For obvious reasons, we will pay more attention in this article to the Tatarsky, as Azerbaijanis were then called in Russia, or the Azerbaijani cavalry regiment. The commander of the regiment was appointed General Staff Lieutenant Colonel Peter Polovtsev. Assistant commanders of the regiment were appointed a native of Baku, lieutenant colonel Vsevolod Staroselsky and captain Shahverdi Khan Abulfat Khan Ziyatkhanov. The colonel of the 16 th Dragoon Tver Regiment, Prince Feyzulla Mirza Qajar, was also attached to the Tatar regiment. At the beginning of August1914, it was announced that volunteers would be registered in the formed regiments. On August 5, the Chief of Staff of the Caucasian Military District, Lieutenant General N. Yudenich, notified Elizavetpolsky Governor G.S. Kovalev on the highest approval of the formation of the native parts. According to the Yelizavetpol governor, by the 27 of August, "Muslim volunteers enrolled in the Tatar regiment over two thousand." Due to the fact that only 400 people were required, including one hundred of Azerbaijanis, residents of Borchaly district of Tiflis province, further recording was stopped. The Governor also handed over to the General of Infantry A.Z., Assistant Commander-in-Chief of the Caucasian Army. Myshlaev’s request for volunteers "to give the Tatar regiment to the Tatar regiment formed in Yelizavetpole, the highest granted by the emperor Nicholas I to the former Tatar regiment (1 th Equestrian Muslim regiment, formed during the Russian-Turkish war 1828-1829 - CH.S.) stored in Shusha district administration.
Despite the fact that Muslims had no moral basis in taking part in the “Russian” war: all because 50 years had passed since the end of the Caucasian War, many Caucasians warriors were grandchildren and, possibly, sons of people with weapons in the hands of the opposing Russian troops, however, a Muslim division formed from volunteers defended Russia. Perfectly aware of this, during his stay in Tiflis in November1914, he addressed the Muslim deputation with the following words: “I express my heartfelt thanks to all members of the Muslim population of the Tiflis and Elizavetpol gubernias, who so sincerely felt during the difficult time they were experiencing, which is proved by the equipment the Muslim population of the Caucasus, the six cavalry regiments of the division, which, under the command of my brother, went to fight our common enemy. Give my heartfelt thanks to the entire Muslim population for the love and loyalty of Russia. ”
By early September, the formation of the Tatar cavalry regiment was completed. 10 September 1914 in Yelizavetpol at 11 hours of the day, Hussein Efendi Efendiyev, the chairman of the provincial Sunni Majlis, served a part-time prayer service at Ynizx in the camp of the regiment with a huge crowd of people, and then at two o'clock in the Central Hotel of the city a dinner was given in honor of the regiment. Soon the regiment marched to Armavir, defined as a collection point for units of the Caucasian native horse division. In Armavir, the division commander, Grand Prince Mikhail Alexandrovich, became acquainted with the regiments. In late September, the division's regiments were redeployed to Ukraine, where they continued to prepare for combat work. Until the beginning of November, the Tatar cavalry regiment was stationed in the Zhmerinka region. By the way, the regiment received an unexpected replenishment in the person of a French citizen. From the ratio of the French consul in Baku Yelizavetpol governor of 18 dekabrya1914 g .: "I have the honor to inform you that I have received a telegram from the date of October 26-n / d from Zhmerinka station signed by Lieutenant Colonel Polovtsev Tatar cavalry regiment commander, informing me that a French citizen, a spare soldier Karl Testenoir entered as a rider in the aforementioned regiment ... "
