Military Review

Feat cadets

Feat cadets

Novo-Petergofskoe military-political border school of the troops of the NKVD named after Voroshilov K.Е. (TLU) October 7 was formed 1937 of the year after the military commissars were established in the Armed Forces of the Institute, on the basis of the KE Voroshilov NKVD USSR Border and Internal Guard School. The head of the school - the regimental commissar Grigoriev. The school trained political workers for the border and internal troops of the NKVD. Duration of training 2 year. The school received ordinary soldiers and sergeants of the border and internal troops of the NKVD who had passed military service, and received excellent recommendations from the commanders of the units. After the start of World War II, the school switched to a shortened training program.

In connection with the aggravation of the situation on the outskirts of Leningrad 17 August 1941, according to the order of the commander of the Northern Front, the battalions of the cadets of the Novo-Petergof Military-Political School of the NKVD. K.E. Voroshilov received the task to put a barrier at the turn: the 1-th battalion under the command of Major N. Shorin. - collective Chukh. Antashi, Ozhogino, Volgovo, 2 Battalion, captain A.A. - Hulgizi, Pulevo, Smolkovo, Dylitsy. The Red Army units (1-i and 2-i guards divisions) acted in front, under the cover of which the battalions were supposed to occupy and prepare the defense ... , but the battery to the destination did not arrive and the battalion did not support the battle. An anti-aircraft battery was attached to the 2 th battalion. Both battalions operated independently and were operatively subordinated to the commander of the 76 Army, Major General Belyaev.

1 Battalion Actions

At dawn on August 18, 1941. The 1st battalion took up the defense and successfully repelled the advance and reconnaissance units of the enemy, and only the 4th company (Lieutenant Gamayunov), defending in the Volgovo area, was given the task to advance in the direction of Torosovo - Gubanitsa, August 18, 1941. was attacked in the evening tanks and enemy motorized infantry and partially surrounded. Roth groups went to join the battalion and 19 August joined the battalion. The commander of the company with two cadets out of the environment only 24 August. From the composition of the company did not return from the environment 21 cadet. The commander of the 1 Battalion, Major Shorin, who was defending himself in the Chukh area. Antashi was ordered to stop and form units of all the departing 1-th Guards Divisions of the Red Army. By August 22, two battalions were formed from departing units, teachers and officers were sent to command and political posts in these battalions, and they went to the front with the 1 battalion. It was supposed to organize a regiment from these two battalions and the 1 th battalion (Shorin), but subsequently the people were returned to the 1 th guards division. 20 and 21 in August, cadet border guards conducted reconnaissance raids in the area of ​​the villages of Bolshoye and Maloe Zhabino, Volgovo, Volosovo, where they had military clashes with the enemy. By this time, the enemy on Kingisepp Highway was forced to suspend the offensive, encountering unexpected resistance from border units. Taking advantage of the opponent’s indecision, Shorin makes a decision to counterattack. And over the next few days, the border guards drove the fascists out of the villages of Kotino, Bolshoi and Maloye Zhabino. Later, on the orders of the commander of the Kingisepp fortified area, "the further promotion of the regiment of the TLU to the south" was discontinued. The battalion was returned to its initial positions, and then 30 August was sent to the commander of the Koporskaya task force, Major General Semashko, the latter reassigned the battalion to the commander of the national militia Major General Lyubovtsev and sent to the Zabolotye area (in 2 km. northwest of the Russian Antashi), where the battalion arrived in 17-18-00 31 in August 1941. The enemy by this time in the area of ​​Koporye began to crowd the units of the 2 division of the national militia. To restore the position, the division commander sent a counterattack to the newly arrived 3 and 4 companies, which successfully counterattacked and rejected the enemy’s infantry, inflicting a great defeat upon it, destroying the enemy battalion. 3-I and 4-I companies lost in this battle to 60-70 people killed and wounded cadets and commanders. As a result, the battalion counterattack, with the support of the 10 BT tanks of the 271 Regiment of the 93 Infantry Division of the enemy, was dislodged from their positions in the Irgograd region and hastily retreated more than five kilometers. After a successful counterattack, the entire battalion was placed in reserve by the commander of the 2 bottom and took up defensive positions in the area of ​​Florevitsa. Ahead at the Gostilovo-Lasuni line, parts of the 2 bottom defended. It took the enemy several days to regroup and prepare a new offensive. During this time, units of the 8 Army managed to retreat along the Peterhof Highway, thereby avoiding the danger of being cut off from the main forces of the Leningrad Front. 4 September 1941g. parts of the 2 bottom had to transfer the sector to parts of the 125 rifle division and go to rest. During the change of units, the enemy launched an offensive and shifting units, without warning our battalion, began to retreat, thereby exposing the battalion’s location both from the front and from the flanks. Opponent after a powerful artillery and mortar training on the battalion went on the offensive and began to crowd the units that some groups began to depart in the direction of Voronino. In this battle, the battalion lost up to 120 people killed and wounded, 171 people did not return, and their fate is unknown. The main part of the battalion retreated to the village of Dolgaya Niva, where the border guards tried to gain a foothold, but under pressure from superior enemy forces, they were forced to retreat to the villages of Novaya and Gostilitsy, mined the fork of the Cheremikino-Oranienbaum road. Until September 7, the cadets defended Gostilitsy, covering the withdrawal of units of the 281 Infantry Division, after which they were taken to rest in the area of ​​the village of Big Iliki. But the enemy knocked out our units from the village of Porozhki and the command of 281-th SD, was forced to send cadets to eliminate the breakthrough. The fierce battles for Porozhki continued until the twentieth of September 41. The border guards seized the village several times, but due to lack of strength and lack of fire support from rifle units, it was not possible to build on the success of the counterattack.

