1. smersh70
              smersh70 30 June 2013 23: 04 New
              +1
              Quote: valerii41
              Build a civilization in your own state, so that guests come to you and leave money.


              According to the Federal State Statistics Service, published on the website of the Federal Tourism Agency, the list of the top 50 most sought-after destinations for 2012 includes all three former Transcaucasian republics of the Soviet Union: 15th place in Azerbaijan (183 people), 384th place in Georgia (30 52 people), 512nd in Armenia (32 48 people).
              According to the international hotel consulting company HVS, in 2012 the average price for a room in Baku was 135 euros, although this is still not so much (in Moscow - 170 euros, in Kiev - 150). Alexei Korobkin, deputy director of the consulting department at the Moscow office of HVS, says that Azerbaijan is second only to the CIS in terms of concentration of luxury hotels in Russia, after five last five years, five luxury hotels have opened there. “Baku is not Dubai yet, but here they are striving for this,” Oksana Bulakh says. However, according to her, the tourist attraction of Azerbaijan is not only luxury Baku, but also the Naftalan and Duzdag sanatoriums, where in recent years there have been more and more hotels (like Chinar and Gashalty in Naftalan or Duzdag), managed by Turkish companies.
              1. valerii41
                valerii41 1 July 2013 15: 24 New
                -2
                The numbers convincingly show the number of Transcaucasian citizens with Russian passports; sadly, the Turks own something else, but do you work as janitors? Where is your ancient culture of intelligence all this cannot rise above the broom? Foreigners can’t show their place in the eyes you look at the fact that from Russia we will beat you out is a fact
                1. smersh70
                  smersh70 1 July 2013 23: 28 New
                  +3
                  Quote: valerii41
                  Turks own and you work as janitors? G


                  otherwise you are against foreign companies)))) so you dumped something in Germany, you are our patriot laughing
                  you better read Nizami ... when he did, your ancestors in Germany still lived in caves .. you are our civilized .. your culture is now on the side of blue, lesbians .. and you care about democracy ... shame. ...
                  as they say, he doesn’t see a log in his eye, but he’s looking for a straw from a neighbor fellow
                  1. Voskepar
                    Voskepar 2 July 2013 19: 21 New
                    -1
                    And what does the Persian Nizami and the Caucasian Tatars have to do with it?
          2. Voskepar
            Voskepar 30 June 2013 23: 13 New
            +1
            I live close to these neighbors, and when the wind is at least from the east, even from the north, the smell is identical.
            And to make sure, give a search by nick. And the map will be in front of your eyes ....
  12. mithridate
    mithridate 29 June 2013 23: 34 New
    0
    there is nothing new under the sun
  13. Tigran
    Tigran 29 June 2013 23: 45 New
    +2
    Tatars ... Who are they? Why not the Bashkirs?
  14. Tigran
    Tigran 29 June 2013 23: 52 New
    +1
    Quote: smersh70
    Quote: ed65b
    Hi, smersh. Today I won’t be bored. but on the account chop it off,


    Hi!!! and I’m sorry, I’m sorry to ask someone)))) if you mean your (c) lag, then everything was chopped off from the USSR, unfortunately ...
    and if you mean Russia, then of course they want ... it’s not without reason that Albright’s grandmother said that Russia should share its wealth .... so take care of Mother Russia ..

    about you Albright left something? Albright did not call to take care of you?
    1. smersh70
      smersh70 30 June 2013 00: 09 New
      -2
      Quote: Tigran
      Albright did not call to take care of you?


      don’t worry about us ... we are in our own country ... with our advantages and disadvantages ......... hi not that. that you left your shore .. sailed to the shores of the Independent and work hard for Russia smile
      there truly is no prophet in his own country laughing
      1. kombat_s300
        kombat_s300 30 June 2013 01: 00 New
        +4
        Of course, I apologize, but the author clearly called the Transcaucasian Tatars!
        1. Apollo
          Apollo 30 June 2013 01: 09 New
          +2
          Quote: kombat_s300
          Of course, I apologize, but the author clearly called the Transcaucasian Tatars!



