Israeli modernization of T-54 / 55 tanks
The Israelis were the first to start the modernization of T-54 / 55 outside the USSR. After the 1967 war of the year, Israel got the richest trophies, including several hundred tanks. It was rightly considered unreasonable for the Israelis to simply melt such a number of excellent combat vehicles, but it was also difficult to maintain them in their original form in their army. The USSR, of course, did not at all strive to provide T-54 / 55 with the stars of David on the towers with spare parts and ammunition. If the problem of spare parts could be solved by “cannibalizing” some of the machines, then with shells to the guns, the situation was much more complicated.
At the end of the 60-ies, the command of the Israeli Self-Defense Army came to the conclusion that it was necessary to standardize tank weapons. In the Israeli army were tanks of several types, respectively, armed with various guns, making it difficult to supply tank units with ammunition. The best tank gun at that time in the West, the British 105-mm rifled gun L7 (more precisely, its American variant М68) was chosen as a single weapon. All the tanks of the Self-Defense Army - Shermans, Centurions, M48, M60, T-54 / 55 received this gun. Former Arab tanks also received radio stations used by the Israeli army and a new fire fighting system. Boxes for the storage of tankers' property or tools were welded onto the towers of some cars.
Part of the T-54 / 55 has undergone a more serious alteration - they installed the American diesel engines 8V-71T and Browning machine guns. The reason is the same as in the case of the replacement of a tool - simplifying supply and maintenance. T-54 with new engines and weapons received the designation Ti-67. Before the 1973 war of the year, there was about 100 Ti-67 in the Self-Defense Army.
An even more radical version of the modernization of the T-series tank, the so-called T-54 / 55 in the West, was first officially shown in 1984. Tank "S" received a new fire control system "Matador", developed by the Israeli firm Elbit, the American two-plane weapon stabilizer of the company Kaddilak Gage, the Halon fire extinguishing system, which proved to be excellent on the Merkava, which burned in 1982 in Lebanon. The tank’s armament was reinforced with a 60-mm mortar placed on the left side of the turret. The tank "S" provides for the possibility of mounting the Blazer dynamic protection elements (gradually all Israeli T-54 / 55 tanks were equipped with dynamic protection). Installing a new engine resulted in a slight increase in power density compared to the original sample (from 15,8 hp / t to 16,03 hp / t), but the acceleration characteristics of the tank improved by 50%.
"Tyrant-5" - upgraded T-55
Egyptian modernization of T-54 / 55 tanks
The basis of the tank fleet of the army of Egypt in the 70-s and 80-s also accounted for T-54, T-62. The Egyptians carried out a local revision of the T-54 before the 1973 war of the year by installing the night vision systems of the West German company AEG-Telefunken, similar to those used on the Leopard-1 tanks, on the towers. In 1984, the command of the Egyptian Armed Forces decided to upgrade the combat potential of the T-54 tanks to the level of the American M60-3 tank. Since the American tank was chosen for the role model, then the T-54 was entrusted to the Americans by the General Products Division of the Teledyne Continental company.
The rear of the case was lengthened by 600 mm, since it was necessary to install a new AVDS-1790-5A diesel engine with turbocharging, which developed the power of the 908 hp. (80% of engine parts were the same as on the M60A3). The old five-speed manual box was changed to a hydromechanical TCM-304 (licensed version of the West German Renk RK-304), designed specifically for medium and heavy tracked vehicles. The dashboard mechanic driver performed in the American style. The suspension was replaced with a new General Dynamics 2880 as on the M48 Patton III tank.
Increasing the volume of the hull almost doubled (from 812 l to 1312 l) to increase the supply of fuel in the internal tanks, providing a power reserve of 530 km. Two new exhaust pipes (rear on one side of the hull) replaced the exhaust port on the left. The armored air intake of the air filter was placed in the back of the case so that it was possible to fasten the external fuel tanks on it. In the engine compartment, a fire extinguishing system from HTL Industries was installed, and on top it was covered with a single armor sheet with several hatches for repairing and inspecting the engine and auxiliary systems in the field.
As for weapons, the 100-mm gun was replaced by an 105-mm gun from the M48 tank, but the original bolt from the DT-10T remained (modified rollback system). For guidance, the Titan MK 1 guidance system was added, which included an Avimo TL10-T sight, a laser range finder and a graphic display integrated into the CRT eyepiece. Additionally, four were installed on board smoke grenade launchers.