The machine gun crew of the German rangers is firing from the MG-34 machine gun. Summer 1941 of the Year, Army Group North. In the background, the calculation covers the ACS StuG III. Shooting time: summer 1941

Due to the fact that the cadet battalion under the command of Major Shorin acted during September 41. in the 281 Rifle Division, the command of the 8 Army, contrary to the directive of the General Staff of the Red Army regarding the use of military units of the NKVD 2 in October 41. attempted to transfer the personnel of the battalion to the replenishment of the 1062 th regiment of the 281 th rifle division. Major Shorin was appointed regiment commander. However, as a result of the decision of the 10 October Military Council of the Leningrad Front, the front headquarters instructed the 8 A commander and the 1 school battalion to immediately withdraw from the battle and 281 sf commandment and send all the weapons, transport and property to the school in Leningrad to continue their studies interrupted by the battles. As of October 1, the battalion consisted of 68 cadets and 10 officers.

2 Battalion Actions

Battalion 17 August 41g. he was hastily transferred from New Peterhof to Krasnogvardeysk and in 19-00 occupied the line of defense near the Elizavetino railway station, in the villages of Alekseyevka, Pulevo, Dylitsy and Smolkovo. In 24 hours 17 August 1941g. By order of the communications delegate, the front staff of the 8 I company was thrown into the village. Hulgizi. Thus, the front of the battalion was 10 km. Due to lack of communications, communication was established with three companies. On the night of August 18 1941. Our reconnaissance detected an enemy offensive by two moto-mechanized battalions of the SS division and one reconnaissance tank battalion of the 8-th tank division of the Wehrmacht, the movement of which was noted along the roads of Volosovo - Art. Elizavetino and the lake - Art. Elizavetino. Already on August 17, the reconnaissance of the 2 th battalion collided with enemy advance units and entered the battle. After a brief battle, as a result of which one tank was shot down and one officer was killed, reconnaissance returned to the core of the company without casualties. In 5-00 18 August 1941. 5-I company advanced to the western outskirts of Art. Elizavetino and focused to throw through the highway and railway track. By order of the battalion commander, the cadets blocked the entrances and exits from the village, with the exception of the road to the old park. The enemy broke through the front edge of the battalion’s defense, and a fierce battle ensued. The shootout began in the station buildings. In the park, in its central part, there was a palace, about a hundred meters from the palace stood a church, and not far from it several stone buildings. In them, and on the islands of a nearby pond, cadets defended themselves until 23-00 18 in August 1941. As a result of this battle, two enemy tanks were destroyed and burned. In 23-00, the enemy occupied the park of art. Elizavetino, and on the orders of Colonel Roganov, the battalion was to occupy a new line of defense Mikino - Shpankovo. K 8-00 19 August 1941. The battalion began to consolidate at the new frontier, reflecting the pressure of superior enemy forces by short counterattacks. In 21-30 a new order was received: to gain a foothold in the forest, northeast of vil. Great Bornitsy, and close the way the enemy in Krasnogvardeysk. K 7-00 20 August 1941. the battalion with the battle went to the third line and took the defense. The produced intelligence was established: in d. The big Bornitsi enemy concentrated one battalion of infantry and put 10 masked tanks in the bushes against our line of defense. The rest of the enemy forces - 50 tanks and motorized infantry - began to bypass the left flank of the battalion. In the 12-00, a member of the Military Council