7 (19) July 1809, the Borgios Seym asked to accept Finland as part of Russia and approved the wide autonomy of the Grand Duchy of Finland, associated with the Russian Empire as a personal union. Thus, in fact, a Finnish national state was created. Up to this point, the Finnish people were part of the Swedish kingdom, under the complete control of the Swedish elite. Russia created the Finnish statehood.
Of stories Finland
Until the beginning of the XIX century, the Finnish nation did not have its own statehood. According to researchers, the most likely way of forming the Finnish nation was a mixture of indigenous and alien populations. Stone Age people lived in Finland 9 more than a thousand years ago, gradually settling these territories immediately after the retreat of the glacier. These were ancient hunters and fishermen. Genetic analysis data reports that the modern gene pool of the Finnish people on 20-25% is represented by the Baltic genotype, 25-50% is Germanic and only about 25% is Siberian.
The first mention of Finland (Fenni) was recorded by the Roman historian Publication of Cornelius Tacitus in his work “Germany” (98 AD). Roman historian distinguishes Finns and their neighbors - Sami (Lappen). The population of this region for thousands of years and centuries lived by hunting, fishing and gathering. Even the emergence of agriculture did not immediately make it the basis of the life of the local population - the climate and nature were harsh, and only agriculture could not feed a lot of people, as in the southern regions of Europe. From V to IX century AD. e., the spread of livestock and agriculture, which allowed to feed more people, the population of the coastal areas of the Baltic region has increased significantly. By the 11th century, there were three groups of tribes in this region: Sumi — in the south-west (“the Finns proper”); emu - in middle and eastern Finland; Karelians - south-eastern Finland.
In the period IX - XI centuries. begins the penetration of the Scandinavian (Sveisky) element on the southern coast of Finland. After the baptism of Sweden and Russia, the process of colonization of Finnish lands accelerated. Initially, a significant part of the Finnish tribes fell under the authority of Veliky Novgorod, that is, Finland in the early Middle Ages was part of the sphere of influence of Russia. The Russian presence was minimal, expressed mainly in the collection of tribute by Russian troops. The rest of the Finnish tribes maintained autonomy. In addition, a part of the tribes took part in the protection of borders and their protection from the raids of the western financiers. By the XII century, when the royal power and Christianity strengthened in Sweden, the expansion to the east intensifies. In the 12-13 century, three crusades were organized in Finland. By the middle of the 13 century, the Swedes had conquered the land of Tavastov (Tavastlandia). By the beginning of the 14 century conquered the south-western part of Karelia and founded the Vyborg castle (1293 year). Until 1323, the wars of Veliky Novgorod with the Swedish crusaders continued. 12 August 1323 in the fortress Oreshek (Orekhovets), after several decades of hostilities, a peace treaty was signed. According to the Orekhovsky Peace Agreement, the western part of the Karelian Isthmus and the Savolax region adjacent to it withdrew to Sweden, the eastern part of the Isthmus with Korela remained behind Novgorod. The first state border was established between the Kingdom of Sweden and Veliky Novgorod (Rus). Thus, most of the Finnish lands were assigned to Sweden and the Catholic Church. Finland has become a Swedish province for many centuries. The Finnish population fell under the authority of the Swedish feudal lords. In the hands of the Swedes was all the administrative and judicial power. The state language in Finland was Swedish.
During the Northern War 1700-1721. The Russian army occupied the territory of Finland, but according to the Nishtadt peace treaty, returned the region, leaving behind only part of Karelia and the Vyborg district. In 1744, a separate Vyborg province was established, within its borders Swedish laws and Lutheran faith were preserved. Swedes twice - 1741 — 1743 and 1788 — 1790. tried to reclaim these territories and even claimed the Russian Baltic with Petersburg, but were defeated.