In early November, the Caucasian Indigenous Horse Division was incorporated into the 2 Cavalry Corps of Lieutenant General Huseyn Khan Nakhichevan. From 15 November, the transfer of division units to Lviv began. November 26, in Lviv, corps commander Khan Nakhichevansky made a review of the division. An eyewitness to this event was the journalist Count Ilya Lvovich Tolstoy, the son of Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy. “The regiments were ridden in the equestrian order, in marching order,” Ilya Lvovich wrote later in his essay “The Scarlet Towers”, “one is prettier than the other, and the whole city admired and marveled at an unprecedented hitherto spectacle for an hour ... Under the squeaky tune In their pipes, their warlike folk songs, smart typical riders in beautiful Circassian arms, brilliant gold and silver weapons, bright scarlet towers, nervous, turned horses, full of pride and national dignity passed by us. ” Directly from the regimental regiments, the divisions advanced to the area south-west of the city of Sambora, where they occupied the designated combat area on the banks of the Sana'a River. Started heavy combat winter work in the Carpathians. The division fought hard at Polyanchik, Rybne, Verkhovyna-Bystra. Particularly heavy bloody battles were in December1914 on Sana'a and in January1915 in the region of Lomna Lutoviska, where the division reflected the enemy’s advance on Peremyshl. From the essay “Wild Division” published in the “Annals of War”: “The snow is in the Carpathians, everything is white all around. Ahead along the ridges, in the snow trenches lay the Austrian infantry. Shoot the bullets. In chains lie in groups, - notes the author of the essay, - All relatives. All yours. Ahmet will be wounded - Ibrahim will endure, Ibrahim will be wounded - Israel will endure, Abdullah will be wounded - Idris will carry. And they will carry it out, neither the living nor the dead will be left ... The regiment was built as a campaign. Brownish-gray hundreds stand in the reserve colony, black burkas are strapped behind the saddles, mottled Khurdzhins hang on the thin sides of the horses, brown hats are shifted on the forehead. Ahead of the unknown and the battle, because the enemy is not far. On a white horse, with a rifle on his shoulders, the columns of the Mullah are marching forward. Reins of horsemen were thrown, small, thin mountain horses hung their heads, heads and horsemen were lowered, hands folded between their hands. Mullah reads a prayer before the battle, a prayer for the Sovereign, for Russia. Silently listen to her gloomy faces. “Amen,” sigh through the rows. “Amen, Allah, Allah! ..” comes the prayer sigh again, it is a sigh, not a shout. They put their palms on their foreheads, ran them across their faces, as if heavy thoughts were shaken off, and took the reins ... Ready to go. With Allah and for Allah. ”
In February, the 1915 Division conducted successful offensive operations. Since February 15, the Chechen and Tatar regiments fought a fierce battle near the village of Briń. As a result of a stubborn battle, after the melee, the enemy was knocked out of this settlement. The commander of the regiment, Lieutenant Colonel A. Polovtsev was awarded the Order of St. George the Victorious 4 degree. This is how Lieutenant-Colonel Polovtsev himself regarded his award in a telegram to Yelizavetpolsky Governor G. Kovalev: “The Tatar regiment was the first of the Nat Division to win its commander George Cross. Proud of a high reward, I consider it an exceptionally flattering assessment of high military qualities and selfless courage of Tatar riders. I ask you to accept the expression of my deepest admiration for the exampleless valor of the Muslim soldiers of the Elizavetpol province. Polovtsev. In this battle, Colonel Prince Feyzulla Mirza Qajar, who was also awarded the Order of St. George the Victorious 4 degree, especially distinguished himself. From the award presentation: “15 february1915, having taken command of 4 by hundreds of the Uman Cossack regiment, who had only one officer, on their own initiative, led them to a decisive offensive under strong rifle and machine-gun fire, twice returned the retreating Cossacks and, thanks to decisive action, promoted occupation of the village of Brin. " 17 february1915 Colonel Prince Feyzulla Mirza Kadzhar was appointed commander of the Chechen cavalry regiment, replacing the commander of the regiment colonel A. Svyatopolk-Mirsky who died in battle yesterday. 