          Who in Russia is called / called the Tatars ...
          Turkic Tatars, Transcaucasian Tatars, Azerbaijani /
          Highland Tatars (Karachais and Balkars)
          Nogai Tatars (Nogai)
          Abakan Tatars (Khakass)
          Kuznetsk Tatars (Shors)
          Kundra Tatars (Karagash)
          Kazan Tatars (Mishars, Volga Bulgarians, Teppari)
          Crimean Tatars (Crimeans)
          black Tatars (tubalars)
          Chulym Tatars (Chulym)
          Altai Tatars (Altai)
          Siberian Tatars

          ... except for the Kazan and Crimean Tatars, none of these peoples calls themselves Tatars.
          http://urb-a.livejournal.com/2517796.html
          1. ed65b
            ed65b 30 June 2013 14: 33 New
            +2
            Kuznetsk Tatars (Shors)

            Well, you gave)))))))))))))) I didn’t know how much I lived there that the Shoreans clicked the Tatars. Rave.
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. Tigran
        Tigran 30 June 2013 01: 32 New
        +2
        How not to worry about our smaller brothers?
    2. valerii41
      valerii41 30 June 2013 13: 45 New
      +1
      For Tigran, the Ukrainian flag does not fit the Armenian one fits perfectly
  15. kombat_s300
    kombat_s300 30 June 2013 01: 07 New
    +1
    Back in 1913, the 34-year-old Stalin published an article “Marxism and the National Question”, where he presented his ideas on the problem of solving interethnic problems in the Caucasus. In particular, he writes: “In the Caucasus there are a number of nationalities with a primitive culture, with a special language, but without native literature, and also transitional peoples, some assimilating, some developing further <...> Take, for example, the Transcaucasian Tatars with their minimal the percentage of literacy, with their schools led by omnipotent mullahs <...> The national question in the Caucasus can be resolved only in the spirit of involving belated nations and nationalities in the mainstream of higher culture. "

    As we see, in relation to the scattered forerunners of the future Azerbaijani socialist nation, Stalin uses the official terminology (“Transcaucasian Tatars”) in the Russian Empire, since such concepts as “the Azerbaijani nation” and “Azerbaijan” (with reference to the Eastern Transcaucasia) did not exist then .

    In the same article, “Marxism and the National Question,” he writes about Georgian nationalism: “If, for example, Georgia does not have any serious anti-Russian nationalism, this is primarily because there are no Russian landowners or the Russian big bourgeoisie who could to provide food for such nationalism among the masses. There is anti-Armenian nationalism in Georgia, but this is because there is also the Armenian big bourgeoisie, which, beating the small, not yet strengthened Georgian bourgeoisie, is pushing the latter towards anti-Armenian nationalism. ”

    It is significant that Stalin did not change his position even after the victory of the proletarian revolution. For example, in March 1921, at the XNUMXth Congress of the RCP (B.), Being the People's Commissar for Nationalities of the RSFSR, he read out a report “On the Immediate Tasks of the Government in the National Question”, in which he again drew attention to the need (already in the aspect of modeling “socialist nations” ) the familiarization of the Turks of Soviet Azerbaijan with culture, and he illustrated the difference between the "bourgeois nation" and the "socialist nation" using the example of the difference between Baku and Azerbaijan.

    “You can’t mix Baku with Azerbaijan. Baku did not grow from the bowels of Azerbaijan, but was built on top, thanks to the efforts of Nobel, Rothschild, Wischau and others. As for Azerbaijan itself, it is a country of the most backward patriarchal-feudal relations. Therefore, I attribute Azerbaijan to that group of suburbs that have not passed capitalism and to which it is necessary to apply peculiar methods of drawing these suburbs into the mainstream of the Soviet economy. ”
    1. Yarbay
      Yarbay 1 July 2013 23: 51 New
      +3
      Quote: kombat_s300
      As we see, in relation to the scattered forerunners of the future Azerbaijani socialist nation, Stalin uses the official terminology (“Transcaucasian Tatars”) in the Russian Empire, since such concepts as “the Azerbaijani nation” and “Azerbaijan” (with reference to the Eastern Transcaucasia) did not exist then .

