Now in almost all publications about the actions of Ukrainian nationalists during the war years there is an abbreviation OUN-UPA (Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists - Ukrainian Insurgent Army).
This combination is already firmly established in the language and is uniquely associated with the names of Stepan Bandera and Roman Shukhevych. Modern svidomity talk about the need to rehabilitate this organization, opponents object to them. Sometimes it also comes to the SS division "Galicia" ("Galicia"). But somehow modestly, everything connected with the SS men is very odiously perceived.
Thus, it seems that three parties took part in the events described: the Germans, the Red Army and the UPA. However, in fact, everything was much more complicated. First, a huge number of armed formations operated in Western Ukraine. These were the Ukrainian nationalist OUN (b), OUN (m), the Legion of Ukrainian Nationalists (PIL) under the command of Roman Sushko, the Murava police unit, the Bukovinsky Kuren, the Volyn Legion of Self-Defense, the Polesye Sich, the Polish Craiova Army, the Soviet partisan detachments ... These units then fought against each other, then they formed temporary coalitions.
Secondly, there were two organizations with the same name - the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. Because of what a huge confusion arises. This is especially noticeable when modern Ukrainian historians, trying to launder the image of Bandera, prove the anti-fascist orientation of the OUN and show German documents that talk about clashes between the UPA and the Wehrmacht. Anti-fascists on such arguments is difficult to find an answer, because when the word UPA immediately before the eyes there is an acronym OUN-UPA.
This is the main trick - the UPA, which had friction with the Germans, has nothing to do with Bandera or Shukhevych.
This formation was created in the summer of 1941 in Polesie by Vasily Borovets, who used the pseudonym Taras Bulba, because often in historical literature he is referred to as Bulba-Borovets. Initially, Borovets units operated under the name of the District Police Command. From the first days of the German occupation, Bulba-Borovets managed to establish good relations with the Germans. The Germans were not against such an alliance, because the Bulbovs guaranteed them order in Polesie. The police were even renamed the "Polessky Sich" of the Ukrainian rebel army, and Borovets proclaimed himself its chieftain.
Borovets had no relation to the OUN and, although it was a moderate Ukrainian nationalist, was guided not so much by fascist Germany as other leaders of the Ukrainian nationalists Melnik and Bandera, but by the so-called government of the UPR (Ukrainian People's Republic) in exile.
Unlike the OUN, who professed though a primitive but well-structured ideological system and dreamed of establishing their power over the country, the people of Borovets were a typical self-defense unit, whose members did not claim anything other than protecting their villages from any encroachment.
At the end of 1 9 4 1, the Germans demanded that the militia units be dismissed, which Borovets carried out, but the UPA went underground with the backbone of Poles'e Sich.
At this time, the Germans began to actively requisition food from the peasants and forcibly sent Volyn youths and girls to work in Hitler Germany. At the same time, the Germans often acted cruelly, which caused a response from the local population. In such conditions, separate units of the UPA went out of control of their chieftain and tried to protect the population from robberies. Borovets was well aware that if he and his Ukrainian insurgent army did not take action, a significant part of his people would simply run to the Soviet partisans.
Because Borovets turned a blind eye to the fact that his soldiers in several localities attacked the Germans, destroying several hundred Nazis. The first serious operation against the Germans was a raid on the Shepetivka railway station in August forty-two. In addition, Borovets held a series of negotiations with the Soviet partisans, concluding with them a truce, which lasted six months. But at the same time, negotiations were conducted with the German administration, which proposed to settle the misunderstandings and create police detachments from the UPA under the German command. However, these negotiations broke down.
So, during this period, Bandera had nothing to do with either the UPA or its actions during that period of time. Moreover, these were opposing groups that hated each other fiercely. With each month, the tension between Bandera and Bulbivs was growing. In the spring of 1942, occasional skirmishes between the UPA and the Nazis began. The OUN issued an anti-partisan leaflet in which the UPA shares were called sabotage. Relations were even more strained in the autumn of that year. It was at this time the opposition develops into armed clashes. At the beginning of 1943, several Bulbov detachments were disarmed by Bandera, and in the summer the war between the UPA and the OUN (b) reached its apotheosis.