21 february1915 The division commander, Grand Duke Mikhail Alexandrovich, received an order from the commander of the 2 Cavalry Corps, Lieutenant General Khan Nakhichevansky, to knock the enemy out of Tlumach. To accomplish the task, the division commander moved the Tatar regiment, and then the Chechen regiment. As a result of the stubborn battle, Tlumach was busy. By the end of February, units of the 2 Cavalry Corps completed their combat mission in the Carpathian operation of the troops of the Southwestern Front. 16 July1915, in connection with the appointment of Colonel Khagandokov as Chief of Staff of the 2 Cavalry Corps, the command of the Chechen Regiment, Colonel Prince Feyzullah Mirza Kadzhar, took command of the 2- brigade. In July - August1915, the Caucasian Equestrian Division of the Equestrian Division fought on the left bank of the Dniester. Colonel Prince Feyzulla Mirza Qajar once again distinguished himself. From the order of the commander of the Caucasian Indigenous Horse Division: “He especially (Prince Qajar - C.S.) showed high valor during the heavy fighting in the Vinyatyntsy area (12 - 15 August1915), when commanding the 2 brigade that had lost around 250 riders beat 5 fierce attacks of the Austrians. "
At the beginning of 1916 there were big changes in the command structure of the division. Major General (Lieutenant General since July 12, 1916) D.P. was appointed as the division commander. Bagration. Major General Ya.D. appointed by the Chief of Staff of the 2nd Corps Yuzefovich as commander of the division was replaced by the commander of the Tatar cavalry regiment, Colonel Polovtsev. Major General S.A. was appointed commander of the 2nd Brigade. Drobyazgin. Colonel of the Kabardinsky Horse Regiment Prince Fedor Nikolaevich (Tembot Zhanhotovich) Bekovich - Cherkassky was appointed commander of the Tatar Horse Regiment. On May 31, 1916, Colonel Bekovich - Cherkassky received an order to drive the enemy out of the village of Tyshkovtsy personally led three hundred Tatar regiments under attack by Austrians. As a result of the horse attack, the village was occupied. 171 Austrian soldiers and 6 officers were captured. After half an hour, the enemy, with the help of two infantry battalions, with the support of artillery, made an attempt to return Tyshkivtsi. However, three dismounted hundreds of regiments supported by a machine-gun platoon from the Baltic squad fleet met the attacking enemy with dense fire. The enemy’s attack drowned. Nevertheless, until the middle of the day, the Austrians tried several more times to recapture the Tyshkivtsi, but to no avail. After some time, two hundred Chechens, Colonel Kajar, two guns of the equestrian mountain division and a battalion of the infantry Zaamur regiment came to the rescue of the Tatar regiment. Five enemy attacks were repelled during the day. In addition to 177 prisoners, the Austrians lost only 256 killed. For this battle, the commander of the Tatar cavalry regiment, Colonel Prince Bekovich - Cherkassky was introduced to the Order of St. George the Victorious 3rd degree. 4th degree St. George Crosses for a horse attack were awarded to a rider Pasha Rustamov, a native of the village of Yukhara Ayyply of the Elizavetpol district, Halil Bek Gasumov, a native of Shusha, and Prince Idris Aga Kajar (brother of the Chechen regiment commander Fayzulla Mirza). In the first decade of June, the Tatar cavalry regiment, as part of the 2nd brigade of the division, fought west of Chernivtsi. Overcoming the stubborn resistance of the enemy, by mid-June the brigade reached the Cheremosh River, on the opposite bank of which the Austrians were entrenched. On June 15, the Chechen and Tatar regiments crossed the river under fierce enemy fire and, immediately capturing the Rostock village, began to advance forward northwest towards the Bukovinian Carpathians towards the city of Vorokhta in the upper reaches of the Prut River. In these battles, the rider Kerim Kulu oglu, awarded the St. George Cross of the 4th degree and the junior officer Alexander Kaitukov, awarded the St. George Cross of the 2nd degree, were especially distinguished from the soldiers of the Tatar Regiment. On December 9, 1916, during the battle near the village of Vali-Salchi, the commander of the Chechen regiment, Colonel Prince Feizulla Mirza Kajar, was seriously injured. He was sent to a divisional sanitary unit, and then evacuated to Russia. Looking ahead, we’ll say that already on February 25, 1917, Colonel Kajar returned to duty and again headed the Chechen cavalry regiment.