      And what does it change ??)))))))
      The fact that the Azerbaijanis were called before the revolution?))))
      Is this an indication that the Armenians lived on those lands?))) That the Armenians can claim these lands ???))))
      and everything else to which you wrote I did not understand))))))))
  16. kombat_s300
    kombat_s300 30 June 2013 01: 07 New
    +1
    In the early 20s, Stalin repeatedly addressed this problem. So, in the same 1921, he published an article (“On the formulation of the national question”), where we read again: “It is necessary to introduce a new element into the national question, an element of the actual (and not only legal) alignment of nations (assistance, assistance to backward nations rise to cultural and economic level of the nations ahead of them), as one of the conditions for establishing fraternal cooperation between the working masses of different nations. ”

    Having become Secretary General, Stalin did not stop talking about the presence of anti-Armenian sentiments in Soviet Georgia and Azerbaijan. It was with this understanding of the situation that he substantiated his position on the need for the functioning of the Transcaucasian Federation (ZSFSR). As you know, the proclamation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics took place on the basis of the merger of not six Soviet republics (the RSFSR, Ukraine, Belarus, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan), but four, since the Transcaucasian republics were united into a federation. The nuance is that such a decision revealed serious opposition in Georgia and Azerbaijan. In the early 20s, Stalin did not have a monopoly on power, therefore more or less public discussions of controversial issues were still in order.

    So, in 1923, a Turkic historian V. Khudadov published an article in which we read: “Throughout the East, Turks have an amazing ability to assimilate indigenous peoples <...> Turkic assimilation is happening before our eyes, and the day is near when a number of nationalities inhabiting Transcaucasian Azerbaijan are close , only a memory will remain. This assimilation can win with the creation of an independent Republic of Azerbaijan with the Turkic state language. Thus, a new single nationality is being created in Eastern Transcaucasia, composed of various ethnic units, but with one common Turkic language ”(V. Khudadov.“ Soviet Azerbaijan ”,“ New East ”, N3, 1923, p. 171).

    As we see, the author is working on the thesis that to achieve “so important in the creation of a socialist nation” result can be achieved if a separate republic exists (“This assimilation can win with the creation of an independent Azerbaijan republic”). The Secretary General himself adhered to opposing positions and upheld the principle according to which there could be no other solution to the issue, except for the federal unification of the three Transcaucasian republics, due to the explosiveness of the situation.

    Stalin wrote: “Chauvinism in Georgia directed against Armenians, Ossetians, Ajarians and Abkhazians; chauvinism in Azerbaijan directed against the Armenians - all these types of chauvinism are the greatest evil threatening to turn some national republics into an arena of squabbles and squabbles "(I. Stalin." National moments in party and state building: Theses for the XII Congress of the RCP (b) approved by the Central Committee of the party ”).
    1. smersh70
      smersh70 30 June 2013 22: 29 New
      +2
      Quote: kombat_s300
      Stalin wrote:


      Well, if you attributed Comrade Stalin to theorists and practitioners on the national question and now refer to him in the 21st century ....... I want to remind you that more than 100 years have passed since then ...
      and be sure that thanks to his policy, we have all the troubles that are creating on the territory of the former USSR .. it would be better to quote the works of Lenin ..... hi
  17. kombat_s300
    kombat_s300 30 June 2013 01: 08 New
    +3
    We will not argue that the future "father of peoples" thus protected the interests of peoples, in particular, Armenian. The question is different: he, like no one else, represented the magnitude of the consequences of new upheavals in the Transcaucasian region in the case of the implementation of discriminatory projects "on the ground" - for example, programs to squeeze the Armenian population out of independent republics.

    Naturally, another round of tension threatened the very existence of the “Soviet Transcaucasia,” especially in the context of an incomplete civil war on the outskirts. The evidence of the intentions of the Soviet authorities of Georgia and Azerbaijan to end Stalin’s Armenian presence was not disputed. Among other things, the disputed territories remained in Transcaucasia, and the Secretary General believed that the issue of “disputed lands” would be easier to resolve within the framework of a single federal union republic.

