Military Review

Japanese Type 64 machine

We have repeatedly met Japanese weapons genius, and almost all weapons had interesting technical solutions that somehow affected the application, reliability, efficiency. In this article, we will not break the tradition and get acquainted with another seemingly ordinary model, but having a number of non-standard solutions that were very rarely used in other weapons. We will talk about the Type 64 assault rifle. True, assigning this unit to the class of assault rifles is not entirely true, since it does not use an intermediate cartridge, but the classification of not the most ordinary samples always has its own nuances and you can argue about whether a weapon belongs to a particular class for an infinitely long time without coming to a consensus.

In the middle of the twentieth century in Japan, the question of introducing a new class of weapons into the troops was very acute. The fact is that at this time almost all countries acquired weapons with the possibility of automatic fire under an intermediate cartridge, and Japan still used the M1. Naturally, such a lag could not help but worry the Ministry of Defense, and the imperial habits did not allow them to turn to other countries for support in this matter, and the financial side of such support was clearly not pleased. The first to solve the problem was the well-known Nambu, but his influence apparently weakened, and the sample he proposed failed even in factory tests. It is even possible that Nambu would create another masterpiece, if he had time to refine his sample, but he had better and faster competitors, so another example of non-standard thinking of a gunsmith remained only as an experienced raw sample. In addition, there was another nuance, which was the unwillingness to establish a new production of ammunition, and since Japan did not have an intermediate cartridge at that time mass produced, then the designers had a really very difficult task.

The gunsmiths of the Howa Machinery Company under the leadership of General Iwaschito coped with this task. The solution to the absence of an intermediate cartridge was the modernization of the 7,62x51 munition. During this modernization, a lighter bullet was developed for the cartridge, and the powder charge was also reduced. All this was necessary in order to reduce too much recoil of the ammunition, which did not allow for automatic and comfortable automatic fire without the use of bipods. Naturally, this decision completely changed the characteristics of the ammunition and not for the better, while the dimensions of the cartridge remained the same. If we consider this ammunition in comparison with common intermediate ones, then it showed the best characteristics both in armor-piercing and in the direct shot distance, however, firing more than 700 meters would be foolish.

Japanese Type 64 machineThus, the ammunition for the new machine gun (or is it still a light machine gun?) Was ready, its production was adjusted and did not cause additional costs, the business was left to do - to create a weapon. The appearance of the device, which turned out as a result of the work of designers, turned out to be quite ordinary, without any unusual elements. The butt of the machine was moved to the line of the barrel, in the butt itself there was a return spring, which made it difficult to create a version of the weapon with a folding butt. In the process of creating the final sample, the designers solved many problems, mainly related to the ammunition, which were used, but one problem remained unsolved for a very long time. This problem was the overheating of the chamber, which led to the involuntary ignition of gunpowder in the ammunition when fed into the chamber. The solution to this problem turned out to be very unusual, and I personally do not fully understand. Many sources indicate that the weapon automatically changes its mode of operation when the chamber is overheated. So, during automatic fire at the normal chamber temperature, the shot comes from the closed shutter, when the chamber is overheated, the shot is fired from the open shutter. In general, I don’t have real doubts that this is real, but the reliability of such automatic switching causes a lot of questions, since such an outrage can be realized only on the basis of an increase in the volume of a heated body. In general, most likely the switch was made manually, but I will not insist.

By the way, about switching. Switching fire modes, as well as the inclusion of the fuse by using a fairly large element, far protruding beyond the weapon. Sights are represented by the entire diopter and front sight. The shutter handle is made in one piece with him and is located on top. I forgot the most important thing to mention: the automatics of the weapon is built according to a scheme with removal of powder gases from the barrel bore;

Despite the fact that when designing this sample, considerable attention was paid to ensuring that the weapon and ammunition were relatively cheap, the Type 64 machine gun is a very expensive weapon, since so many details were done by milling, and the machine design itself was such that it was fixed It is impossible, however, no one tried. The weight of the machine is 4,4 kilograms, the total length of almost a meter with a length of 450 barrel millimeters. The device is fed from detachable box stores with a capacity of 20 cartridges.

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  1. AK-47
    AK-47 26 June 2013 08: 39
    The Japanese have never succeeded in creating a good small arms, the only thing is electronics.
    1. kirpich
      kirpich 26 June 2013 19: 33
      I was successful or not sure, but our soldiers fought with the ARISAK tip38 6.5h50sr rifle in 1941. But, the rifles were purchased by the tsarist government
      1. AK-47
        AK-47 26 June 2013 22: 28
        Quote: kirpich
        our soldiers fought with the ARISAKA tip38 6.5h50sr rifle in 1941

        Obviously not from a good life.
        The ARISAKA type38 rifle was a synthesis of constructive ideas embedded in the French Gra rifle and the Dutch Beaumont rifle. Arisaka type 38 for three decades faithfully served the Japanese militarists. With its help, they held our Far East in the years 1918-22. With its help, they occupied Manchuria and started the war with China with it. However, in 1938, the Japanese encountered Chinese wedges (more precisely, English, delivered to China), which had bulletproof armor. A bullet from Arisaki did not pierce it, but when the Japanese tried to shoot at them from our three-rulers, the armor of the wedges began to crack like an egg shell.
    2. Civil
      Civil 26 June 2013 19: 57
      well why so, quite normally copied the same parabellum
      1. AK-47
        AK-47 26 June 2013 22: 40
        Quote: Civil
        ..normally they copied the same parabellum ...