In March, 1917, a number of divisional officers were awarded for bravery and military distinctions on the Romanian front. Among them were the cornet of the Tatar cavalry regiment, Jamshid Khan of Nakhichevan, who was awarded the Order of Sts. Stanislav 2 degree with swords and staff captain of the Kabardian Equestrian Regiment Kerim Khan Erivansky, who received the Order of St. Anna 2 degree with swords. On May 7, the commander of the Chechen Equestrian Regiment, Colonel Prince Feyzulla Mirza Kadzhar, was promoted to major general for military distinctions, and on May 30 the same year, he was appointed commander of the 2 Brigade. On May 14, the commander of the Tatar cavalry regiment, colonel Prince Bekovich-Cherkassky, was appointed commander of the 1 Guards Cuirassier Regiment. The commander of the Tatar cavalry regiment was appointed Colonel Prince Levan Luarsabovich Magalov. On May 22, the Chief of Staff of the division, Major General P. A. Polovtsev, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the troops of the Petrograd Military District. From the telegram of P.Polovtsev to one of the initiators of the formation of the Tatar cavalry regiment Mamed Khan Ziyatkhanov: “Having received the permission of the Minister of War to keep the uniform of the Tatar equestrian regiment, I ask you to convey to the Muslim population of Elizavetpol gubernia and Borchaly district that I will proudly keep the memory of the valiant Polk collected in their own environment, at the head of which I had the honor to be a year and a half. An endless series of exploits in the fields of Galicia and Romania, Muslims have proved themselves worthy descendants of great ancestors and loyal sons of our great homeland. Commander-in-Chief of the troops of the Petrograd Military District, General Polovtsev. "
During the summer offensive of the troops of the South-Western Front, the Caucasian native horse division acted west of the city of Stanislavov. So throughout June 29 continued to develop fighting on the river Lomnitsa. The enemy counterattacked in the direction of the city of Kalush. In the morning of that day, Major-General Prince Feyzulla Mirza Qajar, on the eve of having crossed with his 2 brigade through Lomnitsa near the village of Podhorniki, moved to Kalush, which had a fierce battle. On the way of the brigade, the 466 Infantry Regiment was retreating randomly under the pressure of the enemy. As it was later noted in the order for the Caucasian native cavalry division, General Qajar led “decisive measures and“ force of conviction ”into“ order ”of the confused regiment, encouraged them and sent them back to the trenches, and then continued to carry out their task.
On June 24, by a Resolution of the Provisional Government, 1917 was allowed to award officers with "soldier-made" St. George's crosses "for the feats of personal bravery and valor." In particular, the decree of St. George's Tatar cavalry regiment awarded the St. George crosses of the 4 degree: regiment commander colonel Prince Levan Magalov, lieutenant Jamshid Khan Nakhichevansky, cornets Prince Haitbey Shervashidze and Count Nikolai Bobrinsky. In the most difficult conditions of the summer of 1917, when the front was broken, and the Russian army was demoralized, and parts of it randomly left the positions, the Caucasian soldiers stood to the death. From the article "Faithful Sons of Russia" published in the newspaper "Morning of Russia": "Caucasian native division, all the same long-suffering" wild "who, with their lives, pay for trading and traitorous accounts of the Russian army for fraternization, its freedom and its culture. “Wild” saved the Russian army in Romania; The “wild” uncontrolled blow overthrew the Austrians and, at the head of the Russian army, passed the whole of Bukovina and took Chernovitsy. "Wild" broke into Galich and drove the Austrians a week ago. And yesterday the “wild” ones again, saving the retreating rally column, rushed forward and repulsed their positions, saved the situation. “Wild” aliens - they will pay Russia with blood for all that land, for all the will that the organized soldiers are demanding today, who are running from front to rear rallies ”.