and Chairman of the Regional Executive Committee Soloviev arrived in the defense area, who handed an order to the Battalion General Command: to close the enemy’s advancement route to Krasnogvardeysk, and promised to plant reinforcements: the artillery division, 6 tanks, mortars, ammunition, water and food, which the cadets did not receive in the future. In 14-00, the enemy launched a strong artillery and mortar attack on the defense area and completely completed the battalion encirclement, but the road to Krasnogvardeysk was still in our hands, and all enemy attempts to break the path of the motor-mechanized column along the road were beaten off. From 17-00 to 19-30, the battalion fought off a strong onslaught of the enemy with fire and short counterstrikes. In 19-30, the full battalion launched a counterattack, and the enemy, suffering heavy losses, was dispersed and put to flight. As a result of this battle, six medium tanks of the enemy were blown up and burned, seven officers were killed, one general, taken from the dead and found on the 12 battlefield officer portfolios, bags with maps, two machine guns, many machine guns, rifles, pistols, grenades, ammunition and other The 6 and 8 companies of the Military Political School and two companies of the 2 Guards Division of the national militia, located on the flanks of the defense, were cut off from the battalion by the enemy, and communication with them was not possible. On the defense section of the road Big Bornitsi - Krasnogvardeysk remained: 7-i company - 73 man, 5-i company - 52 man, sapper company - 27 man and national team - 23 man, just 175 man. 21 August 1941. from 2-00 to 4-00, the enemy re-opened strong artillery and mortar fire and by the morning introduced new forces and launched an offensive that continued throughout the day and night on August 22. On August 22, the enemy prod with strong artillery and mortar fire also continuously attacked the battalion, but was each time repulsed by our counterattacks. The battalion continued to hold the road to Krasnogvardeisk, and there was no enemy movement on it. From August 18 to 23, the enemy led intensified attacks on the 2 Battalion units, seeking to break through to Krasnogvardeysk. However, all attempts to break through the line of defense of the battalion were unsuccessful, and the enemy was forced to suspend the offensive. Only 23 in August, when the enemy learned that there were no anti-tank weapons in the battalion area, very little technical equipment of our units, he moved a large number of tanks against the battalion, began massive shelling from artillery and mortars. But despite this, the cadets, commanders and political workers continued to resist with all the means at their disposal. However, the technical and numerical superiority of the enemy led to the fact that the divisions of the school were dismembered and then surrounded. By the end of August 23 1941. the battalion was in a difficult position, anti-tank weapons — grenades and bottles dried up; the battalion remained for three to four days without food and water, and as a result of mortar and artillery fire suffered great losses to the wounded and killed. Having decided to break through the encirclement and strike the enemy’s garrisons in the direction d. Pitkelevo - Seppelevo and go to Pedlino, the battalion launched an offensive, but the enemy concentrated strong artillery and mortar fire on the route of movement, and the attacking infantry dismembered the battalion, and the latter broke through their mouths on their own. The battalion command group as part of 36 man, falling into ambush, with a battle out of the environment. In the Malye Bornitsa region, she was surrounded by an enemy company and a decisive attack, smashing and scattering the enemy, and later, repelling individual attacks, 27 August 1941. went to st.

The battle. End of summer 1941 of the year.