        You're wrong.
        Pistol Nambu Type 14 Japanese pistol, developed in 1925, was the main personal weapon of the Japanese Imperial Army of the 20s-40s, it was produced until the end of World War II. In general, the design of the gun is somewhat reminiscent of Luger-Parabellum R-08 (general shape, tilt of the handle) and Mauser S-96 (device for locking and shutter assembly), although the design as a whole is undoubtedly original. The main disadvantages of the pistol were the low reliability of operation in difficult operating conditions due to the small mass of the shutter and low recoil energy, as well as the weak 8mm Nambu cartridge, which had neither sufficient penetration, nor, moreover, stopping the action of the bullet.
  2. Vladimirets
    Vladimirets 26 June 2013 08: 42
    Thank. With ammunition, some kind of absurdity, in fact a light machine gun with a neutered cartridge.
    1. dustycat
      dustycat 26 June 2013 12: 37
      Rather, with under-equiped. But we did not immediately decide on an intermediate.
      This idea also hovered to reduce the weight of gunpowder in an ordinary cartridge, and to guarantee ignition (so that the powder does not appear too far from the capsule), wring the sleeve.
      But it’s good that they buried the idea and didn’t go further than the classrooms.
    2. builder
      builder 26 June 2013 23: 55
      The Japanese followed the path of the Spaniards, who four years earlier adopted the CETME Model A assault rifle under the cartridge 7.62x51mm (reducing the powder charge and lightening the bullet)
  3. Akim
    Akim 26 June 2013 08: 43
    This is not a machine gun or a machine gun. This is an automatic rifle that replaced the American M14. Under it, a slightly different battle tactics (as well as for NATO countries).
  4. MRomanovich
    MRomanovich 26 June 2013 09: 20
    As we know, the Japanese are still perverts and the presence of such an aggregate is not surprising. By the way, a similar solution was implemented in one of the American models - IAR, only if I was not mistaken switching from a closed shutter to an open one switched automatically from the second shot and only in automatic fire mode, with a single fire, shots were always fired from a closed shutter. They wrote that this sample has already been adopted.
  5. Bongo
    Bongo 26 June 2013 09: 21
    Was it worth the Japanese bother creating such misery? Would adopt the Belgian FN FAL or West German G-3.
    1. bazilio
      bazilio 26 June 2013 11: 59
      Quote: Bongo
      Would adopt the Belgian FN FAL or the sub-German G-3.

      I have a strong feeling that it is largely copied from FN Fal, although it’s hard to say without a scheme.
    2. the47th
      the47th 26 June 2013 15: 55
      The Japanese are a proud race, for them to use something done by underdeveloped gaijins was below dignity. Now, the truth is different.
  6. MRomanovich
    MRomanovich 26 June 2013 09: 32
    Quote: Bongo
    Would adopt the Belgian FN FAL or the sub-German G-3.

    to mighty samurai their return seemed superfluous. But seriously, then political reasons probably played against such a decision or pride simply did not allow it.
    1. Bongo
      Bongo 26 June 2013 09: 35
      The Arisaka 8-mm rifle will have a recoil for more than the G-3.
      1. Timeout
        Timeout 26 June 2013 10: 41
        An unsuccessful comparison, with 7,7x58 Arisaka muzzle energy of 3010 KJ, and with 7,62x51 NATO energy for a military cartridge of 3600 KZh. So it turns out the Japanese customized the characteristics of the cartridge from Arisaki.
      2. cth; fyn
        cth; fyn 26 June 2013 12: 00
        Arisaka is a rifle with a sliding bolt, she does not need to fire bursts, therefore there is only one criterion for return, so that the soldier would not be damaged. G-3 automatic rifle, the criterion for the return from her is the accuracy of the queue.
        Your comparison is not entirely appropriate - these are weapons of different classes.
  7. svp67
    svp67 26 June 2013 09: 32
    Quote: Bongo
    Should the Japanese bother creating such squalor?

    Cost, this is called the development of its own defense industry and training ...
    1. Bongo
      Bongo 26 June 2013 09: 33
      The sample itself is frankly not successful, personnel and industry did not deserve such a fate)))
  8. svp67
    svp67 26 June 2013 09: 55
    Quote: Bongo
    The sample itself is frankly not successful, personnel and industry did not deserve such a fate)))
    And yet - his ...