During its combat activities, the division suffered heavy losses. Suffice it to say that in three years more than seven thousand horsemen, natives of the Caucasus and Transcaucasia, passed through the service in the division. The regiments of the division were replenished several times with spare hundreds arriving from the places of their formation. Despite this, Caucasians, fighting on all fronts: Austrian, German, Romanian, have always been distinguished by great courage and unshakable hardness. In one year alone, the division conducted 16 equestrian attacks - an example unprecedented in the military stories. The number of prisoners taken by the Caucasian native horse division during the war years was four times higher than its own strength. About 3500 riders were awarded the St. George Cross and St. George Medal "For Bravery", many became full St. George's knights. All officers of the division were awarded military orders.
Numerous military awards were awarded to the soldiers of the Tatar cavalry regiment. In addition to those already mentioned above, military awards were also awarded: captain Shahverdi Khan Ziyatkhanov, staff captains Suleiman Bek Sultanov and Exhan Khan Nakhichevansky, staff captain Jalal Bek Sultanov, lieutenant Salim Bek Sultanov. Particularly distinguished noncommissioned officers and ordinary horsemen: full of St. George Cavaliers, i.e. rewarded with the St. George crosses of all four grades of steel: Alibek Nabibekov, a native of the village of Arablu, Zangezur district, Sayad Zeynalov, a native of the village of Agkeynek, Kazakh district, Sayad Zeynalov, Mehdi Ibrahimov, Alekper Khadzhiev, Datso Durov, Alexander Kaytukov. Three crosses of St. George and three St. George medals were awarded to Osman Aga Gulmamedov, a native of the village of Salakhly of the Kazakh district. Of particular note is the native of Shushi town Zeynal Bek Sadikhov, who, having begun service as a noncommissioned officer in the reconnaissance team, earned three crosses of St. George and St. George medal, and after production for military distinctions officers were awarded four military orders.
In late August, 1917g. A Muslim charity evening was held in Tiflis in favor of the injured and the families of the dead soldiers of the Caucasian native horse division. In this connection, the newspaper Kavkazsky Krai wrote: “Having visited a Muslim evening, we will give only a tiny part of that huge unpaid debt that lies on all of Russia, on all of us before the Caucasus and before the noble wild division for Russia for three years ". At the same time, at the end of August, it was decided to reform the Caucasian native cavalry division into the Caucasian native cavalry corps. To this end, 1-th Dagestan and two Ossetian cavalry regiments were transferred to the division. After formation, the corps was to be sent to the Caucasus at the disposal of the commander of the Caucasian army. However, already in connection with the “Kornilov case”, the order of the Provisional Government, the commander of the Caucasian Indigenous Equestrian Corps, Lieutenant General Prince Bagration, and the commander of the 2 Caucasian Indigenous Equestrian Division, Major General Prince Gagarin, were relieved of their posts. On the same day, by order of the Provisional Government, Lieutenant General P.A. Polovtsev was appointed commander of the Caucasian native equestrian corps. The 1-th Caucasian native horse division was headed by Major-General Prince Feyzulla Mirza Qajar. General Polovtsev succeeded in obtaining from Kerensky that the previously adopted order to send the corps to the Caucasus was executed.
At the end of September - the beginning of October1917, units and subunits of the corps were redeployed to the Caucasus. The headquarters of the corps was located in Vladikavkaz, and the headquarters of the 1-th Caucasian native horse division in Pyatigorsk. After the October Revolution in Petrograd, the corps retained, in general terms, its organization for some time, as a military unit. So, for example, as early as October - November1917, Corps Commander General Polovtsev conducted regiment reviews. In particular, as indicated in one of the orders to the corps, 26 of October in the colony Yelenendorf, near Elizavetpol, he (General Polovtsev - Ch.S.) "watched the Tatar regiment". However, by January1918, the Caucasian native cavalry corps had ceased to exist.
Three years Caucasian native horse division was in the army in the South-Western and Romanian fronts. With their dedicated combat work, innumerable feats and loyalty to military duty, Caucasians have earned their deserved fame in the army and in Russia as a whole.