The confrontation between the OUN and the UPA was not in favor of Borovets. His not very disciplined army, from five to six thousand former peasants, had to confront a clearly structured, fanatical and ruthless force, behind which stood all the power of the German army. In addition, the OUN went to the trick, creating a parallel structure with the same name - UPA. Initially, this structure was used as a means of discrediting Borovets, both in the eyes of the local population and in the eyes of the Germans. In September 1943, the Bulbovs headquarters was surrounded by Bandera and destroyed, and Bulba-Borovets himself surrendered to the Germans, preferring to sit in a German prison. The remnants of his people were either destroyed or joined the ranks of the winners. And under the name of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, Bandera began to act. Naturally, this UPA, headed by Roman Shukhevi, did not conflict with the Germans. Moreover, the Abwehr fully provided the nationalists weapons and ammunition. In addition, the required number of military instructors was allocated.
For maximum effectiveness, Shukhevych tried to give the UPA the appearance of a voluntary people's liberation army. In fact, the UPA was neither voluntary nor the people's liberation army - the “mobilization” in its ranks was violent. All those who resisted the "mobilization" in the UPA were killed without delay, often with the whole family. So that the fighters did not run away at the first opportunity, the recruits were forced to kill a Jew, a Pole, or something of a guilty Ukrainian gangster. And there was no way back for the "mobilized". Under the slogan of the national liberation struggle, the UPA staged an unprecedented massacre of civilians in the territories occupied by the Germans.
No wonder Taras Borovets in his “Open Letter to the OUN Wire of Bandera and the UPA Head Team” from September 24 of 1943 wrote: “Your“ power ”behaves not as people's revolutionary power, but as an ordinary gang ... You have already started a fratricidal struggle, since you do not want to fight together with all the Ukrainian working people for their liberation, today you are fighting only for power over them. Punching and shooting down Ukrainian peasants ... became your daily activities. ” In an article published in the Bul-Bov newspaper “Defense of Ukraine”, the same Bulba-Borovets wrote to the OUN: “Did there ever exist in Ukraine such a revolutionary organization that its own people would fear more than the most fierce enemy, I would not call members otherwise than “wayfarers” (from the words “choke with strings”) and “sookirniki” (from the word ax-sokira), which mordalized honest and conscious Ukrainians stronger than the Gestapo or the NKVD? .. What do they have in common with the liberation Ukrainian Bandera attempts already now subjugate the Ukrainian N The land masses of their party dictatorship and fascist ideology, which is opposed to the Ukrainian people, against whom the whole world is fighting ... I will allow myself to ask you: what are you fighting for? For Ukraine or for your OUN? For the Ukrainian State or a dictatorship in this state? For the Ukrainian people or only for their party? "
The last question is absolutely rhetorical. Bandera fought for the creation of a fascist type of state in which Ukrainian nationalists would have power over the Ukrainian people. Agree, such a desire is not at all a struggle for the independence of Ukraine.
Can cite another quote. The field commander of the Maidan, born and raised in Rovno, and then twice the Minister of the Interior in the orange governments, Yuriy Lu-tsenko, in 2002, told the following newspaper, Moskovsky Komsomolets in the Donbass:
“Before the war, about 1 or 400 thousands of people lived in the Rivne region. Now we are just approaching a million. The massacre in the war and post-war years was so incredible that the region has not yet restored its population. And the massacre was, let's say, versatile.
It was in the Rivne region that the UPA was created as a weapon to combat the Polish population. It should be understood that the majority of these people served as policemen, and then organized in the 1943 year, went to the UPA, and in their place came the Polish policemen. Accordingly, the struggle began. The Poles created the Army Craiova, too, in the Rivne region, and only then it went to the territory of Poland and fought there until the Warsaw Uprising.