    And of course, it surprises a lot:
    Despite the fact that when designing this model, considerable attention was paid to ensuring that weapons and ammunition were relatively cheapThe Type 64 is a very not cheap weapons, since a lot of details were performed by milling, and the design of the machine itself was such that it was a fix must nothowever, no one did not try.
  9. Axel
    Axel 26 June 2013 10: 41
    Yes, a heavy rifle turned out for the Japanese, we must either make a new one or buy a HK416
  10. MRomanovich
    MRomanovich 26 June 2013 11: 35
    Quote: Axel
    Yes, a heavy rifle turned out for the Japanese, we must either make a new one or buy a HK416

    they’ve already done so - Tip89, built according to the usual scheme, though the Japanese tried to soften the work of automation using an expansion chamber in front of the piston.
  11. cth; fyn
    cth; fyn 26 June 2013 12: 04
    That's interesting, but she can withstand the shot of the usual 7,62x51?
    1. dustycat
      dustycat 26 June 2013 12: 54
      For 7.62x51 I do not know.
      But from AK47 under 7,62x54 I can say.
      Against the usual Kalash, the return is simply mighty. Machine gun practically.
      After the first trip to the shooting range, my whole shoulder was blue and it hurt for a week.
      It's good that I have a leading left eye - I just changed my shoulders in places, which was inconvenient - the AK was purely sharpened under the right-hander. And I tried to control it with both hands. And it turned out, although not so dexterously.
      Although replacing the store and jerking the shutter with your right hand when the left is on the handle and the finger is on the trigger is a good effect. Only without bipod is not very convenient. And the cartridges flew too close to the glasses. Blazer officers simply went crazy with such a sight.
      But the persistence of the trajectory and penetration is considerable.

      So I think that under a full cartridge is definitely not for nipps. Although who will understand their samurai souls ...
      1. ramsi
        ramsi 27 June 2013 08: 27
        dustycatA here from AK47 under 7,62x54 I can say.
        Is this the one that Kalashnikov still offered?
    2. builder
      builder 26 June 2013 23: 41
      The Type 64 was designed in such a way that, if necessary, you can use 7.62mm NATO cartridges when switching the gas regulator. The firing accuracy was deteriorating, due to increased recoil and because of the different ballistics of a more powerful cartridge.
  12. bazilio
    bazilio 26 June 2013 12: 05
    Thanks to the author, as always interesting

    Regarding the rifle, as I said above, I have a suspicion that this rifle is copied a lot from the FAL FAL. A similar automation system + external resemblance. But I do not affirm.

    Using 308 wines for automatic assault rifle shooting was obviously a mistake. On the other hand, there were probably no other cartridges of our own manufacture that were suitable for the price. Although they could remember about the achievements of Fedorov, about his machine (the first in the world) under the 6.5mm arisaka cartridge
  13. spirit
    spirit 26 June 2013 12: 08
    Japanese tape recorder laughing
    they probably did under the impression of BAR! from which the Yankees beat them. but he turned out to be too harsh for them
  14. dustycat
    dustycat 26 June 2013 12: 44
    Automatic transition to the open shutter when overheating is a trifling matter.
    Enough one bimetallic plate.
    Another question is that it is very gentle and with a wide change in external conditions it does not guarantee the reliability of operation.
    Some of our gunsmiths also had a similar stray for AK47 in my head spinning based on the Afghan experience ..
    Well that was not realized.
    No need AK open shutter.
  15. alex-cn
    alex-cn 26 June 2013 15: 06
    came up with a cartridge .. but that's why 6.5 arisaka did not fit
  16. Ustian
    Ustian 26 June 2013 22: 19
    As usual, a weapon masterpiece!
    Quote: alex-cn
    The weight of the machine is 4,4 kilograms
    For tall, athletic Japs, that's it.
    Quote: alex-cn
    a total length of almost a meter with a barrel length of 450 millimeters
    Slightly shorter than tall, athletic Japs.
    1. alex-cn
      alex-cn 27 June 2013 05: 11
      guys this is not from me quotes I'm just talking about cartridge
  17. 755962
    755962 27 June 2013 00: 20
    Oh, how much you do not read about the infantry ... and our native AK-47 has lost its nose to the whole world ...

    Where fate only didn’t throw him, but he didn’t care

    Underwater, the fail-safe AK-47 works even better.

    AK-47 is the most reliable machine in the world. It is based on gas exhaust mechanics, which use the hot gases generated after firing to automatically feed the next cartridge - and surprisingly, it seems to work even better underwater.

    And this video speaks for itself ...
    1. shinobi
      shinobi 27 June 2013 05: 32
      Well, they are dragging themselves from our AK. And what to do, Kalash is a masterpiece. In vain only 7,62 caliber was abandoned.
      1. Droid
        Droid 29 June 2013 22: 13
        In vain only 7,62 caliber was abandoned.

        I do not agree. Twice. laughing
  18. The comment was deleted.
  19. soldier's grandson
    soldier's grandson 27 June 2013 08: 29
    it would be nice if Putin came to the summit with Kalash bully
  20. LAO
    LAO 30 June 2013 22: 52
    The automatic fire transfer during overheating is an ordinary bimetallic plate (the easiest option). It is more complicated, but a regular bimetallic plate will be quite enough.