Already during the Russian-Swedish war 1741 — 1743. Empress Elizabeth Petrovna issued a manifesto to the inhabitants of Finland, where the Finnish people were promised to create an independent state, subject to voluntary membership in Russia. According to the World of Abos 1743 of the year, part of the Old Finland became part of Russia - Kyumenigord flax and Nishlot (Savonlinna) fortress. The border is more distant from St. Petersburg. By the beginning of the Russian-Swedish war 1788 — 1790. a number of Swedish officers - Goeran, Georg Sprengtporten, Karl Click, Jan Egergorn and others developed a project of separating Finland from Sweden and creating an independent Finnish state under the protectorate of Russia. Sprengtporten handed over to the Russian ambassador the project of creating an independent Finnish state. Sprengtporten was accepted into the Russian service and was promoted to Major General of the Russian Army. During the war, Sprengtporten called on his supporters to work for the benefit of Finland’s independence, but did not find much support, the intellectual stratum in the region was small, and the common people were not inclined to big politics. Georg Magnus Sprengtporten drew up a plan for the convening of the Diet in Tavastgus, which was to lead to the secession of Finland from Sweden. The war ended with the signing of the Peace Treaty of Verelia, which retained the pre-war borders unchanged and reaffirmed the provisions of the Nishtad and Abos peace agreements.
During the reign of the emperors Paul I and Alexander I, the Vyborg province not only retained its former privileges, but even received new ones. In particular, they re-established some institutions of the rule of the Swedish Empire, such as the Lagman court. Alexander I transformed the Vyborg province into Finland (existed before 1811). Sprengtporten continued to serve Russia and in 1805, he presented Alexander Pavlovich with a note on the proposal for the autonomy of Finland within the Russian Empire (he would become the first governor-general in the Grand Duchy of Finland).
Thus, by the time of the Tilzit negotiations between the emperors Napoleon and Alexander, the idea of Finland joining Russia, and its autonomy within the Russian Empire, had been in the air for several decades.
Finland's accession to Russia
By the beginning of the XIX century, Finland numbered about 800 thousand people. It was the agricultural region of Sweden, the number of urban population was only 5,5%, the industry was poorly developed. On the peasantry, the overwhelming majority of the population, lay a double yoke - Finnish and Swedish feudal lords, they were tenants of landowner land. The state language of the region was Swedish. Finnish national culture and identity practically did not develop.
Initially, Russia and Sweden were allies against France in the III coalition. 2 (14) January 1805, Russia and Sweden signed a union treaty. The Swedish king Gustav IV longed for military glory and land grabbing in Pomerania. However, the 1805 campaign of the year ended sadly for the Allies. The French defeated the Austrian army, occupied Vienna, in November the combined Russian-Austrian troops were defeated near Austerlitz. Austria has signed a peace treaty with France. Swedish troops attempted to attack in Pomerania, but were forced to retreat.
Russia, despite heavy losses, and the absence of strategic contradictions with France, continued military operations against Napoleon Bonaparte as part of the fourth anti-French coalition. The war with France did not meet the national interests of Russia: the empire needed to solve the problem of establishing control over the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits in order to ensure the security of the Russian Black Sea region and the Caucasus forever; in the north it was necessary to establish control over Finland in order to reliably protect the capital of the empire; strengthen positions on the southern frontiers in Central and Central Asia, in the Far East and Russian America. For this it was necessary to make peace with Napoleon, who in 1805 had no plans to seize the Russian territories. Russia could get a historic respite without fighting in the West, leaving the European powers to exhaust their forces. However, Alexander neglected the national interests of Russia.
In 1806, the anti-French coalition IV was created. England allocated money, Russia and Prussia pledged to insert large armies. The war of the countries of the fourth coalition with France ended the same way as the wars of the previous anti-French alliances. The Prussian army was completely defeated at the battle of Jena and Auerstedt. The kingdom of Prussia capitulated. The Russian army was defeated at Friedland and retreated beyond the Neman. The French occupied Berlin and Warsaw, first came to the Russian border. Emperor Alexander Pavlovich had to put up. When the French lord asked Alexander: "What are we fighting for?" The Russian emperor had nothing to cover. Napoleon’s demands were minimal: Russia had to interfere less in the affairs of Germany and break the alliance with England (this fully corresponded to Russia's national interests). He also wanted the strict neutrality of Russia. At the same time, Napoleon offered Alexander to help solve his problems with the Ottoman Empire and Sweden. With regard to Turkey, Napoleon was cunning - France had its own interests in the Mediterranean, and the French emperor was not going to help Russia strengthen its position there. Regarding the Swedish kingdom, Napoleon was sincere, Sweden remained an ally of England. Napoleon wanted to punish Sweden.