T-55E Ramses-II Tank
End of 1980-s - the possibility of upgrading the fleet of T-55 tanks with German help was studied. According to the Jung Jungenthal project, two prototypes were upgraded. For mass modernization, the Ramses-II project was adopted. According to the project, it was intended to leave the 100-mm D-10T guns on parts of the tanks, and replace them with the X-NUMX-mm M-105 guns.
Tank T-55 Jung Jungenthal
Iraqi modernization of T-54 / 55 tanks
Iraqi T-55 Modernization and Type-69. In 1989, an upgraded Iraqi T-55 tank armed with an 125-mm 2А46 XB gun, which was previously installed on Soviet T-72 machines, was demonstrated at Baghdad. In connection with the use of an automatic loader, the crew of the car consisted of three people. In the aft, the height of the tower was increased to accommodate the mechanism for lifting the cassettes of the automatic loader. The tank had a reinforced armor protection of the tower and the front of the hull. The sides of the hull are protected by anti-cumulative screens. On each side of the tower mounted on four smoke grenade launchers. The mass of the upgraded tank has increased to 40 tons.
Tank T-55 Enigma
Czechoslovak modernization of T-54 / 55 tanks
In the 80s, when the combat and technical characteristics of the T-55A ceased to meet modern requirements, Czechoslovakia also adopted a program to modernize them, the final result of which was the original Czech T-55AM2. Modernization was supposed to be carried out in two stages.
At the first stage, the Kladivo fire control system (Kladivo) developed in Czechoslovakia was installed on the tanks. Its use significantly increased the shooting accuracy at ranges up to 4000 meters. The next notable change was the installation of the SDIO detection and indication system, which notified the crew of the enemy's irradiation of the tank with a laser sight. The tank that went through such a modernization received an index T-55AM1.
At the second stage, the Czechoslovak T-55 were to receive the 9K116 “Bastion” guided weapon system (but not all the tanks had time to install it), additional multi-layered booking and a more powerful engine (55 B-2HP) those. undergo modernization mainly similar to the Soviet T-620M. With all these changes, the tank received the T-55AM55 index (with the Bastion system, the T-2AM55-B system).
T-55AM2 were in service with the Czech army, the Slovak army, the Hungarian army and the army of the former GDR.
The T-55AM2 tank of Czechoslovak production with the fire control system "Kladivo"
Polish upgrade T-54 / 55
Polish T-55 received laid armor on the bottom (to protect against mines), frontal parts of the tower and the hull. The side screens protect the top of the undercarriage from the action of cumulative ammunition; Vertically mounted steel sheets cover the fuse tanks with fences. The tank uses a caterpillar with rubber-metal hinges.
A special feature of the Polish version of the T-55 is the laser range finder integrated into the gunner's sight, while in other countries the range finder was placed on the gun mask. In the control system weapons included a new ballistic computer; The T-shaped meteorological sensor of the atmosphere, which is entered into the computer, is clearly visible in front of the tower’s roof.
The ammunition assembly was slightly increased, the tower was equipped with a rotating polycom (as on the Soviet T-54B), to facilitate the work of the driver, a hydraulic booster of the steering mechanism and main friction clutch was introduced, engine lubrication and its air start system were improved. The number of external fuel tanks was increased (from three to six), thanks to which the cruising range of the tank increased to 830 km. Such Polish-made tanks are known under the designation T-54AM. The commander's tank T-54AD (“dowodka” - commander) was also produced with an additional radio station. For a more convenient location, the Poles even increased the stern part of the tower. T-54AD tanks were intended for regimental commanders and chiefs of staff.
Tank T-55AM Merida
Romanian modernization T-54 / 55
The layout of the TR-580 tank is generally similar to the layout of the T-55 tank. The hull of the tank is extended. The chassis uses 6 track rollers of slightly smaller diameter than the T-55. The roof of MTO is somewhat elevated compared to the roof of the fighting compartment. The tower is cast, with a welded roof, but in a slightly different shape than that of the T-55. On the sides of the tower closer to the stern, boxes with machine-gun belts for the DShKM machine gun were fortified.
The location of crew members, weapons, aiming devices and surveillance - such as the Soviet tank. The car is supplied with steel onboard anti-cumulative screens.