    The problem of the advisability of the coexistence of the Transcaucasian republics within the framework of the federation was so serious that it became one of the main topics of discussion at the XII Congress of the RCP (B.) Held in April 1923. The debate was not very smooth. Here is how Stalin defended the thesis about the necessity of functioning in the composition of the newly created Union of the federal structure of the Transcaucasian republics: “The NEP does not only cultivate Great-Russian chauvinism, but it also cultivates local chauvinism, especially in those republics that have several nationalities. I mean Georgia, Azerbaijan, Bukhara, partly Turkestan, where we have several nationalities, the advanced elements of which, perhaps, will soon begin to compete among themselves for the championship. This local chauvinism, of course, does not in its strength represent the danger that Great Russian chauvinism poses, but ... Tiflis is the capital of Georgia, but it has Georgians no more than 30%, Armenians no less than 35%, then all other nationalities come. Here you have the capital of Georgia.

    If Georgia was a separate republic, then some movement of the population could be done, for example, an Armenian from Tiflis. In Georgia, a well-known decree was adopted on the "regulation" of the population in Tiflis, about which Comrade Makharadze stated that he was not directed against the Armenians. It was meant to carry out some population movement so that from year to year there would be less Armenians in Tiflis than Georgians, and thus turn Tiflis into a real Georgian capital.
  18. kombat_s300
    kombat_s300 30 June 2013 01: 09 New
    +4
    I admit that they removed the decree of eviction. But they have in their hands a ton of possibilities, a ton of flexible forms (for example, “unloading”) with which it would be possible, with the appearance of internationalism, to arrange things so that there would be less Armenians in Tiflis. These are geographic benefits that Georgian deviators do not want to lose, and the disadvantage of Georgians in Tiflis itself, where Georgians are fewer than Armenians, and make our deviators fight against the federation <...>

    Azerbaijan. The main nationality is Turkic, but there are also Armenians. Among one part of the Muslims, there is also such a tendency, sometimes very overt, about the fact that, we say, they are indigenous, and they, the Armenians, are newcomers, is it possible on this occasion to push them back a bit, to ignore their interests. This is also chauvinism ”(I. Stalin.“ Report on national issues in party and state building ”).”

    In the early 20s, the interests of Soviet Azerbaijan were supervised by some prominent members of the international socialist movement, among which Karl Radek played the most prominent role. He was a committed person and expressed the mood of certain political circles: he was friends with Alexander Parvus, worked with Zionists and pan-Turkists, and maintained relations with former leaders of the Young Turkish government. Radek was among the initiators of the proclamation in September 1920 of the "holy war of Muslims" against "Dashnaktsakan Armenia."

    At the XII Congress of the RCP (b), Radek was among those who defended the thesis about the need for a separate Azerbaijan SSR, noting that "today in the conditions of the Transcaucasian Federation" the Türks cannot feel calm. He voiced the "serious fears" of the Azerbaijani Turks about the possible "new massacre" by the Azerbaijani Armenians. He inherited such an “argument” from the Pan-Turkists, who, on the eve of each new Armenian pogrom, filled the socio-political atmosphere with talk of “secret Armenian plans”.

    Stalin’s reaction to the initiative of the socialist is noteworthy: “Radek here said that the Armenians oppress or may oppress Muslims in Azerbaijan <...> I must say that such phenomena in nature do not happen at all. The opposite happens that in Azerbaijan, Muslims, like most, oppress the Armenians and slaughter ”(“ XII Congress of the RCP (B.). Verbatim Report ”, Moscow, 1923).

    This material is not a cognitive historical retrospective, in any case useful. It is relevant: the fact is that the conductors of the Bolshevik Eastern policy “knew everything perfectly”, just as “the current conductors of the Middle East policy” already “everyone knows perfectly”.
    - See more at: http://haiasa.net/stalin-az-tatar/#sthash.qJMrRNUx.dpuf
    1. kNow
      kNow 30 June 2013 10: 47 New
      +1
      On December 23, 1947, I. Stalin signed a decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR "On the resettlement of collective farmers and other Azerbaijani people from the Armenian SSR to the Kura-Araksin lowland of the Azerbaijan SSR." According to this document, 100 thousand people were subject to resettlement, including 10 thousand people in the 1948th, 40 thousand people in the 1949th, 50 thousand people in the 1950s.