After the conclusion of the Peace of Tilsit, Russia offered Sweden its mediation to reconcile it with France. However, there was no positive response. In August, 1807, England attacked the Danish capital of Copenhagen. Half the city burned down, the British took away the entire Danish fleet, burned the shipyards and the naval arsenal. The conflict occurred due to the refusal of the Prince Regent Frederick to transfer to England the entire Danish fleet and to give permission for the occupation of Zeeland, the island where the capital of Denmark was located. Britain feared that France would make an alliance with Denmark, increasing its naval potential. The Russian Imperial House had dynastic ties with the Danish and Holstein courts, and Denmark was already a century ally of Russia in the wars with Sweden. Russia entered the war with England. Petersburg demanded that the Swedish government keep the Baltic Sea closed to the fleets of other powers. The Swedish king Gustav IV rejected this proposal and headed for rapprochement with Britain. The Swedish king was planning to seize Norway from Denmark. Napoleon advised Alexander "to remove the Swedes from his capital" and offered assistance. In February, 1808, Napoleon told the Russian ambassador in Paris, Count Tolstoy, that he agreed to the complete liquidation of Sweden - Russia could take over all the Swedish territory with Stockholm.
In February 1808 of the year, the last Russian-Swedish war began today. In February Russian troops occupied Helsingfors, Tavastehus. In March, Russian troops occupied the Svartholm fortress, the fortified cape Gangut and the Aland Islands, and at the end of April capitulated Sveaborg, where more than 7 thousand enemy soldiers were captured, more than 2 thousand guns, 119 military courts and many other military equipment were captured. All of Southern and Middle Finland was under the control of Russian troops. Sweden has resisted for some time, but in the end suffered a defeat.
Emperor Alexander I, without waiting for the end of the war, informed all European states in March 1808 about the accession of Finland to the Russian Empire. The residents of Finland were sworn in. In his manifesto, Aleksandr Pavlovich promised the Finnish people the preservation of the “ancient institutions,” that is, the Finnish constitution, according to which Finland had its own diet. In February 1809 of the year, the Borgo Seym was convened. 16 March Russian Emperor Alexander I personally opened the Diet. The meeting had to solve four issues: the army, taxes, a coin and the establishment of a governing council. The decisions of the Seimas formed the basis of the management of the region. In the military question the settled system was saved; the Russian ruble was adopted as the monetary system (replaced by the Finnish mark in 1860); all taxes went to the region; in fact, a national state was created for the Finns. 12 members of the Finnish Governance Council were elected - it was called the “Government Council of the Grand Duchy of Finland”. The real power belonged to the governor-general appointed by the emperor. The first governor was one of the authors of the project on the accession of autonomous Finland to Russia - Georg Magnus Sprengporten (1808-1809), the second - Mikhail Bogdanovich Barclay de Tolly (1809-1810).
5 (17) September 1809 Russia and Sweden signed a peace treaty in Friedrichsgam. All Finland, together with the Aland Islands, departed "into the ownership and sovereign possession of the Russian Empire." Emperor Alexander I took the title of Grand Duke of Finland. The emperor and the Grand Duke of Finland undertook to "indestructibly store and protect" the Finnish laws, having obtained the right to convene a Sejm, only with his consent could the new laws be amended and introduced, taxes imposed and the privileges of estates revised. Thus, the legislative power belonged to the emperor together with the Diet. However, the emperor had a fairly large freedom in the economic sphere of Finland. Finland had two state languages, Swedish and Finnish (by the 1880 years). In 1811, the Vyborg (former Finnish) province was transferred to the jurisdiction of the Grand Duchy of Finland. The Finns, in the period of Russian rule, did not raise uprisings, unlike the Poles, therefore they retained their autonomy until the collapse of the Russian Empire, when independent Finland was created.
Grand Duchy of Finland from 1811 to 1917
However, having received independence from Lenin, in December 1917, Finland repaid with black ingratitude. In the war 1918 - 1920. The Finns seized Western Karelia from Russia to the Sestra River, the Pechenga Oblast in the Arctic, the western part of the Rybachiy Peninsula and most of the Middle Peninsula. In 1921, the Finnish elite, dreaming of “Greater Finland,” launched a second war, but the result was less favorable. The imprudence of the Finnish elite caused the Third War - the Winter War 1939-1940. Then Finland joined the union of Hitler Germany and fought with the USSR in 1941-1944. The defeat in this war caused a kind of "enlightenment" in the minds of the Finnish elite and Finland for several decades held a generally friendly and neutral position with respect to the USSR-Russia.