Starting from 23 in August and up to 1 in September, the cadets and commanders of the 2 battalion left small groups out of the entourage and on September 1 came out: cadets - 196, commanders - 9, in total - 205. The battalion commander captain Zolotarev, the authorized officer of the 3 division, senior lieutenant Safronov, company commander lieutenant Usenko, platoon commanders lieutenants Novozhilov, Pyatkov and others returned with them. Of the entire 2 th battalion, which at the time of the appearance at the front consisted of four companies in the number of 579 people, only 2 companies remained - 208 people. Of these, staff - 12, cadets - 196. Thus, the 2 Battalion lost 30 people killed, 80 wounded and missing people 261 people (among which are killed, wounded, surrounded by, detained by other parts), and only 371 people, or 64% of their composition . The losses of the battalion could have been significantly less if the battalion occupied a normal area of ​​defense, had sufficient technical equipment and adequate support from the neighbors. Unfortunately, all this was not. The task assigned to the battalion is to detain the enemy on the way to art. Elizavetino - Krasnogvardeysk a maximum of three to four days - the border guards performed, not allowing the enemy to advance within six days. Thus, it enabled the 126-th and 267-th separate machine-gun and artillery battalions, as well as parts of the 2-th Guards division of the national militia to take up the defensive positions of the Red Guard fortified area.

After the withdrawal from the battles, the cadets continued their studies in Leningrad, where in September 41. the school was evacuated. In November, 41. release took place. Most of the cadets were sent to the border and internal troops of the NKVD. About forty people commanded the command and party organization of the school to the military counterintelligence agencies, to special departments of the Leningrad Front. A part of the cadets were sent as political workers to replenish rifle and artillery units of the Leningrad Front.

1. Border troops during the Great Patriotic War: Collection of documents. / Chugunov, AI, Karyaeva, T. F, etc. - M .: Nauka, 1968. - 707c.
2. Kalutsky N.V. Fire - on Yourself! - M .: Military Publishing, 1981. - 206c.
3. Felisova V.M. Stood to death. - L .: Lenizdat, 1984. - 238c.
4. At the nearest approaches to Leningrad: Gatchina (Krasnogvardeisk) in the years of the Great Patriotic War. / Comp.: Lyubetsky IG, Prokhorov N.А. - L .: Lenizdat, 1986. - 302c.
5. Oranienbaum bridgehead: Memories of the participants of the defense./ Comp.: Grischinsky KK, Lavrov LI - L .: Lenizdat, 1971. - 464c.
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  1. Kovrovsky
    Kovrovsky 21 June 2013 09: 24
    Eternal memory to the fallen heroes! Yesterday's boys did not retreat and did not flinch in front of a seasoned enemy!
  2. plohoy
    plohoy 21 June 2013 10: 47
    Eternal memory to HEROES and THANKS YOU very much for what we are !!!
  3. Genady1976
    Genady1976 21 June 2013 17: 25
    The Red Army is the strongest.
  4. smile
    smile 21 June 2013 17: 44
    I am amazed at what losses the cadets were able to inflict on the Germans, and at the same time still retained half of the personnel. Fighting in such conditions with virtually no means of reinforcement, anti-tank weapons, surrounded around the clock, without supplies ... tanks, general to the heap .... apparently, the level of training and fighting spirit is the highest. Of course, I understand that these are cadets, and not the usual combat unit, but how after that someone has the nerve to say that we fought with meat ....
    1. Peter Ivanov
      Peter Ivanov 16 July 2018 15: 03
      After the fights of the Germans with the Soviet border guards on the border and in border battles ... they were brought to one of the directives for the Wehrmacht: "... no commissioners, communists and border guards should be taken prisoner."

      Glory to the Soviet border troops!
  5. Bosk
    Bosk 21 June 2013 23: 14
    Graduation of the 41st year ... they survived to Victory ... well, if 5%. There were people ready to give their lives for their homeland and what pleases us even now is much more than we can even imagine!
    1. Peter Ivanov
      Peter Ivanov 16 July 2018 15: 04
      Just not for Yeltsinputin with his buddies capitalists and bankers!
  6. Kurtshaar
    Kurtshaar 23 June 2013 08: 51
    Of the entire 2nd battalion, which at the time of speaking at the front consisted of four companies in the amount of 579 people, 2 companies remained - 208 people.

    Heroes! I bow my head!
  7. zvezdov
    zvezdov 24 June 2013 02: 34
    The cadets were experienced and trained fighters, they had been in service for 3-5 years and participated in the conflicts of the pre-war years!
    + moral stamina, youth and psychological preparation.


    PS in memory of the 2nd battalion, almost 300 names of the defenders who died, and this is 41 years old, and this is in the meat grinder of the general retreat and the Germans blitzkrieg ..
    The memorial actually describes the memory of all the defenders of those difficult months of the war.