Bandera in the early years of the war engaged in the Jews. We had about twenty percent of the population. In some regional centers, the Jews were up to 60%. They were destroyed in the first 2 of the year by praktichesko.vseh, except for those who managed to go into the partisan detachments of Medvedev, Fedorov, Kovpak - they all passed through our area. But besides Bandera engaged in the extermination of Melnik. These were people who also represented the OUN (Melikov's Wing) organization of the Ukrainian nationalists — approx. Ed. In addition, there were still Bulbashev formations, or rather Bulb'shshchv. They also mercilessly destroyed.
- It was an armed struggle for power in the party within the OUN. Bandera almost completely destroyed "Bulb'shshchv" and very seriously patted Melnik. Who was stronger, he pressed, And there were no political compromises, there was an armed struggle.
Why do we cut out the Poles? There is still a mystery for me why the atrocities on an ethnic basis reached such a heat when people were thrown into wells, cut out children, and shot whole villages on a national basis? This was the only case in Yugoslavia. At the Yugoslavs, children were gouged out and thrown into wells, and in ours. I don’t know such examples in Europe anymore. Probably something extremist in us. Maybe a long communication with Asia? We were under the Tatars for a long time, and they were under the Turks ...
- You want to say that the destruction of the Polish population was very seriously organized?
- Before Christmas 1943, the UPA fighters surrounded all Polish settlements in the Rivne and Volyn regions and killed everyone. How many, no one knows, the Poles believe that the bill goes to hundreds of thousands. Moreover, you understand, the frontier region, everyone spoke in a mixed language, it is difficult to move people away. But, nevertheless, there were purely Polish settlements. I read diaries and letters of both Bendera and Poles ... What I came across is amazing.
The first shootings of the Poles in 1941 were carried out by Bulbovs. Only the Germans entered, and Bandera and Bulbovites appeared. But "Bulbovtsy" were more active and the first to create armed forces in the forests. Entered into an alliance with the Germans, offered their services for the destruction of "Soviet partisan women in the Polish Basin", in our opinion, in the Pinsk swamps. There, on the border with Belarus, we had a completely red region with the active underground party regional committee, where the Germans could not enter. A newspaper was published, all partisan detachments stayed there for the night ... Marshes and marshes. The Germans could not punched there, only heavily bombed.
So, I was shocked by the story. The surviving child writes. He was 5 years old, and the Bulbovites came to the village. All Polish families were taken to the Maidan and under escort they were taken to the forest. People cried, turned to their guards, they say, we went to school together, our children played together, and where are you leading us ?! They replied that they simply ordered to bring you, and there would be nothing wrong. You will simply be evicted.
However, they were taken out to a forest clearing, and already another team began executions. There is a crowd of adults and children, and they in turn begin to stack on 50 in a row, face down, and 2 people go from the edges towards each other and shoot at their heads. And this kid, and there were three children with his mother, two more older sisters, looked at it all. My mother could not stand the nerves, she could not bear it any longer and said that she had to go die. The boy put under her. The nationalist who reached her shot her in the head, and blood and brains splashed her son’s head. Therefore, the one who came from the left flank decided that he was killed and did not shoot. The little boy did not go mad, 5 spent another hour under his mother, got out and survived ...
This is one small picture of what was happening then in the Rivne region. It was a circle. The whole Volyn was swept first by executions of Jews, then Poles, then fights between themselves, then battles between Bandera and the so-called “dough” - the NKVD exterminatory battalions, which entered the fight against Bandera. At least ten years the region burned. The fighting went on until 1952. There was a war, active somewhere before the 1947 of the year, then smaller, but it was going on. In fact, civil war. Because the stories about the NKVDiet with the Russian language with a Moscow accent are fiction. As a rule, Ukrainians and, as a rule, Western Ukrainians went to the fighter battalions. Therefore, it was a constant murderous war between his own. ”