    2. valerii41
      valerii41 30 June 2013 14: 47 New
      -1
      Pan KOMBAT during Soviet times, trips to Transcaucasia as Turkey without a visa. Communist propaganda whistled about Georgians and Armenians ancient cultures the highest intelligence even now they shine like wonderful thieves managers like technical specialists absolute zeros. There was such a formula WISE Tricky DIRTY if you are among Armenians, he WISE blames everything else on Azeris or Georgians and so on. Another feature of these tribes is that great history teachers how they come to Russia begin to explain to the Russians that we don’t know our history and they obscure us from the height of our culture if you object or disagree with your teacher On the whole, these tribes did not create their own civilization states, but in Russia they created semi-criminal armed "ON LEGAL BASIS" firearms, simply put
  19. Tigran
    Tigran 30 June 2013 01: 34 New
    0
    So what kind of Tatars are they talking about?
  20. combatpilot
    combatpilot 30 June 2013 01: 59 New
    +2
    A few days ago, I threw someone here the same link from the site "War and Peace", and ..op already here.
    Admins, like adding fuel to the fire? What side do these recollections fit under "Military Review"?
  21. RoTTor
    RoTTor 30 June 2013 02: 27 New
    0
    As if written in our time. Humanity does not teach any lessons, unlike animals.
    Vivid impressions of an eyewitness and a contemporary are much more valuable than official "stories"
  22. gene
    gene 30 June 2013 13: 30 New
    -1
    Azerbaijanis invent history for themselves and propagate it everywhere. But here is what people write. In addition, smersh70 somehow wrote to me that you need to know the history of battles, bearing in mind 92g. In 92g. You left Lachin and Shusha, the Lachin corridor opened. ours left Mardakert. I know the story.
    1. smersh70
      smersh70 30 June 2013 22: 37 New
      +2
      Quote: Gene
      You left Lachin and Shusha, the Lachin corridor opened. ours left Mardakert. I know the story.



      at last fellow learned how many days have passed ..... laughing
  23. armandos
    armandos 30 June 2013 14: 09 New
    +5
    I liked the article very much. It is that these are memories. In those days there was a complete mess. It is very annoying and just plain sickening to get some comments from people who didn’t fail to insert their five cents here. This eternal confrontation between Azerbaijanis and Armenians is already sitting in the throat. Both have enough shit. Create your own website, forum and sort it out there. You, already not Russia, will be enough already. Fight it off! And yet ... Behave well being on our territory, otherwise we’ll hang such people to forget about Karabakh and all the historical ups and downs.
    1. valerii41
      valerii41 30 June 2013 15: 20 New
      -1
      Pan armandos I agree with you completely Transcaucasian tribes do not have their own statehood of civilization with impudent faces rummaging around Russia show their ancient culture of stabbing across the world. They are tired of letting them create their own sites and forums in Russia, but we need to cut them off
      1. smersh70
        smersh70 30 June 2013 22: 41 New
        +3
        Quote: valerii41
        Transcaucasian tribes do not have their own statehood of civilization with arrogant faces



        there’s no place for you to read the history of Azerbaijan and Azerbaijanis, if you have time, go to these sites and read, but don’t write any belaburd, hi
        http://karabakh-doc.azerall.info/ru/armyanstvo/arm1-1.php
      2. Voskepar
        Voskepar 30 June 2013 23: 34 New
        -2
        "Dear" valerii41, when we walked in boots, your ancestors did not even know how to hide behind sheets.
        And you have a mug, since you don’t follow your tongue, and together your brains ....
        Cyber ​​warrior is bad.
        1. valerii41
          valerii41 1 July 2013 15: 10 New
          -2
          Voskepar if you are Chinese you are right, then you bought a Russian passport I can’t hide the Cherkizon’s hiding under the Russian flag, it’s a shame to go to your flag. Your faces on the streets are sick of what the hell are you with your tribal Transcaucasian showdowns rushing to Russia? Next to you, Turkey and Iran, you don’t bother with them; they will quickly do the rite of cutting
    2. smersh70
      smersh70 30 June 2013 23: 10 New
      0
      Quote: armandos
      Create your own website, forum and sort it out there. You, already not Russia, will be enough already