1995 g. - The development of the TR-85 upgrade option - TR-85M1 Bizonul (Bison) has begun. Several companies from all over Europe take part in the development, the equipment is supplied mainly by Matra (France). The armament is unchanged (it was planned to replace the gun with the 120 mm gun), but a new two-plane stabilizer and gun housing were installed. Ammunition - 41 shot. Additional booking with built-in dynamic protection (tower), combined additional booking of the forehead of the hull, onboard protective anti-cumulative screens. Changed the design of the rear of the tower.
Tank TR-85M1 Bizonul
Ukrainian modernization of T-54 / 55
Instead of the old B-55 horsepower 580 In the engine compartment, a two-stroke multi-fuel diesel engine was installed with oppositely moving pistons and 5TDFM turbocharging horsepower 850 hp. As a result, the maximum speed of the tank increased to 65 km / h. The average speed on the highway instead of the previous 35 km / h has now reached 45 km / h. At the disposal of the driver appeared an automated motion control system with a steering wheel. Under the increased load significantly improved chassis. The tank also began to use asphalt caterpillars.
Much attention is paid to the characteristics of protection. The tank significantly strengthened the reservation, installing additional passive protection and the so-called "reactive armor." The elements of the Varta optical-electronic countermeasure system were mounted on the turret of the tank. Survival in the event of a defeat should provide and new fire-fighting equipment.
Instead of primitive sights at the disposal of the gunner operator, a modern fire control system appeared. The tank can use guided missile weapons. A tank commander can duplicate the actions of the gunner. For him mounted anti-aircraft installation of the closed type.
At the request of the customer, the cannon can be caliber 125 mm or 120 mm. It is connected with an automatic loader mounted in a niche of the tower.
Slovenian T-54 / 55 Upgrade
During the upgrade, the following changes were made:
The tank was installed active armor, its elements are clearly visible on the hull and turret.
A new 105 mm L7A3 was installed with a thermal jacket. Manufacturer: British Aerospace Defense Ltd, Royal Ordnance Divisio. The fire control system was drastically improved by installing a digital ballistic computer. The gun is stabilized in two planes.
Installed new sight Slovenian production Fotona SGS-55 with a laser rangefinder. We also installed a sight of the commander of Fotona COMTOS-55 with an independent line of sight stabilization, which allows him to lead targets and even aim the gun independently of the gunner, if necessary.
The LIRD-1A laser irradiation annunciator is associated with the IS-6 smoke grenade launcher launching system that can be automatically activated in case of an emergency.
Upgrading the V-12 diesel engine has resulted in an increase in power from the 520 HP. to 600 hp
In the undercarriage rubber side skirts appeared similar to those installed on the T-72, the tank was also equipped with new tracks with rubber-metal hinges.
An additional linkage, a box for the crew’s property, performing the function of an additional anti-cumulative screen, appeared in the aft of the tower.
Slovenian modernized T-55
Serbian modernization of the T-54 / 55
Serbian car intended for export.
The tank was installed: mounted dynamic protection on the tower and on the hull forehead, rubber-fabric side-mounted protivokumulyatnye screens, modern fire control system, communication system with built-in protection, new power plant, 780l.s power.
Tank T-55H, Partner
Chinese modernization of T-54 / 55 tanks
Joint development with US companies "Textron Marine and" Land Systems "
Layout with rear engine compartment. The hull and tower are welded. In the design of the tank used a combined reservation. The design and installation of the upper part of the hull, tower and engine were carried out by the American company Cadillac Gage Textron (Cadillac Gage Textron).
A distinctive feature is the location of the crew, typical of NATO tanks, in which the commander and gunner are located in the tower on the right. Guidance guns electro-hydraulic, in the event of failure of their management is carried out manually.
The main armament of the tank is a 105-mm rifled gun L7. The gun is stabilized in two planes. As an auxiliary weapon, a 7,62-mm machine gun paired with a cannon and a large-caliber 12,7-mm anti-aircraft gun M2HB are installed on the tank.
The tank is equipped with a fire control system, which is similar to the Stingray tank installed on an American tank with a laser rangefinder and thermal imaging devices.
Tank chassis were made in China. Individual torsion bar suspension. Automatic transmission XTG-411 production Allison Transmission (General Motors Corporation). There is a radio station, TPU and the automatic system of the PPO.
Upgraded T-55 - Jaguar