      Yes, I don’t like it — don’t read it! But leave your advice to Zhirinovsky! You’ll speak with him at rallies !!!!!!!!! hi
      1. The comment was deleted.
        1. smersh70
          smersh70 1 July 2013 08: 48 New
          +5
          Quote: armandos
          Especially for Azeri SMERSHA70! (And what, smersh 69 was taken?)


          I would answer you right now ..... but culture and respect for the Site does not allow ..... am
          1. armandos
            armandos 1 July 2013 09: 52 New
            -4
            Yes, I know that you are going to answer me. Surely, something like "-I will charge the sleeping ax!" The site is really good, but you already got these fights with the Armenians on the site you respect. You don’t even care what the article is about, just to scam! But I want to discuss and communicate with people on the topic of defense and new or old weapons. I don’t know, maybe I’m so unlucky, but I always get into the Azeri-Armenian showdown. All! Even at the cost of exclusion from the site, I will send you all with your Karabakh!
            PS And if you’re so direct and educated and kind of objective, try not to at least litter the site you respect with links to the previously biased garbage of the gas industry. azerall.info/ru/armyanstvo/arm1-1.php Are you kidding me? Damn, the more I write, the dirtier I feel, I ask: - Do I need it?
            1. smersh70
              smersh70 1 July 2013 23: 32 New
              +3
              Quote: armandos
              Ling, the more I write, the dirtier I feel, I ask: - Do I need it?


              when a person feels dirtier, he goes with a bath, with friends .. he bathes perfectly, drinks good beer. and feels young hi
              By the way, we came up with a bathhouse for your information, the Turks ... well, by the way .....)))))
  24. bublic82009
    bublic82009 30 June 2013 17: 17 New
    +2
    Speaking of the 1991 Emergency Committee. what did this high-ranking official not stand up for imperial power in 1917? so it happened with the Communist Party. the worm gobbled up the system from the inside.
  25. Mikhail
    Mikhail 3 July 2013 00: 41 New
    -1
    Quote: smersh70
    Quote: kombat_s300
    Stalin wrote:


    Well, if you attributed Comrade Stalin to theorists and practitioners on the national question and now refer to him in the 21st century ....... I want to remind you that more than 100 years have passed since then ...
    and be sure that thanks to his policy, we have all the troubles that are creating on the territory of the former USSR .. it would be better to quote the works of Lenin ..... hi


    Not today, today from the Leninist national policy, which was also praised in Soviet times.
    By the way, Lenin gave Turkey Kars and Ardagan in 1921. I almost did not give up Batumi, but, as far as I know, it was Stalin who insisted that Batumi remain in Soviet Russia. In 1945, the USSR presented Turkey with territorial claims for the loss of Russia after the First World War. However, in May 1953, the Leninist Khrushchev withdrew all territorial claims of the USSR to Turkey, which was by no means our friend.
  26. vikingost
    vikingost 5 January 2015 00: 55 New
    0
    armyani sovsem vse kak professori istorii, .u nix nebilo gosudarstvennost ,, 1000 let jili pod tyurkami ,, kakogo vam raznica kak azerbaydjancev nazivali? tatari.turki.oguzi azeri? Azerbaydjanchi v otlicix tali aliriami iali , kurdi i persi, u nix takie predkie, kak gunnni, seldjuki.sefevidi.i AZdr
  27. vikingost
    vikingost 5 January 2015 00: 57 New
    0
    Armyani samie opasnie narod v kavkaze ,, za shokoladku ili konfetku daje rossiyu prodast oni Ameriku i Evropu ,, eto prosta vopros vremeni